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.Notes ana queries, July 24, 1897. 


:f!ctitum of Intercommunication 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 







Notes and Queries, July 24, 1897. 

' AG 





S> S. XI. JAN. 2, '97.] 





Parliamentary Writ of 25 Edward I., 1 The 

i 9 NovevE 1796, 2-British, 3-Wife Shod by her 

hand-'' Gallop"-'' Dear knows "-Olney, 5-" Scrog- 
mo Si" "-" Yaw " - Mrs. Baddeley-" Gert "^Great-- 
Butler and Tennyson-" Yede "-Shakspeare and the Book 
of Wisdom, 6. 

QUERIES :-William Hiseland-Everle : Gysburne-Water- 
^ bury -Thomas Proclus Taylor - Edward Il.-Petworth 
Gaol -Col. H. Slaughter -Stained Glass, 7-Fhxton- 
rcnrialnlace of Capel Lofft Nelson Relic Mangles 
Ke Morland -John Andrg - Colby Font-Hill-Sir 
Kenelm Digby, 8-London Directories" Sones carnall 
Vergilius Authors Wanted, 9. 

REPLIES :-Galleries in Church Porches, 9 "God save the 
kintr" 10 Compound Adjective Lord Monson Sub- 
stituted Portraits - Sheep-stealer Hanged - Astrological 
Signatures, 11 Churchwardens-Joseph Miller- ' Forest 
Cloth "-Peter of Colechurch-Squib, 12-' The Giaour '- 
Saxon Pedigree Robin and Dead Child-Cunobelmus or 
Cvmbeline-" Fighting like devils," &c., 13 -Stephen 
Duck "Jolly" Lines on Oxford and Cambridge, 14 
Aerolites-Breve and Crotchet Motto-Eschuid-Change 
of Religion-Pitt Club, 15-Accents in French-' Anec- 
dotes of Books ' Fovilla-Simon Grynieus, 16-Laurence 
Hyde Topographical Collections " Feer and Flet 
Sir John Jervis, 17-Louis Philippe Duke of Gloucester 
The Man of Ghent Early Newspapers, 18 Authors 
Wanted, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Chalmers's ' A Scots Mediaeval Archi- 
tect' Atkinson's 'Calendar of State Papers relating to 
Ireland' Earle's 'Colonial Days ' ' Whitaker's Alma- 
nack'' Naval and Military Trophies,' Part IV. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


The writ of summons, dated 26 January, 
25 Edward I. (1296/7), for a Parliament to meet 
at Salisbury, is invested with much interest from 
the fact that Francis Townsend, Windsor Herald, 
quoting, as it appears, John Vincent, raised a 
doubt as to the regularity of this writ. 

The manner in which this doubt originated is 
very clearly set forth, in his ' Historic Peerage,' 
by William Courthope, Somerset, who gives with 
great fulness and perspicacity many details con- 
nected with the writ, and he adds critical remarks 
which indicate that he was much impressed by the 
doubt raised ; all of which may be found, as any 
one familiar with his valuable work knows under 

The essence of the objection which has been thus 
taken to this writ is that it is addressed to the 
temporality only, and ignores the whole body of 
peers spiritual, not a single bishop or abbot being 
included ; and dealing for the present with this 
point only, it is not a little strange that Courthope, 
in his very careful statement of the case, makes no 
allusion to the unusual circumstances of the 
ecclesiastical party at this particular time. 

These circumstances are well known. King 
Edward having returned from the campaign in 
Scotland, the sacking of Berwick and the capture 

of Baliol, and being under the necessity of con- 
tinuing the French war with two armies, a 
southern in Gascony and a northern in Flanders, 
found himself with an exhausted treasury, and 
demanded a fifth from the clergy. 

This demand was, in view at once of the gravity 
of the king's necessities and of the enormous and 
rapidly increasing wealth of the Church, a moderate 
demand. But the Primate Winchelsey and the 
Pope Boniface VIII. regarded the position of the 
king as a favourable one to promulgate the monstrous 
claim that Church property should pay no taxes to 
the king, but to the Pope alone. 

To this end Winchelsey produced the celebrated 
Bull by Boniface, known as " Clericis Laicos," for- 
bidding the clergy to grant to laymen any part of 
the revenue of their benefices without the permis- 
sion of the Holy See. In Convocation this 
attitude was supported with the dictum that 
obedience was due to their spiritual lord and to 
their temporal, but most to the spiritual : to which 
latter they ingenuously offered to submit the point 
at issue. 

King Edward, thus involved both at home and 
abroad in the greatest difficulties, rose at this 
crisis to the height of his magnificent career. He 
proceeded to outlaw the whole clergy, saying, in 
effect, that if they would not obey the law they 
should take no benefit of the law. The Chief 
Justice, at Westminster, publicly announced in the 
plainest terms the position taken by the king. 

All this happened at the end of 1296 and the 
beginning of 1297, the date of this writ of sum- 
mons. If the king proposed to call a Parliament 
it is in the highest degree probable that the inten- 
tion was to take counsel with the temporality 
concerning this Bull and the obduracy of the 
clergy. Their obduracy was, however, of no long 
standing, as the clergy soon fell away from Win- 
chelsey to make their peace with the king and 
resume their allegiance. Many bad thus been in- 
lawed before the end of the summer, which may 
explain the facts noticed by Courthope, that various 
clerics were summoned later in the year. 

The precise nature of the meeting at Salisbury 
has also been questioned, and it has been doubted 
whether this was a Parliament at all, inde- 
pendently of the validity of the writ of summons 
to it. Courthope quotes authorities for the date of 
assembly as Sunday, the feast of St. Matthew the 
Apostle, which he expands as 21 September, 
25 Edw. I., 1297, and in a foot-note remarks 
that 21 September that year fell on a Saturday. 
This discrepancy might have suggested an error, 
even if the unusually long notice of nearly 
eight months had raised no surprise. The source 
of the confusion, however, presents no great 

The writ doubtless summoned the Parliament 
to meet on the feast of St. Matthias (not Mat- 


[8th 8, XI. JAN. 2, '97. 

thew) the Apostle, viz., 24 February, 1296/7, 
which was a Sunday that year. The Parliament 
duly met on that date, and though little is 
known of its deliberations, the Earls of Norfolk 
and Hereford then refused to lead the campaign 
in Gascony, on the ground that the king was 
not going thither in person ; and it was on this 
occasion that the supposed punning allusion to 
Bigot's name occurred. King Edward himself 
was still at Salisbury on 7 March, when the 
Archbishop Winchelsey had audience there to 
discuss the situation, and on this occasion, it 
seems, a modus vivendi was arranged. 

Reasonable consideration of these plain facts 
leads to the opinion that there was a Parliament 
at Salisbury in response to the writ of summons 
in question; that those who were omitted from 
the summons were outlaws, and had conse- 
quently no right to receive writs ; that this 
Parliament discussed the Bull and the general 
situation ; that King Edward, having taken 
counsel and heard the views of the lords tem- 
poral, subsequently came to an informal under- 
standing, for the existence of which there is 
good evidence, with the prime mover in the 
matter, Archbishop Winchelsey; and that the 
supposed Parliament at Salisbury of 21 Septem- 
ber, 1297, at which date the king was in 
Flanders, is a myth arising from a mistake very 
easily to be made. 

The great probability that this writ produced 
a Parliament has an important bearing on the 
regularity of the writ itself; especially so since 
those were present who would have been glad to 
take exception to the legality of the summons 
if they could have done so ; and, duly regarded 
in all its bearings and its peculiar circumstances, 
the validity of this writ of 26 January, 25 Edw. I., 
notwithstanding the opinions of the eminent autho- 
rities named, seems to be more easily defended 
than opposed. HAMILTON HALL. 

The facsimile reprint of the Times of the above 
date is in many respects exceedingly interesting. 
It is of the 3,736th number, and it appeared simul- 
taneously with the 30,043rd number. A greater 
contrast between the four-page sheet of 1796 and 
the sixteen-page issue of 1896 it would be impos- 
sible to instance. Of course the great interest of 
the issue of 9 November, 1796, lies in the 
announcement of Washington's resignation of the 
Presidency of the United States a piece of 
information which then occupied seven weeks in 
transmission, whereas now news travels the same 
distance in about seven minutes. The intimation 
that "Mr. Fox will dine at Guildhall as well as 
Mr. Pitt"; thab Mr. Kemble and Mrs. Siddons 
were playing the leading roles in 'Richard III.' 

at Drury Lane, and also the extracts from the 
Ami des Lois and the Redacteur in reference to a 
French invasion of England, are all very interest- 
ing ; but to readers of to-day the advertisements 
will offer the greatest amount of attraction. George 
Washington, Pitt, and Fox are not nearly so much 
part and parcel of the old world as lotteries and 
patent cures for king's evil. 

The advertisements number sixty-five, and the 
most remarkable one of all heads the first column. 
In large type we have the announcement of an 
" extraordinary large reptile " which may be 
inspected " with the greatest pleasure " at 422, 
Oxford Street. The bite of this "largest and 
most beautiful rattlesnake " ever imported into 
this country "is attended with immediate dis- 
solution," but the owner of this pleasant companion 
does not offer practical demonstrations of its power. 
There are four lottery advertisements, the special 
claims of each of which are urged with all the flowery 
eloquence of the quack and the cheap-jack. Patent 
medicine advertisements take a very important 
place in the paper, and the income from these must 
have been considerable. They range from Dr. 
James's analeptic pill to nostrums for scald heads, 
and wind up with Dr. Solander's " Sanative Eng- 
lish Tea," for "nervous, bilious, consumptive, and 
relaxed constitutions," in packets at 2s. 9d, and in 
canisters at 10s. Qd. each. The fact that it was in 
use " by several most noble and elevated of the 
nobility " was to be taken as an indisputable proof 
of its efficacy, but a few abridged testimonials from 
smaller fry, such as a corn-chandler, an apothecary, 
&c., are given. Mr. Moberly Bell's face would be 
an interesting study if some of these advertisements 
were now brought to him for insertion in the 

From a literary point of view, the most interest- 
ing advertisement in the paper relates to "An 
Asylum of Genius (where complete justice will be 
done to Literary works, and money occasionally 
advanced to the authors themselves, to advertise 
them)," which was just opened at 137, Fleet Street. 
Here we have one of the earliest appeals to the 
vanity of the amateur scribbler. Among the pub- 
lications of this philanthropic institution were ' A 
Cat o' Nine Tails,' by the Nine Muses, at the low 
price of fourpence, and 'A Guide Spiritual and 
Temporal,' which contained "a variety of matter 
that comes home to men's hearts," and which may 
have been had for one shilling. 

Auctioneers' advertisements, for which the news- 
papers of the day keenly competed, occupy nearly 
the whole of one page, Messrs. Skinner, Dyke & 
Skinner holding most of their sales at Garraway's 
Coffee House, the great mart of the day, their 
offices being in Aldersgate Street, whilst Mr. 
Christie's sales were chiefly conducted at his great 
room in Pall Mall, No. 125, adjoining the house in 
j which Gainsborough set up his studio when he 

8. XI. JAN. 2, '97.] 


arrived in London from Bath in 1774. The ad- 
vertisements of Skinner, Dyke & Skinner, and 
James Christie are for the most part of country 
estates, of little general interest now ; but at this 
period both firms were about equally well known 
as auctioneers of pictures and objects of art. 

But quite the most interesting reflection which 
will be forced upon one in connexion with this 
facsimile is the exceedingly easy duties of the 
editor of a daily newspaper in 1796 as compared 
with those a century later. A pair of scissors, a pot 
of paste and one of beer were apparently the chief 
weapons of the editor of 1796, supplemented by an 
occasional paragraph or two written all out of his 
own head. In this particular issue of the Times 
there are fifty-two lines of the editor's own com- 
position the sum total of its original matter. 
There were in 1796 no early newspaper trains to 
catch, no leader-writers to supervise, no sporting 
intelligence to overlook, no slaving from 8 P.M. 
until 4 A.M. What a Golden Age for editors of 
daily newspapers ! W. EGBERTS. 

Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham Common. 


I am writing about Everard Digby, the author 
of * De Arte Natandi,' the first book published in 
England on swimming in the year 1587, and I 
wanted to say (of course with pride) that he was 
an Englishman pure and simple, and not a 
Britisher. That is, he lived before the union of 
England and Scotland, when James I. came to the 
throne. At least that is my notion of a Britisher.* 

I have a bad habit now of looking out for the 
accepted (or rather dictionary) meaning of words 
to see if I am right a bad habit, because, as 
will be seen by the following observations, it 
almost invariably leads one into endless searches, 
that take up time. So let us see what the authori- 
ties say about British, and, as I have a bad memory 
for dates, what was the date of this so-called union. 

Ah ! Haydn's * Dictionary of Dates ' is sure to 
give me both under " British." No. All sorts of 
British institutions and British Museum. Under 
" Britain " we are told the kingdom merged into 
that of England 874; but that is a British or 
Britain that I am not concerning myself with 
now. Under " England " we get the date of 
James VI. 's accession to the English throne, 1603 ; 
but no explanation of British. Most of the 
institutions called British are not British at all, 
but purely English, unless the fact of Scotsmen 
coming to England, remaining permanently there, 
and joining these institutions makes them British. 

Ah ! I see it is the English dictionary I must 
go to ; but it is Sunday, and I have very few. Let 

* Though written some months ago, this note may be 
taken in some sort as a reply to that entitled 'Great 
Britain or England ' (8 th S. x. 465). 

us try the largest first. Cassell's ( Encyclopaedic ' 
says, "British, of or pertaining to Britain." 
Well, that is no use, because we have no definition 
of Britain, which, like British, is the point ; 
besides, Haydn told us Britain was merged into 

Well, now Ogilvie's ' Imperial Dictionary,' 1882. 
It simply copies Cassell's, or vice versa. Now then, 
Nuttall (an edition of about 1880) : " British, 
pertaining to Britain, or Great Britain, or its 
inhabitants' 7 ; but in another edition, 1893, the 
Rev. James Wood, the editor, seems to have had 
his suspicions, for he has left out the words 
" Britain or," unless this was simply done without 
reflection, to make it shorter. 

So that an Irishman, a Frenchman, a German, 
or Chinese, if he is " an inhabitant," is a Britisher, 
which of course cannot be, for a man born in 
England must be an Englisher, one born in 
Wales a Welsher, &c. 

Let us try Percy Smith's most useful * Glossary 
of Terms and Phrases,' 1889. No. Like Nuttall, 
it gives "British gum," and " British seas," and 
" British ship," " one owned by a British subject," 
but no definition. 

Well, Dr. Brewer's ' Phrase and Fable ' hardly 
ever fails one. He gives some interesting informa- 
tion about the British lion, but not what I want, 
though under "Britain" we get near it, for he 
says Great Britain consists of Britannia prima 
(England), Britannia secunda (Wales), and North 
Britain (Scotland). The natives of these countries, 
I apprehend, are all Britishers when they act 
in concert ; but I want a book that tells me 
exactly. One more chance : Wharton's ' Law 
Lexicon.' No. It defines " bridge," and " brief," 
and " British Columbia," but plain " British " you 
are supposed to know. 

Having exhausted my books, it is clear that I 
must wait until I can go to a library. In the mean 
time I may remark that I never use the word 
British if English will do. If I am abroad I 
call everything English whether Scotch, Welsh, 
or Irish if I am proud of it ; but if bad I assign 
it to the country it belongs to if possible, or 
repudiate it as not English. Sometimes the result 
is curious, as in talking of one of the magnificent 
ships which you know are built in Scotland and 
hail, say, from Glasgow. An Englishman abroad 
is proud of her, so, in reply to what country she 
belongs to, " la belle Havraise " is informed she is 
English. You cannot go into details, and say, 
Well, probably she is built in Scotland by Irishmen 
and much of the materials and inventions are from 
England. What would a Scotsman answer ? Would 
b,e reply British (" Breeteesh"), or Anglais, or 
Ecossais ? 

At Marseilles there is a tradesman who has 
" British butcher " painted over his shop. This 
always puzzled me, even before I looked up this 


S. XI. JAN. 2, '97. 

question, because I thought a man must be either 
an Englishman or a Scotsman, unless spoken of 
collectively, such as in the navy or army, when, of 
course, English, Scotch, and Welsh are properly 
spoken of as British. He was, perhaps, acquainted 
with Scotch prejudices, and thought to catch 
Scots as well as English. 

The French do not take to the word " British,"* 
probably because they have "Anglais," which 
formerly, I believe, included all English-speaking 
people ; but of late years Americans have travelled 
in such numbers that it does not now include 

I have referred above to the " so-called union." 
What kind of a union is it when each country has 
separate laws ? For legal matters Scotland is as 
much a foreign country as France ; for you cannot 
serve an English process in Scotland or France 
without leave of a judge. It is much better than 
it was some years ago, when a Scotsman could 
come to England, run up large bills, return to 
Scotland, and flip his fingers at his creditors. It is 
the same with Ireland ; and yet, though we never 
conquered Scotland, we always pretend we did 
Ireland. It is not much of a conquest of a country 
when it still keeps its own laws. Of course, the 
above instance is only supposition "make believe," 
as the children say no one would suspect either 
Scotsmen or Irishmen of doing such a dishonest 

An English judgment solemnly pronounced by 
the most powerful lord we have is mere waste- 
paper in Scotland or Ireland, until it has gone 
through the required legal process to make it worth 
anything in those two countries respectively. 

The Union I have been referring to is that of 
the accession of James I. ; but I need not say that 
this was only a union of the two crowns, the 
f< real " (?) union was not until the Act of 5 Anne, 
c. 8, 1 May, 1707; the latter is as much a sham 
as the former, so far as the law is concerned. 

Probably one must not expect any explanation of 
a word from gazetteers at all events, if you did 
you would not get it ; still it is worth while seeing 
what they Lave to say. 

I have the tenth edition, 1797, of K. Brooke's 
* General Gazetteer'; it does not give British at 
all. In a subsequent new edition, 1869, we 
are informed in the preface that the " first edition 
was issued to British readers" in 1762. Under 
*' British America " we are told that "this extensive 
territory will be found under ten heads, under the 
head of "British Empire." Under that heading 

nothing of the kind is to be found ;* but under 
"Great Britain" we are told it is divided into 
three parts England, Scotland, and Wales. 

The Gazetteer of the British Isles,' edited by 
John Bartholomew, Edin. (1893?), gives no 
definition of British, Britain, nor British Isles. 

I need not search further, as they are all about 
the same ; but, lastly, let us see what an American 
says. Lippincott's 'Gazetteer of the World/ 
Philadelphia, 1880, under " British Empire," refers- 
to Great Britain, where it says : Great Britain or 
Britain is England, Wales, and Scotland, but the 
"British Isles are the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland." This is not large enough, 
however ; it should have added the isles of Guernsey, 
Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, for incidentally I may 
say that the legislature found it nect-esary to 
define British Islands, and in all Acts of Parlia- 
ment passed after 31 Dec., 1889, those words mean 
the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands, and 
the Isle of Man (Stroud's 'Judicial Dictionary/ 
1890). It would thus appear that the editor of 
Nuttall was not right in leaving out " Britain or." 
The whole thing seems to show that they none 
of them know much about, or at all events are not 
thoroughly certain about the matter. Let us 
suppose a man born in Ireland, or, better still, 
instead of supposing I will give an actual case, 
that of a valiant soldier who served his country 
faithfully for twenty years John Leahy, taken 
from his own account in his ' Art of Swimming/ 
1875. He is a Corker, having been born in the 
county of Cork, where at the age of seventeen he 
enlisted in our army ("our" neatly avoids English 
and British), and is brought to England, where he 
is forthwith attached to a Scotch regiment, 78th 
Highlanders, and for the rest of his military career 
poses before the natives of India as a Scotsman 
(I presume in Scots dress). He comes back to 
England, where he remains, an Irishman still (?), 
though if he met any of those Indian natives they 
would, of course, look upon him as a Scotsman in 
England. In 1868 he joined the Eton College 
Rifle Corps, when we find, from his book above 
referred to, he had left off the Highland dress, 
as he is represented teaching the college boys 
swimming, in layman's costume.f 

; Nor do the English; they use the word more 
generally of late years, in consequence of a kind of 
boycotting threat from the Scotch at least, so I have 
been informed. There was a long discussion in the 
Times some years ago, and the Scotch writers told us 
that if we did not use the term British they would leave 
off building our ships. 

* I thought I must have made some mistake, so I 
referred to an experienced literary friend, who con- 
firmed me, with the observation that "there was hardly 
a page of any of our books of reference that could be 
relied on." I have thought this, but felt that people in 
glass houses must not throw stones, and prefer to let 
some one else say it. 

f I use the word "costume " in its ordinary sense 
here ; it does not mean none, as it does at our swimming: 
entertainments, where it means not a costume, but a. 
tight-fitting body and double drawers, made according to- 
the laws of the Amateur Swimming Association. I am 
quite prepared to find, in a few years' time, that the word 
will be solely applied in this latter meaning. The swim- 

S. XI. JAN. 2, '9?.J 


Although in the "British army," it would be 
unfair to call him British, because that word, as 
we have seen from all the authorities, and also as 
we know from our constitution, does not include 
the Irish, nor any others (if there are any) who 
contribute to keep up the empire. Why should 
his nationality be sunk? He served the empire 
with great bravery, frequently distinguishing him- 
self during his twenty- one years. Now if there 
is a word that includes British and Irish, it 
appears to me that Sergeant Leahy is entitled 
to be called by it. 

Has not a mistake been made by the Scotch in 
insisting that the word " British " be used instead 
of "English"? England is the larger country, 
and the lesser should have merged in the greater. 


(To be continued.) 

-A horrible story to this effect is quoted by the 
Lootch (Sunbeam) of 20 Nov. (2 Dec.) from the 
Vostotchnoe Obozrenie (Eastern Review), and Birje- 
viya Vedomosti (Bourse Intelligencer). A village 
blacksmith, Nicolas Temliakoff by name, feeling 
jealous of his spouse, made her a pair of well- 
fitting iron horseshoes, which in regular style he 
proceeded to nail to her feet, heedless of her fearful 
screams and prayers for mercy. The madman's 
idea may have been that, if fond of running to 
assignations, she should not wear out shoe-leather 
at his expense. When the unhappy woman 
swooned under the extreme torture, he cheerfully 
revived her by pricking her neck and shoulders 
with a sharp knife. This is alleged to have occurred 
at Bolshe-Kosulski, in the Mariensky Circuit, near 
Tomsk, but one suspects mystification or great 
exaggeration, as the account concludes with the 
statement that, after being locked up for a couple 
of days by his fellow-villagers, this farrier of human 
beings was set at liberty. I only quote under 
reserve. The savage tale recalls Lustucru, in 
the old French print, hammering obstinate wives' 
heads on an anvil : " Je te rendrai bonne " (see 
Champfleury, 'Livres Populaires '). Perhaps the 
whole report may have originated in some coarse 
practical joke. Does any folk-lore exist to illus- 
trate shoeing a faithless wife? Wright, in his 'His- 
tory of Caricature,' has an engraving, from an old 
carving, of a farrier shoeing a goose, which, if not 
merely a quaint conceit, may be in allusion to the 
old saw about the pity of seeing a goose go bare- 
foot ? But this is foreign to our present subject. 

H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

in the newest French etymological dictionary, 

ming galas are now headed "Costume entertainment. 
Ladies specially invited/' 

by Hatzfeldj the only recorded guess about the 
etymology of F. galoper is the old one which con- 
nects the syllable -lop with the Gothic hlaupan^ to 
run ; but it is now said to be very doubtful. I 
cannot understand why this suggestion has not 
long since been abandoned as impossible* 

I have pointed out, in my f Dictionary,' that the 
M.E. form also appears as walopen as well as 
galopen. Bradley's Stratmann gives three references 
for lOalopen in Middle-English. I also point out 
that the etymology of this form is from an O.F. 
*waloper, not recorded, but an older form 
of galoper; and further, that this is derived 
from a Flemish form walopen, for which I give a 
quotation . 

This O.F. *waloper is nowhere recorded ; but 
there are traces of it, which Godefroy's ' Old French 
Dictionary ' entirely ignores. The first is, that 
Roquefort, s.v. " Galopin," cites the forms wailopin 
and walopin, which he presumably saw somewhere* 
It is usual to derive the sb. galopin from the verb 
galoper ; but it is as well to note that Ducange 
connects it with Low Lat. galuppus. 

But I now wish to state more particularly that 
there is one trace of the initial w in Old French 
which cannot be doubted. In * Le Jeu de Robin,' 
by Adam de la Halle, printed by Bartsch and 
Horning in their book of selections from Old 
French, we find (col. 544, 1. 26) the line, " II vient 
chi les grans walos," here he comes at full gallop* 
Here walos is the plural of walop, just as galos is 
the plural of galop ; the phrase recurs with the 
spelling " les grans galos " at col. 288, 1. 13 of the 
same work. If we want to find the etymology of 
galoper we must start from the form wdl-op-er. 



" DEAR KNOWS." In vols. iv. and v. the origin 
of " Dear me " was discussed. Among the descend* 
ants of Scotch-Irish families settled in the United 
States one hears occasionally such an expression 
as, "I wouldn't do it, dear knows/ 1 This is ob* 
viously equivalent to " Scit Deus." The phrase 
perhaps lingers yet in Ulster, possibly even in the 
lowlands of Scotland. 


Portland, Oregon. 

OLNEY. I was amused over an account told by 
a newspaper friend living in an interior town in 
New York State, occupying there an editorial 
chair, of his efforts to straighten out genealogical 
information touching this surname* A pale-faded 
New England spinster of uncertain age, one of the 
town's teachers, bearing the name, implored my 
friend to insert a paragraph asking data regarding 
the antecedents of the distinguished French noble- 
man of her patronymic who first brought the sur- 
name to the shores of America several hundreds of 
years ago. This was duly inserted. Weeks went 



g. XI. JAN. 2, 97. 

but no answer came to the query. At last a burly 
young farmer, in husky but mysterious tones, begged 
an audience of the editor. Thinking the individual 
had called to square his year's subscription with 
several barrels of apples in lieu of the better-liked 
authorized paper currency printed at the expense of 
the people of the United States through the authori- 
ties at Washington, and being short of that kind of 
fruit at home, our editor unlatched his door and 
received the visitor with a broad, bland smile, 
denoting much hearty welcome. To his dis- 
appointment, no apples were offered, but he was 
requested to indite a reply to the " fullish" query, 
and state that the spinster was "a dom fool," that 
the signer was a Englishman, that his name was 
Olney, that the Olneys were as thick as blueberries 
in the English county where he came from, that 
he had no French blood in his veins ; moreover, 
he pronounced his name Owney, dropping the 
I as quite unnecessary. Looking into the annals 
of the name on this continent, I find it peculiar 
only to the little State of Rhode Island, where it 
is common indeed, their records claiming descent 
from four persons who arrived in Boston Harbour 
in 1635, viz., Thomas Olney, shoemaker, aged 
thirty-five ; Marion Olney, aged thirty ; Thomas 
Olney, aged three ; and Epenetus Olney, aged one. 
Local history records this shoemaker to have had 
a gift for talking Anabaptist theories, to the disgust 
of the austere Puritans of the period, then seriously 
contemplating the hanging of certain troublesome 
Anabaptists and Quakers nine meeting that fate 
on the green grounds of the Boston Common ; and to 
save his neck he moved into the wilderness in com- 
pany with the far-famed Rev. Roger Williams, 
also a great talker, and with him laid the foundation 
of the city of Providence, now the capital of Rhode 
Island. It is curious to note that the common 
accentuation of the name throughout that State is 
Owney. As there are several places in England 
called Olney, it would be interesting to know which 
one of them is locally pronounced Owney. 


(l SCROGMOGGLING." This word seems worthy 
of preservation in *N. & Q.' According to the 
Standard and Diggers' News, 

" the lady bicyclists at Johannesburg were to have taken 
part in the cycling carnival which is to take place at the 
Rand shortly; but it appears that the hubbies of the 
married ladies don't like the idea of their wives scrog- 
moggling in a procession, so the scheme has been dropped, 
and a decoration competition is to be substituted. The 
husbands, it is clear, were in their rights in objecting to 
scrogmoggling in a procession," 

But what does " scrogmoggling " mean ? 


THE ETYMOLOGY OF "YAW.'* The etymology 
of the verb to yaw, occurring in ' Hamlet/ V. ii, 
120, has never yet been correctly given. That in 
my ' Dictionary * (copied into the ' Century Dic- 

tionary ') is wrong, and indeed impossible. It is, 
however, Scandinavian, from the Icel. jaga ; cf. 
E. awe, from Icel. agi. The Dan. jage, Swed. jaga, 
G. and Du. jagen, all mean "to hunt"; but the 
Icel. verb has the peculiar sense of to move to and 
fro, to be unsteady, to yaw* 


AND VOCALIST. An entry in the London Chronicle? 
29 Dec., 1770 to 1 Jan., 1771, p. 2, thus briefly 
records the death of her father : " A few days ago- 
died at Windsor, Valentine Snow, Esq.; Serjeant 
Trumpeter to his Majesty, and father to Mrs, 
Baddeley, of Drury Lane Theatre." 


" GEET " = GREAT. This adjective is common 
in the neighbourhood of Wakefield, as, " G,) on, 
thah gert soft thing ! " Halliwell gives this form of 
the word as occurring in Devonshire. In Derbyshire 
one usually hears gret. S. 0. ADDY. 

BUTLER AND TENNYSON. It is always inter* 
esting to find similarities of expression in poetry, 
and to compare them, without for a moment as- 
suming that one poet has borrowed from another, 
Butler, in ' Hudibras,' pt. ii. canto i. 11. 571-2, 

Where'er you tread, your foot shall set 

The primrose and the violet. 

Tennyson, in ' Maud,' pt. i. xxii. 7, has : 

From the meadow your walks have left so sweet 

That whenever a March-wind sighs 
He sets the jewel-print of your feet, 

In violets blue as your eyes. 


" YBDE." " It would be curious to know if 
the mistake really occurs in any other author's 
works," observes Prof. Skeat, in his 'Student's 
Pastime,' with reference to this word as used by 
Spenser as an infinitive. Though not actually so 
used by Sackville, a little earlier, it is presupposed 
by him in the following passage : 

Here entred we, and, yeding forth, anone 
An horrible lothly lake we might discerne, 
As blacke as pitche, that oleped is Auerne. 

'Induction '(1563), st. 30. 

Yeding would have seemed, in distant ageer, 
much like wasing for "being." F. H. 


The following is a verbal coincidence, not notised! 
by Bishop Wordsworth in ' Shakespeare and the< 
Bible.' " Were partly vexed with monstrous' 
apparitions " (Wisdom, xvii. 15, an allusion to the* 
Egyptians in darkness) : 

I think it is the weakness of mine eyes 
That shapes this monstrous apparition. 

Julius Caesar,' IV, iii. 

21, Magdalen Terrace, St. Loonarda-on-Hea 

8. XI. JAN. 2, '97.] 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

tombstone in the cemetery of the Royal Hospital, 
Chelsea, to William Hiseland, pensioner, who lived 
to the age of one hundred and twelve years, 
" having served upwards of the days of man," and 
died in 1732. Faulkner, in his 'History of 
Chelsea,' edition of 1829, vol. ii. p. 265, gives a 
full account of him, stating that he had signalized 
himself at the battle of Edgehill, was in the wars 
of Ireland under King William, served in Flanders 
under the Duke of Marlborough, and was allowed 
a pension by the Duke of Eichmond and Sir 
Robert Walpole. He also mentions that (in 1829) 
Mr. Thomas Pallisher, of the "Cross Keys Inn," 
Gracechurch Street, had in his possession a half- 
length portrait of Hiseland, with the following 
writing in one corner of it : " William Hiseland, 
the Pention r of Chelsea College, did sit, 1st August, 
1730, for this picture, who was then 110, and in 
perfect health.- George Alsop, pinx." I endea- 
voured to ascertain what had become of this 
picture, and after some time was informed by 
Messrs. Christie that it had been sold by them in 
1888 as part of the collection of W. R. Winch, 
deceased, late of North My rams Park, Hatfield. 
The entry in their books is, " G. Alsop, 1730, 
William Hiseland, Chelsea Pensioner, aged 110, 
sold to Mr. Charles Davis, 147, New Bond Street." 
I then went to Mr. Davis, but could obtain no 
further information as to the picture. As it has a 
special interest for the veteran pensioners of the 
Eoyal Hospital, Chelsea, I should feel indebted to 
any of your readers who can give me a clue to the 
present possessor of it. 

0. W. ROBINSON, Major-General, 
Eoyal Hospital, Chelsea. 

EVERLE: GYSBURNE. Can any reader tell me 
where Everle or Gysburne is? The manor of 
Everle is mentioned in an agreement dated 1260, 
in connexion with William de Brinistun, Robert 
de Spaunton, and John de Geddinges. 

Hanley, Staffordshire. 


WATERBURT FAMILY. Will you kindly inform 
me whether there are now in England any of the 
name of Waterbury ; and if anything is known of 
the history of the family ? John Waterbury, the 
pioneer of the family in America, came out pre- 
viously to 1646. He was a landholder in Stam- 
ford, Connecticut, at that date, but had before 
that resided in other parts of America. Settling 
in Stamford, he became one of the prominent and 
men O f the country, was one Qf 

senators and representatives, and a man of some 
distinction. The genealogical record of the family 
is unbroken from that date to the present, over 
two hundred and fifty years. What I desire is to 
learn more of the English ancestry. 

St. John, N.B., Canada. 

Taylor, dramatic author, appears to have been the 
son of Thomas Taylor, the Platonist. I should be 
glad to hear more of him. J. M. RIGO. 

9, New Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

EDWARD II. I shall be much obliged if any of 
your readers will inform me in what book I can 
find an account of the march of Edward II. from 
Cirencester to Worcester, and the demolition of 
BrimsBeld Castle, and also of the battle of Borough- 
bridge, about the same date. H. GAY. 

information about one William Phillips, Governor 
of Petworth Gaol in 1794, or at the time of John 
Howard's visit about that period. Have the Pet- 
worth parish registers been published ? F.S. A. 

OF NEW YORK. I should be very pleased to ascer- 
tain whether Henry Slaughter, or Slater, who was 
appointed by the Earl of Shrewsbury to the 
Governorship of New York towards the end of 
the seventeenth century, was the son of Henry 
Slaughter, or Slater, who was Master Gunner of 
England about the middle of the same century. 
The Herefordshire Slaters were related to the Earl 
of Shrewsbury ; so I incline to the view that the 
Governor was a member of that family. The Slaters, 
too, were related to the Corn walls of Herefordshire, 
and one of the officers in Col. Cornwall's Regiment, 
now the 9th Regiment, was a certain Solomon 
Slater, who was afterwards Muster- Master General 
to King James's forces in Ireland about 1689. 
should much like to know how the Governor was 
related to the Muster-Master General. 


1031, Chester Road, Stretford. 

the year 1802, an Englishman bought, at Dijon, a 
stained - glass window of the fifteenth century, 
which formerly belonged to the chapel of the Dues 
de Bourgogne of that town ; it represented Ren6, 
Due de Bar, kneeling, in a fur robe, among several 
saints. Beneath the chief figure were wafers 
(oublies) in allusion to the neglect (I oubh) of 
subjects, who allowed him to remain m captivity at 
Dijon from 1431. The arms of the duke were also 
displayed upon the glass : Azure, semy of crosses 
crosslets fitcby, two barbels addorsed or. 
Due Rene" is supposed to have designed this glass 
hjm^f. Can anv readers of *N. & Q.' say in 



[8i S. XL JAN. 2, '97, 

wiiat public or private collection this glass is at 
present? LEO CULLETON. 

FLIXTON. Can any of your readers give the 
correct derivation of the word Flixton ? There are 
four Flixtons one in Lancashire, one in Yorkshire, 
and two in Suffolk and I believe each, like the 
Lancashire one, has a place adjoining called Urm- 
ston. One of the two in Suffolk is said to be 
called from one Felix Felixton, the town of 
Felix. Then there is FJet, which signifies flat, and 
the Lancashire one is flat enough for anything. 
Then Flitte has the same meaning as Flet. There 
is also Flit, Saxon for battle-strife, and Fleot, the 
tide Fleotston, the town up to which the tide 
comes. Again, there is Flux, a flowing Fluxton; 
and also Fleax or Flex, meaning flax Flaxton. 

D. H. L. 

FlixtOD, Lancashire. 

burial-ground of the Mill Quarter Plantation, 
Amelia County, Virginia, is a white marble re- 
cumbent cross, to the " memory of Oapel Lofft, son 
of Capel Loffb, of Troton Hall, Suffolk, who died 
1869." Could this be the Capel Lofft alluded to 
by Byron in ' English Bards and Scotch Ee- 
viewers' as "The Msscenas of shoemakers and 
preface - writer general to distressed versemen," 
&c., and whom Dr. Raven mentions, in his 'His- 
tory of Suffolk,' amongst celebrated men of that 

43, Southampton Row, W.C. 

[Capel Lofffc the younger, fourth son of Capel Lofft, of 
Traston (not Troton) Hall, died at Millmead, Virginia, 
U.S., 1 Oct., 1873, as is believed. See Diet. Nat. Biog.'] 

NELSON RELIC. Upon the back of a small 
portait of Lord Nelson in my possession the fol- 
lowing inscription appears in the handwriting of 
Lady Hamilton : 

"This portrait of the great good and brave Nelson 
Lady Hamilton gives to Mr. Ivey at Batersea [sicj Bridge, 
as Lord Nelson often used to speak to him coming from 
Merton to town and Lady Hamilton knows he was a 
favourite of Lord Nelson." 

Who was Mr. Ivey ? H. D. E. 

_ MANGLES FAMILY. Can some reader of <N.&Q.' 
give me any information as to the early history of 
this family ? John Mangles, of Hurley, in Berk- 
shire, was a large ship-owner, whose ships sailed 
between India and this country. He made a large 
fortune during the Peninsular War; his mother 
was named Pilgrim, and he possessed a portrait of 
!< an ancestor, Capt. Pilgrim, whose commission 
was in the handwriting of Oliver Cromwell." He 
had ancestors named Darsey, Dartsey, or Dargey, 
of Darsey Park. He was "first cousin of Sir 
Albert Pell, and had cousins named Mainwaring." 
He married Harriet Camden, a descendant of the 
famous William Camden. Who was his father ? 

. * 

I wish for information also about his wife's family ; 
also the parentage of Nathaniel Mangles, of the 
Trinity House, dates of birth, death, and marriage. 
I think a sister of John Mangles married Capt. 
Henry Cubitt, son of George, of Catfield Hall, 
Norfolk. I am endeavouring to form a pedigree 
of the above family, and am unable to proceed, 
owing to want of knowledge of the earlier members. 

3, Addenbrooke Place, Cambridge. 

more than one portrait of Miss Gunning " washing 
lace in a basin " ? I have lately seen this oil paint- 
ing and the print of the same in private hands. 

A. C. H. 

JOHN ANDRE". Is there any question as to 
John Andrews original surname ? Was his father, 
who was a merchant in London, known as Andr6 ? 
Was John Andr born in 1750 or in 1751 (a point 
on which biographical dictionaries are at variance) ; 
and can the year be fixed in which he went to 
Switzerland? ' R. J. WALKER. 

[The 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' gives the date of birth aa 

COLBY FONT. The ancient font in the parish 
church of St. Giles, Colby, Norfolk, is octagon, 
with the centre panel representing the Virgin and 
Child, that on the left two walking figures, and 
those on the right a woodman with axe on his 
shoulder and dog at his feet. Four other panels 
bear the signs of the Evangelists, and the eighth is 
plain. I am anxious to learn if the representation 
of the woodman can be intended for St. Giles, as 
patron of woods. I am aware his usual symbol 
is a wounded hart. RICHARD GURNET. 

Northrepps, Norwich, 

HILL, SCOTTISH ARTIST. What is known of 
this artist ; and where is his picture of the leading 
spirits who influenced the disruption of the Church 
of Scotland in 1843 ? Were those portraits painted 
from life or from photographs supplied to him ? 
If the latter, were those same photographs, or 
daguerreotypes, say, ever gathered together and 
deposited in some Scottish church institution ? 


[Three Scottish artists of the name of Hill are men- 
tioned by Graves. The only portrait painter is Mrs, 
A. R. Hill.] 

SIR KENELM DIGBY. Sir Kenelm Digby is 
stated to have inherited the property of his father, 
notwithstanding the attainder of the latter. Of 
course we conclude that Sir Everard Digby, prior 
to committing himself, conveyed his property to 
trustees to the use of his son Kenelm, according to 
the practice of those times. Is it known who those 
trustees were ? Some old MS. might show ; it 
would scarcely be found in print. It would be 
interesting to ascertain, if that can possibly be 

8. XI. JAN. 2, '97.] 



done at this distance of time. Clearly the trustees 
(or trustee) rendered an essential service to Sir 
Kenelm, which he probably requited. 


LONDON DIRECTORIES. Will you please state 
in ' N. & Q.' when the first directory of the City 
of London was published; if directories have 
been issued annually since the first publication; 
and if a complete set is in any of the public libraries 
in London ? F. 0. H. 

"SONES CARNALL" IN 1494. What is the 
exact meaning of these words in a Scottish deed of 
the above date ? The Rev. Mr. McGregor Stirling, 
minister of Port of Monteith, in his book upon the 
district, gives the following, p. 71, as a note among 
the Gartmore papers : 

" ' The 25 Feb'ry on thousand four hundrefch and 
nyntie-four year, is a renunsatione granted be John the 
Gram and Walter the Gram sones carnall to umquill 
Maliso Earle of Monteath, with consent of John Lord 
Drummond and Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy their 
tutors, in favours of Alexander Earle of Monteath their 
principal Lord and chiefe of the lands of Ellantallo, the 
Port, Monbraich, the Miltoun of Gartmullie, Carabus- 
more and Carabusbeg and many other lands therein 
contained, pertaining to them by donatione of umquill 
Malise Earle of Monteath there father." Below this 
passage is written ( Dougalstonnes note taken up when 
he went throw the charter-chist of Monteith.' It is 
titled on the back, * Dougalstonne's note written to 
Mungo Buchanan.' " 

There is also a note of this renunciation in the 
Crawford MSS. in the Advocates' Library, Edin- 
burgh, describing the grantors as "John Graham 
and Walter Graham, sons carnal to umquhill 
Malise," &c. E. BARCLAY- ALLARDICE. 

Loatwithiel, Cornwall. 

VERGILIUS. In the ( Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
eighth edition, vol. xii. p. 466, word " Ireland," 
appears : 

" In the eighth century lived Vergiliup, a philosopher 
as well as a divine, as appears by a treatise of his on the 
Antipodes written against the then received opinion of 
the shape of the earth, which he proved to be a globe 
and not a plain surrounded by the heavens at its verge. 
He spent some time in France, at the Court of King 
Pepin, by whom he was highly esteemed." 

I have searched in vain in the British Museum for 
further information respecting this writer and his 
remarkable treatise, and shall feel obliged for any 
further information on the subject. 

H. B. HYDE. 
Baling, W. 


" Each day is a little life, and our whole life is but a 
day repeated." A, S. 

The ladies of St. James's are painted to the eyea, 
Their white it always stays, their red it never dies ; 
But Phyllida, my Phyllida, your colour cotnes and goes, 
It vurieg to the lily, and it trembles to the rose ! 


(8 th S. x. 396.) 

There are the remains of a similar gallery in 
Bildeston Church, Suffolk ; the staircase is oak 
and runs up the west wall turning to the south 
wall and so to the gallery over the south porch 
entrance. It would appear that these galleries are 
rare, and little attention has been paid to their 
probable use. It would seem that they were erected 
for the singing on Palm Sunday, the staircase 
being likewise used as the way up to the room 
over the south porch. This would be the case in 
Bildeston Church. 

The Sarum Processional says, speaking of the 
procession on Palm Sunday : 

"Hie fiat secunda statio ex parte ecclesise australi, 
ubi septem pueri in eminenti loco simul cantent hanc 
antiphonam : ( Gloria laus et honor tibi sit, rex Christe 
redemptor, Cui puerile decus prompsit Hosanna pium.' 
Chorus idem repetat post unum quemque versura. Pueri 
vero dicant versum : ' Israel es tu rex,' &c. Chorus 
idem repetat : ' Gloria, laus,' " ' Hymnal Noted,' 
No. 54. 

The York Missal says : 

" Finiti regressu pueri in altum supra ostium Ecclesiae 
(vel infra ostium Ecclesias), canant versum : ' Gloria , 
laus,' &c. Chorus cum genuflexion dicant: 'Gloria, 
laus,' " &c. 

The seven boys singing the verse, and the chorus 
singing after each verse the repeat, " Gloria, laus 
et honor." Then there is this order: u ln aliis 
locis, ubi non habetur ostium occidental, fiat ista 
secunda statio ad ostium australe." 

Dr. Kock says : 

" The whole procession now moved to the south aide 
of the close, or churchyard, where in cathedrals a 
temporary erection was made for the boys who sang the 

'Gloria, laus et honor' as a halt was made for a 

second station. Here waa it that sometimes, in parish 
churches especially, the churchyard cross was the spot 

at which they stopped From the stone cross on the 

southern side the procession went next to the western 

doorway, if the church had one, otherwise to the ^ south 
porch, and there paused to make its third station. 

Then in a foot-note he adds : 

" The liturgical student should notice that the tem- 
porary erection over the church door, for the boys to 
sing the 'Gloria, laus,' &c., is specified in the York 
rubric."' The Church of Our Fathers, vol. in. pt. 11. 
pp. 67-71, 227-233. 

Chambers, in his ' Divine Worship in England,' 
p. 191, says : 

L "Arriving at the south side or door of the church 
Seven boys from an eminence, Verse, ' Glory, &c. The 
Choir repeat this after each Verse. Boys verse, Israel 
&c. These verses finished, the procession advances to 
the third station, before the west door. 

These loci eminentes are rare, as they were pro- 
bably erected only for the day ; but in any churches 



[8 th S. XI, JAN. 2, '97. 

where such galleries are constructional and remain, 
will any one add to the list who can ? 

H. A. W. 

I find the following in a MS. history of Weston- 
in-Gordano, Somerset, bequeathed to me by a 
relative, a native of that county, but from what 
source it was obtained I know not : 

" There is a curious gallery over the doorway in the 
porch, which, according to tradition of the county, was 
used for chanting a portion of the service at weddings." 


71, Brecknock Road. 

In the church of St. Mary Magdalen, St. Leo- 
nards-on-Sea, built by the late Frederick Marrable 
in 1852, there is a gallery across the porch at the 
south' west end. Originally it accommodated the 
organ and choir, and has openings into the church. 


Possibly for educational purposes. Evelyn states, 
" that one Frier taught us in the church porch at 
Wotton " (' Memoirs,' second edition, 1819, vol. i. 

' 123, Pall Mall. 

"GOD SAVE THE KING" (8 th S. X. 234, 362, 

438, 478). In my former contribution I said that 
the controversy as to whether the music was 
originally composed in England or in Germany 
could never be satisfactorily decided; and I am 
still of that opinion. So much has been written 
on the topic that the columns of * N. & Q.' would 
scarcely suffice to hold even a summary of the 
various arguments. 

MR. JULIAN MARSHALL has partly misrepre- 
sented what I said, and he has introduced a para- 
graph relating to the " Harmonious Blacksmith " 
which has nothing to do with me or with the 
question in hand. I merely alluded to the well- 
known belief in Dr. John Bull as the composer, 
without expressing any opinion as to its truth. 
But the needless asperity of tone displayed by MR. 
JULIAN MARSHALL is such that I will not enter 
into any argument with him I will simply ask 
if any other contributor to ' N. & Q.' can bring 
forward evidence to show that "God save the 
King" (or Queen) was ever recognized as the 
official royal march before the Elector of Hanover 
was invited by the Whigs to become King of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 

' Rule Britannia/ * Scots wha hae,' ' St. Patrick's 
Day/ and the 'March of the Men of Harlech' are 
truly national songs, and breathe the spirit of 
patriotism, whereas, in my humble opinion, " God 
save the King" (or Queen) is not a national 
anthem at all, but is simply a grand air wedded to 
very inferior verse, expressive of loyalty and 
attachment to a particular dynasty, both dynasty 
and mqsio being of German origin. And I 

maintain that this is a topic which could be dis- 
cussed by educated gentlemen without any necessity 
for the use of such terms as "fraud," "ridicule," 
"fables," or "absurdities." 


Many varied statements have been made as to 
the origin of the music of our national anthem. 
In the ' Dictionary of Music and Musicians,' edited 
by George Grove, D.C.L., the subject is largely 
dealt with, without arriving at anything definite. 
It is necessary, however, to deal with one paragraph 
alone, for though the writer queried its contents, 
they were nearer the truth than he was aware of. 
He says : 

" Both words and tune have heen very considerably 
antedated. They have been called ' the very words and 
music of an old anthem that was sung at St. James's 
Chapel for King James II.' [quoted from Victor's letter, 
Oct., 1745]. Dr. Arne is reported to have said that it 
was a received opinion that it was written for the 
Catholic Chapel of James II. Dr. Burney says the same, 
adding that for it to be sung in the Catholic Chapel of 
James II. it must surely have been in Latin, of which no 
traces could be found." 

But all this is true in the main, and its first per- 
formance recorded was under the following singular 
and appropriate circumstances. 

Upon 21 February, 1660, Samuel Pepys, Esq., 
went to Westminster Hall, where he saw the 
members return to Parliament who had been 
expelled by Col. Pride in 1648. This was the 
first part of General Monk's scheme to propose the 
restoration of Charles II. to the throne. Pepys 
dined with Lord Crewe and then returned to 
Westminster Hall, where he met Matthew Lock 
and Henry Purcell, both eminent musical com- 
posers, with whom he adjourned to a coffee-house 
and sat in a room next the water, where they 
spent an hour or two. Pepy's writes : 

" Here we had variety of brave Italian and Spanish 
songs, and a canon for eight voices which Mr. Lock had 
lately made on these words, 1 Domine salvum fac Regem,' 
and as they sang this loyal song they looked from the 
window and saw the City from one end to the other with 
a glory about it ; so high was the light of the bonfire?, 
and the bells rang everywhere." 

The tide of popular feeling had turned to the 
king ; and next day Pepys observed " how 
abominably Barebone's windows are broke again 
last night." Thus it was the very hour in which 
to sing " God save the King." 

A fragment in "A Choice Collection of Lessons 
for the Harpsichord or Spinnet, composed by the 
late Mr. Henry Purcell, 1696," would seem to be 
the canon as originally composed, and probably 
found in MS. among Purcell's compositions and 
loose papers published after his death and credited 
to him. Seeing that Purcell was one of the loyal 
party at the coffee-house when Lock's canon was 
sung, his possession of it is easily accounted for. 
The music of the canon is to be found in Grove's 
' Dictionary of Music and Musicians/ vol. i. p. 606. 

8iS. XI. JAN. 2,'97.] 



Other specimens of the air are given, but Pepys is 
the one who connects words and air and Pepys 
may be relied upon. HILDA GAMLIN. 

Camdon Lawn, Birkenhead. 

Persons interested in the authorship of the 
national anthem would do well to consult the corre- 
spondence on the subject in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, part i., 1796. The anthem was sung by Mr. 
Sullivan at Mrs. Wiltshire's Assembly Rooms, 
Bath, in November, 1745, the occasion being 
His Majesty's birthday. The words were given 
in the local journal of that date. Carey's son, 
claiming in 1799 the authorship for his father, 
states that the final verse was : 

Lord grant that General Wade 
May by thy mighty aid 

Victory bring ! 
May he sedition husb, 
And like a torrent rush 
Rebellious Scotch to crush, 

God save the king ! 

Obviously the stanza was composed when 
Wade was about to take the command of the 
forces destined to crush the rebellion of 1745. 
If so, it could not have been written by Henry 
Carey, who died suddenly in 1743. In 1827 
Mr. Richard Clark, a singer of note and secre- 
tary to the London Glee Club, published a 
work to prove that the anthem was written by 
Ben Jonson and Dr. John Bull in 1607. John 
Ashley, a musician of Bath, published a pam- 
phlet ridiculing this contention, and maintaining 
the claim of Henry Carey. W. T. 

I have in my possession a book entitled 'An 
Account of the National Anthem God save the 
King/ published by W. Wng hfc Fleet Street, in 
1822. It is written by " Richd. Clark, Gentleman 
of His Majesty's Chapels Royal, Deputy Vicar 
Choral of St. Paul's Cathedral and of Westminster 
Abbey, and Secretary to the Glee Club." I should 
be glad to lend it to MR. JULIAN MARSHALL if he 
would like to see it, and will favour me with his 
address. A. M. D. 


A short time ago I was at Munich on Corpus 
Ohristi Day and viewed the procession the mo s 
imposing in Europe, I believe, except, perhap s 
that of Vienna. On the arrival of the King 
Regent and his suite at the cathedral for the 
early Mass, the band, to my surprise, played the 
tune of our national anthem. I thought at first 
that the British Minister was attending the ser- 
vice, and that he was being thus complimented. I 
was, however, informed by my host that the 
Bavarians had recently adopted " God save the 
Queen " as their national air. Is this so ? 

J. B. R. 

A COMPOUND ADJECTIVE (8 th S. x. 473). MR. 
R. M, SPENCE quotes Prof. Masson's adjective, 

made up of eight words (forty-three letters). He 
asks, " Could the Germans beat this 1 " I should 
like to draw his attention to a compound Ger- 
man oath, appended in Fliegende Blatter, a few 
years back, to a clever sketch of a Prussian colonel 
in a fit of rage with his regiment, which has got 
itself into hopeless confusion. The inscription 
runs, " Oberst (nach einer Missgliickten Bewegung 
des Regiments). HerrGotthimmelheiligkreuzbom- 
benundgranatenmillionendonnerwetter." To round 
this off he, being exhausted, adds, "Herr Adjutant, 
fluchen sie weiter." W. H. QUARRELL. 

Here is one that just matches Prof. Masson'a 
in articulations : " The not-knowing-what-to-do- 
with-their-money inhabitants of England" (West- 
minster Beview, 1834, vol. xx. p. 267). Everybody 
knows the humorous monsters of this class in the 
* Rejected Addresses.' F. H. 


LORD MONSON, THE REGICIDE (8 th S. x. 475). 
If your correspondent will turn to * N. & Q.,' 
3 rd S. vi. 252, he will find an inquiry entitled 
' Hudibrastic Query/ in which the same lines are 
quoted. The Editor of that day (September 24, 
1864) furnished a long and interesting reply. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SUBSTITUTED PORTRAITS (8 th S. vii. 266, 314, 
369, 452, 496 ; ix. 277, 371, 434, 458 ; x. 106). 
Under the title * The Apocryphal in Portraiture, 1 
an article, crammed with information on this 
subject, appeared in Chambers's Journal for 
27 September, 1856. JOHN T. PAGE. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

viii. 106, 170, 236, 334 ; ix. 475). In ' The Den- 
ham Tracts,' Folk-lore Society, 1895, pfc. ii. 
p. 120, it is stated that there is a rock on the 
north side of the Cheviots, looking towards Scot- 
land, called the Hanging Stone. It is said that 
it acquired this name from the circumstance that a 
packman was once resting upon it, with his burden 
of cloth too near the edge, when the pack slipped 
over, and its belt, tightening round his neck, 
strangled Jiim. The same thing happened to a 
robber who was carrying off a stolen sheep, both 
man and sheep being hanged. 


Roderick O'Flaherfey, the antiquary and author of 
' Oygia ' (born at Moycullin, Gal way, 1630), would 
have some knowledge of astrology and occult 
philosophy, both sciences being held in great 
estimation by many of the studious of that period. 
Respecting "Jly," it is impossible to decide 
whether this is a correct copy without referring to 
the original. It may be a contraction of July, or 
intended for the seal or character pf the spirit of 



Mars and the sign of the planet Mars. The 
writing of that date would not be " copper-plate," 
and the person who prepared it for the press might 
consider "Jly" the best representation of the 


CHURCHWARDENS (8 th S. x. 77, 106). By No. 
Ixxxix. of Canons Ecclesiastical of 1603, which is 
still in force, there are to be two churchwardens in 
each parish, one to be chosen by the minister 
and the other by the parishioners ; but in many 
instances this rule has never been observed. For 
instance, St. Andrew, Dublin ; Attleborough, 
Norfolk; and three of the old city churches of 
Norwich had, and maybe still have, three church- 
wardens. Henley and Baling have two, but at 
the former they are both appointed by the cor- 
poration, and at the latter by the vestry, which 
custom, by a notice in the Monthly Church Paper 
of St. Mary's for May, 1884 and 1885, in my 
possession, was then observed. At Doncaster one 
is appointed by the vicar the other by the mayor. 
For references to many interesting and valuable 
communications to ' N. & Q.' on the election of 
churchwardens, I would send MR. HUSSEY to 
p. 14 of the last volume. 


JOSEPH OR JOSIAS MILLER (8 th S. viii. 25, 97). 
His widow survived him twenty-eight years. 
Her burial is thus recorded in the London Chro- 
nicle, Saturday, 12 July, to Tuesday, 15 July, 1766, 
p. 50 : "Thursday were deposited in St. Clement's 
Church- Yard, in the same grave with her husband, 
the remains of Mrs. Miller, aged 83, relict of the 
celebrated Joe Miller." DANIEL HIPWELL. 

"FOREST CLOTH" (8 th S. x. 335, 426). The. 
following remarks are contained in a pamphlet, 
written by John Long, Dublin, in 1762, entitled 
' The Golden Fleece ; or, some Thoughts on the 
Cloathing Trade of Ireland' (the price of the 
pamphlet, 40 pp., was a British sixpence). He 
has some comparative remarks concerning the 
trade in Yorkshire, and then observes : 

" There is another kind of cloth made, called Plains 
or Forrest cloths, the Manufacture of these is also by 
a laborious People, inhabiting an uncultivated Part of 
the Country, consisting of a Ridge of Mountains called 
Saddleworth. Contiguous to this lies Huddersfield, 
another Mart and Repository for these Forrest cloths 
which are sold to Merchants who finish and export 
great Quantities of them to Ireland to the great Detri- 
ment of the middling kind of Fabricks wrought up in 
this Kingdom." 

Our author gives no reason why the cloth is 

called " forest cloth." RICHARD LAWSON. 


Halliwell, in his * Dictionary of Provincial 
Words,' defines "forest-whites" to be a kind of 
cloth mentioned in early statutes, and gives a 
reference to Strutt, ii. 79. 

The Rev. T. L. 0. Davies, in the ' Supplement- 
ary English Glossary,' describes " Whites " to be a 
name given to certain manufactured cloths, and 
adds the following illustrations of its use : 

"Salisbury has Long Cloths for the Turkey trade, 

called Salisbury Whites." Defoe, ' Tour through Great 
Britain,' i. 324. 

"This town (Burstall, Suffolk) is famed for dyeing, and 
there is made here a sort of cloth in imitation of Glou- 
cester Whites, which tlio' they may not be so fine, yet 
their colours are as good." Ibid., iii. 146. 

" This mystery (clothing) ia vigorously pursued in this 
County ; and I am informed that as Medleys are most 
made in other shires, as good Whites as any are woven 
in this County." Fuller, ' Worthies, Wilts,' ii. 435. 

Thus it appears that *' whites" was a terra 
applied to cloth in at least three English counties 
during the seventeenth century. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

[In Leeds is, or was, the White Cloth Hall, as opposed 
to the Coloured Cloth Hall.] 

PETER OF COLECHURCH (8 th S. x. 397). Is it 
certain that there was any removal in 1832 ? It ap- 
pears from the ' Annals of Waverley ' that he lay in 
the chapel in 1205. But when Mr. Yaldwin saw 
a tomb below the chapel staircase with remains in 
1737 there was neither brass plate nor inscription nor 
carving about the sepulchre, but " the remains of a 
body in repairing the staircase ; though we know 
from the ' Annals of Waverley,' p. 168, that the 
reliques of Peter were certainly entombed in this 
place " (' Chronicles of London Bridge,' R. Thom- 
son, p. 65, 1839). Maitland ('Hist.,' p. 86), 
states that the monument of Peter, " remarkable 
only for its plainness," was below the chapel stair- 
case (* Ohron.' u. s.). But on the occasion of the 
opening in 1825 there is no mention of the removal 
of the bones. ED. MARSHALL. 

A SQQIB WANTED (8 th S. x. 435). I am glad 
again to see a contribution from the valued corre- 
spondent Miss BUSK, and I wish the subject had 
been one on which all could have agreed. But 
the fragment given conveys so very false an im- 
pression of Gavazzi, that (as it might in future be 
quoted from ' N. & Q.' as an authority) it is desir- 
able a correct description of the looks and manner 
of this effective orator should be put on record by 
one who heard him forty years ago, and who sat 
in front of him only a few feet distant. 

Instead of being ugly, Gavazzi was a very fine- 
looking man, above the common size, strong and 
muscular. As he came on the platform he bowed 
to the company, and sat down on a chair facing 
them. With a very grave countenance he began 
to speak in a low voice, which he gradually raised, 
occasionally leaving his chair and taking a step or 
two up and down the platform. After a few 
minutes, as he warmed to his subject, he altogethe? 
ceaaecl to sit, increasing in eloquence and 

8'h S . XI. JAN. 2, '97.] 



as he increased in action, till the audience were 
spell-bound, and he could sway them with a look 
or a movement of his finger, for he was eloquent 
with his hands also, which he made to speak a 
language understood by most of his hearers. He 
also used with much effect the folds of a large 
black cloak, which he spread abroad or wound 
about him. Now he poured forth a torrent of 
scorn and indignation ; then he would allow his 
voice to drop, as he described in solemn tones 
some of the most harrowing and blood-curdling of 
the tortures inflicted by the Inquisition, causing 
his hearers to hold their breath for fear of losing a 
word, till the sentence ended, when a sigh of relief 
went round the room, while tears ran down the 
cheeks of strong men. That is how I saw Gavazzi. 
He had a slightly foreign accent, which was rather 
pleasant than otherwise. The room (the largest in 
the town) was crowded, and his reception was most 

I have seen and heard many great actors, many 
fashionable preachers, orthodox and otherwise, 
many great political spouters, but Father Gavazzi 
surpassed them all. 

Surely to call any one " ugly " is a poor style 
of argument, and unworthy even the lowest of 
Oxford "undergrads." K. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

GIAOUR' (8 th S. ix. 386, 418, 491; x. 11, 
120, 240, 302). This word is noticed by Maginn 
in ' The Odoherty Papers/ Blackwood's Magazin.% 
1822 : 

How plain folks roll'd their gogglers ! 

How the learned prov'd bogglera 

At the name of ' The Giaour ' ! 

For sure ne'er to that hour 

Did four-fifths of the vowels 

Congregate in the bowels 

Of a syllable single ; 

Even yet, how to mingle 

Their sounds in one's muzzle 

Continues a puzzle. 

Portland, Oregon. 

So far the preponderance of the evidence seems 
to be rather in favour of a guttural than of a 
sibilant pronunciation. Cannot some indication 
of Byron's own views on the subject be gathered 
by experts from the following stanzas in canto vi. 
of 'Don Juan'? 

" Besides, I hate to sleep alone," quoth ghe. 

The matron frown'd : "Why so 1 ?" "For fear of 

Replied Katinka : " I am sure I see 

A phantom upon each of the four posts : 
And then I have the worst dreams that can bo, 

Of Guebres, Giaours, and Ginns, and Gouls, in hosts.'* 
The dame replied, " Between your dreams and you, 
I fear Juanna's dreams would be but few." 

The four G'& (to the eye at all events) suggests 
alliteration, and as the first and last G are unques- 
tionably hard, would nofc the rhythm suffer by a soft ; 

Cr after Guebres ? But here I am out of my depth, 
and the experts will perhaps kindly pronounce. 

H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

A SAXON PEDIGREE (8 th S. x. 473). I do not 
know for whose information this astonishing article 
is written ; but I suppose it is intended for such 
as are entirely innocent of any knowledge of Anglo-. 
Saxon pronunciation and phonology. No one 
else can be expected to swallow it. 


Why, oh, why did W. J. T., in the pedigree 
taken from the ' Saxon Chronicle,' leave out that 
delicious bit, " ' Bedwig of Sceaf,' that is the sou 
of Noah ; he was born in Noah's Ark " ? 


Chart Button, Kent. 

KOBIN AND DEAD CHILD (8 th S. x. 452). The 
robin is frequently an omen of death or misfortune 
in folk-lore. It was not for nothing that Scott 
made it a robin "singing so rarely" that warned 
" proud Maisie," in his exquisite little ballad. 

C. C. B. 


Is there any real evidence that Caractacus, as 
MR. LYNN assumes, was the son of Cymbeline ? I 
know it is said so by some historians, I believe 
by Camden. There is no mention in Geoffrey of 
Monmouth of any other sons besides Guideriua 
and Arviragus. In the ' Triads ' Caractacus is said 
to be the son of a Welsh prince named Bran. 


" FIGHTING LIKE DEVILS," &c. (8 th S. x. 273, 
340, 404). With reference to the suggestion that 
Charles Lever was the author of the ballad con- 
taining these words, may I remark that from the 
days of * Lilliburlero,' a famous song (said to have 
been composed by Lord Wharton), that con- 
tributed towards the revolution of 1688, a war of 
ballads raged between the rival races and political 
parties in Ireland ? ' The Wearing of the Green ' 
was answered by ' Croppies lie down,' and ' The 
Shan van Voght ' by * Protestant Boys,' &c. ; and 
both sexes followed the occupation of singing 
ballads in the streets. Dublin was famous for its 
singers in this line. Goldsmith, when a sizar, 
poor and miserable, wrote and was, indeed, glad 
to sell ballads. There is an illustration of him, 
leaning against a lamp-post, listening to one of 
them being sung by an old woman, in Forster's 
c Life ' of the poet, vol. i. p. 27. As regards Lever 
and " Fightin' like divils," following the example 
of Goldsmith, he, too, was known to glide from 
Trinity College at night on a kindred mission, as 
he was certainly concerned in the composition of 
street ballads, containing "gems of passionate 
feeling, sparkling with native wit." Headers of 
his novels cannot have failed to, notice the frequent 



[8 th S. XI. JAN. 2, '97. 

use be made of ballads and ballad-singers. Lever, 
however, ran the risk of punishment, on account 
of the manner in which he referred to popular 
persons. On one occasion he went the length of 
singing in one of the most frequented streets in 
Dublin a political song of his own composition. Of 
course there was a row ; but a party of fellow 
students were at hand to rescue the singer and 
carry him off in triumph. I therefore think there 
cannot be any doubt as to the authorship of 

Och ! Dublin city, there is no doubtin', 

Bates every city upon the say ; 
'Tis there you M hear O'Connell spoutin', 

An' Lady Morgan makin' tay. 
For 'tis the capital o' the finest nation, 

Wid charming pisintry upon a fruitbful sod, 
Fightin' like divils for conciliation, 

An' Latin' each other for the love of God 

no more than there is about the name of the 
person who wrote Mister Mickey Free's * Lament ' 
when he was sailing away from his beloved native 

Then, fare ye well, ould Erin dear, 

To part my heart does ache well ; 
From Carrickfergus to Cape Clear 

I '11 never see your equal. 
And, though to foreign parts we 're bound, 

Where cannibals may ate us, 
We '11 ne'er forget the holy ground 

Of poteen and potatoes. 
When good St. Patrick banished frogs 

And shook them from his garment, 
He never thought we 'd go abroad 

And live upon such varmint, 
Nor quit the land where whisky grew, 

To wear King George's button, 
Take vinegar for mountain dew, 

And toads for mountain mutton. 

Clapham, S.W. 


STEPHEN DUCK (8 th S. x. 476). I have a 
small volume of thirty-two pages, the title-page 
of which runs thus : 

" Poems on Several Subjects : Written by Stephen 
Duck, Some time a poor Thresher in a Barn in the 
County of Wilts, at the Wages of Four Shillings and 
Six Pence per Week. Which were publickly Read by 
the Eight Honourable Thomas Earl of Macclesfield, 
in the Drawing Room at Windsor Castle, on Friday 
the llth of September, 1730, to Her Majesty. Who 
was thereupon most graciously pleased to take the 
author into Her Royal Protection, by ordering him an 
apartment at Kevv, near Richmond, in Surrey, to live 
in ; and a salary of Thirty Pounds per Annum, for his 
better support and maintenance." 

This is dated 1731, is the eighth edition, and 
was to be sold by T. Astley, at the " Rose," in St. 
Paul's Churchyard, for sixpence. 

A curious frontispiece shows the author standing 
at a barn door, holding in his right hand the poems 
of Milton, and in his left a flail. A table, on 
which are books, pens, ink, and paper, stands in 
front of him, whilst around are the somewhat incon- 
gruous elements of a farmyard. There are some 

commendatory verses at the end of the brochure 
" on bis late Preferment by Her Majesty," con- 
eluding thus : 

! may she still new Favours grant 

And make the Laurel thine ! 
Then shall we see next New Year's Ode 

By far the last outshine. 

As Colley Gibber was then the Laureate, it is 
probable that Duck could have written a better 
New Year's ode than he it would certainly have 
been very difficult to write a worse one. Duck 
committed suicide by drowning himself near Head- 
ing in 1756. WALTER HAMILTON. 

" JOLLY " USED ABVERBIALLY (8 th S. x. 233, 
343). The following early instance of "jolly" 
used as an intensive adjective may be of interest ; 
from J. Feme's ' Glorie of Generositie ' (1586), 
p. 10: 

" I haue heard it receiued as good pollicie with wise- 
men, to match, their sonnes, as it might be with a 
veurers daughter, of the city by vs : for the increase of 
their patrimony, A iolly helpe it is, when as a noble 
Gentleman, through a liberall mind, hath something 
shortned his reuenewes, to inlarge the same, by the 
plentifulnes of their bagges." 

Park Square, Leeds. 

496). After the death, in 1714, of Dr. John 
Moore, successively Bishop of Norwich and Ely, 
his library of thirty thousand volumes was bought 
by George I., and presented by him to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. At about the same time 
the attempt of the Old Pretender to recover the 
throne met with so much sympathy at Oxford that 
it was thought necessary to send a force of cavalry 
there to overawe the University. In connexion 
with these two events, Dr. Joseph Trapp, Professor 
of Poetry in 1708, afterwards chaplain to Lord 
Bolingbroke, and rector of Harlington, Middlesex, 
and author of ' Prselectiones Poeticse ' and of a 
Latin version of 'Paradise Lost,' wrote the fol- 
lowing epigram : 

Our gracious Monarch viewed with equal eye 

The wants of either University. 

Troops he to Oxford sent, well knowing why, 

That learned body wanted loyalty ; 

But books to Cambridge sent, as well discerning 

That that right loyal body wanted learning. 

A somewhat different version has been ascribed 
to Thomas Warton the elder, who was also Pro- 
fessor of Poetry at Oxford and the father of Joseph 
Warton, Head Master of Winchester, and of 
Thomas Warton the younger, the historian of 
English poetry : 

Our royal master saw with heedful eyes 

The state of his two universities ; 

To one he sends a regiment, for why? 

That learned body wanted loyalty, 

To the other books he gave, as well discerning 

How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

8 th S. XI. JAN. 2, '97.] 



The retort on behalf of Cambridge was by 
Sir William Browne, who became a physician at 
Norwich : 

The King to Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
For Tories own no argument but force ; 
With equal care to Cambridge books he sent, 
For Whigs allow no force but argument. 

It should be added that George I. at a later 
period extended his liberality to Oxford, and is 
one of the benefactors for whom the University 
gives thanks in the Bidding Prayer. 



These lines are given as follows in * English 
Epigrams,' by W. Davenport Adams (p. 107) : 

[On, a Regiment sent to Oxford, and a Present of Books 

to Cambridge, by George 1. (1715). 
The King, observing with judicious eyes 
The state of both his universities, 
To Oxford sent a troop of horse ; and why ? 
That learned body wanted loyalty : 
To Cambridge books he sent, as well discerning 
How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

Dr. Joseph Trapp (1679-1747). 

From Nichols's * Literary Anecdotes ': 

Extempore Reply to the Above. 
The King to Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
For Tories own no argument but force ; 
With equal skill to Cambridge books he sent, 
For Whigs admit no force but argument. 

Sir William Browne. 

Dr. Johnson called this one of the happiest 
extemporaneous productions he had ever met with. 

A. C. W. 

I believe the correct rendering of the lines to 
which your correspondent SIR PATRICK MAX- 
WELL refers are as follows : 

Lines sent from Oxford to Cambridge. 
The King, beholding with judicious eyes 
The state of both his universities, 
To Oxford marched a troop of horse ; for why 1 
That learned body wanted loyalty ; 
To Cambridge he sent books, full well discerning, 
How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

The answer to this, sent from Cambridge, was 
as follows : 

The King to Oxford marched a troop of horse, 
Tories admit no argument but force ; 
With equal care to Cambridge books he sent, 
For Whigs allow no force but argument. 

The king in question was William III. It is a 
fact that he did at the same time send a troop of 
horse to Oxford and a present of books to Cam- 
bridge. 0. W. CASS. 

AEROLITES (8 th S. x. 50, 125). In Symons's 
Meteorological Magazine for February, 1896, p. 11, 
referring to a report by Router's Agency of the 
* Explosion of a Meteorite over Madrid/ on Mon- 
day, 10 Feb., the editor thus writes : 

" We notice that Iteuter's Agency calls it an ' aerolite.' 
We thought that an aerolite differed from a meteor or 

meteorite in that the former was chiefly stone, the 
latter chiefly iron and nickel ; but on turning to a dic- 
tionary we find no distinction drawn between the two ; 
and worse still, on looking into the best English book 
upon the subject, Dr. Flight's ' Chapter in the History 
of Meteorites,' we find the two words used indiscrimi- 


BREVE AND CROTCHET (8 th S. x. 496). In the 
Appendix to my ' Dictionary,' second edition, 
p. 797, I give for crotchet the references, 
u Catholicum Anglicum, p. 83 ; Towneley Mys- 
teries, 116." I presume that the latter reference 
is the very one to which E. S. A. alludes. 

My " earliest examples" were only such as my 
industry could collect for myself. The ' New 
English Dictionary' very frequently has earlier 
instances, but not always ; but it should always 
be consulted for words beginning with A, B, C, D, 
E, F. D and F are not quite finished, but are 
well advanced. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

MOTTO (8 th S, x. 455). -"A Passage perillus 
makyth a Port pleasaunt." Mr. Kobert Christy, 
in his * Proverbs, Maxims, and Phrases of All 
Ages,' London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1888, vol. ii. 
p. 143, gives a parallel motto, " The worse the 
passage the more welcome the Port." It is in 
Hazlitt also. J. B. FLEMING. 

Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

This motto is inscribed on the wall of a prison 
in the Tower of London, above the signature 
"Arthur Poole, A. 1568." Arthur Poole (the 
great-grandson of George, Duke of Clarence, 
brother to Edward IV.) was in 1562, with his 
brother Edmund, committed to the Tower on a 
charge of conspiring to place Mary Stuart on the 
English throne, marry her to Edmund, and restore 
Arthur to his great-grandfather's dukedom. They 
were confined for life in the Beauchamp Tower. 
(There is an engraving of the above inscription on 
p. 761 of J. K. Green's ' Short History,' vol. ii.) 


ESCHUID (8*" S. viii. 409, 452 ; ix. 53, 152, 
218 ; x. 83). See Symons's Meteorological Maga- 
zine for September and November, 1896. 


CHANGE OF RELIGION (8 tb S. x. 437). Adopt- 
ing St. Augustine's opinion of his total apostacy, 
may we not regard Solomon as an early example 
of matrimonial conversion ? 



PITT CLUB (8 th S. viii. 108, 193; ix. 13, 116; x. 
461). The famous lyric ' The Pilot that weathered 
the Storm ' was written by Mr. Canning for the 
first meeting of the Pitt Club, originated by him 
on the retirement of Pitt from office in 1801. Pitt 
died January 23, 1806, and on his death Canning 
said, " My political allegiance lies buried in his 



s. xi. JAN. 2/97. 

grave." It would seem that, chiefly after his death, 
Pitt Clubs were founded in many important 
towns, and that in Manchester there was a very 
well-known one. In the 'Manchester School 
Kegister,' in a memoir of Dr. Smith, for thirty 
years high master of the school, it is said : 

"In politics he was an adherent through life of the 
Tory party, and of course a member of the Manchester 
Pitt Club. Soon after coming to Manchester (i. e., about 
1807) he was elected a member of the then very exclu- 
sive club meeting at the Mosley Street Assembly 
Rooms" (vol. iii. p. 6). 

[ can remember many years ago, in my boyish 
days, a large plaster-of- Paris medallion of the cele- 
brated statesman round which ran an inscription, 

' Manchester Pitt Club." At that time, being fond 
of scientific pursuits, I submitted a wax cast of it 
to the electrotyping process. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ACCENTS IN FRENCH (8 th S. x. 457). The fol- 
lowing remarks may be of use to your correspond- 
ent. Accents were unknown in Old French. They 
were introduced by the grammarians of the six- 
teenth century, in imitation of the Greek accents, 
which were intended to mark intensity of pronun- 

The circumflex accent usually denotes a syllable 
that has become long by the suppression of a letter, 
as in fete for feste, &c. It is also placed on long 
Greek and Latin vowels, as dome (Sw/xa) ; but 
pole (TroAos) is incorrect. This came into use 
towards the end of the seventeenth century. 

Accents in literature sometimes only serve to 
distinguish words thab are pronounced the same, 
as ou and oh, la and la. 

The cedilla comes from the Italian zediglia, a 
crotchet shaped like a z, which the Italians placed 
under c to give it the sound of s and z. This sign 
came into general use in France at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century. 

The trema (Greek rprf/m) placed on vowels 
indicates that the second has a pronunciation 
distinct from the first. It was first employed in 
the sixteenth century. 

In French the tonic accent always falls on the 
last syllable of a word except when that syllable is 
mute, when it falls on the penultimate. In Old 
French, when accents were unknown, the last 
syllable which was accentuated always ended in a 
consonant ; and even now there is fluctuation in 
such forms as cU and clef, dine and diner, soupe 
and semper, pie (which appears in Lamartine) for 


x. 336, 400). My copy of Beloe's 'Sexagenarian' 
formerly belonged to John Nichols and his son, John 
Bowyer Nichols, who have enriched it with many 

annotations and a fairly complete key. I cannot 
find that the name of the clergyman of whom the 
story is told at i. 148 is mentioned in any key 
which I have come across ; but although the name 
of the printer as given by Beloe is certainly 
Bowyer, a pen has been drawn through it by Mr. 
John Nichols, and that of Strahan has been sub- 
stituted. Considering the relations in which the 
Nichols family stood with Mr. Bowyer, and the 
friendship which existed between John Nichols 
and Strahan, the authority of the author of 
'Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century 7 
must be held to be conclusive. 

The 'Sexagenarian,' though somewhat out of 
date, is still a most amusing work, and it is not 
strange that its stores should have been rifled by 
the compilers of ' Percy Anecdotes,' ' Books and 
Authors,' and similar collections. Stories such as 
that of Mary Hayes, a young lady who was "a 
friend of the Wolstonecroft, a follower of Helvetius, 
and a great admirer of Kousseau," and the short 
resume of the novel written by her are sufficient 
to prove that we are quite mistaken in thinking 
that the " new woman " is a product of the last 
decade of the nineteenth century. The heroine of 
the novel in question a " woman who did " with a 
vengeance might have emerged from the portals 
of the Bodley Head. Keys to Beloe were pub- 
lished in ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. x. 300 ; xi. 33, 93 ; but 
as a period of five-and-thirty years has since 
elapsed, I should be glad, if the Editor could afford 
the space, to print a fuller and more authoritative 
list than has hitherto appeared, after a careful 
collation of the names in Nichols's key with those 
in all the others to which I have access. 


Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

This story, I feel sure, is told in one of the 
volumes of Nichols's * Literary Anecdotes ' ; I 
believe in that relating to Bowyer. W. 0. B. 

FOVILLA (8 th S. x. 435). No doubt MR. 
BRADLEY is acquainted with fovela, used by 
Tertullian (Smith's 'Latin-English Dictionary'). 
There is also foveola, which occurs in Vines's 
' Text-Book of Botany ' (1894), 



SIMON GuYNyEus (8 tb S. x. 495). I have in my 
library a good biography of Simon Grynseus, from 
which I beg to send you the following extracts : 

" In 1531 he took a journey into England, and carried 
with him a recommendatory letter from Erasmus to 
William Mountjpy, dated Friburg, 18 March, 1531. After 
desiring Mountjoy to assist Grynseus as much as he 
could, in showing him libraries, and introducing him 
to learned men, Erasmus adds, ' Est Lpmo Latine 
Graeceque ad unguem doctus, in philosophia et mathe- 
maticis, disciplinis diligenter versatus, nullo supercilio, 
pudore pene immodico. Pertraxit hominem istuc Bri- 
tnnniae vieendae cupiditas, sed prsecipue Bibliothecarum 

SB'S. XI. Jin. 2, '97.] 



vestrarum amor. Rediturus est ad nos,' &c Erasmus 

recommended him also to Sir Thomas More, from whom 

he received the highest civilities He returned to 

Basil in 1536 His edition of Plato was addressed to 

John More, the Chancellor's SOD, as a testimony of 
gratitude for favours received from his father; and as 
the following passage in the dedication shows Sir Thomas 
as well as Grynaeus in a very amiable light, we think it 
not amiss to insert it here." 

This dedication being rather long, I will only 
send you a few concluding lines, as they relate 
particularly to his Oxford visit : 

" He likewise sent me to Oxford with one Mr. Harri?, 
a 'learned young gentleman, and recommended me so 
powerfully to the University, that at the sight of his 
letters all the libraries were open to me, and I was 
admitted to the most intimate familiarity with the 


P.S. I enclose for your acceptance a photo- 
graph of his portrait. Observe the MS. in his 
hand, and the grasping spider in the corner. 

[Receipt of the portrait is acknowledged, with thanks.] 

Refer to the valuable but forgotten Chalmers 
for a mention of the supposed theft, which the 
editor refuses to believe in. 



x. 496), was buried in Westminster Abbey, at the 
foot of the steps going up to King Henry VII. 's 
Chapel. He married Lady Henrietta Boyle, fifth 
daughter of Richard, first Earl of Burlington, 
one of the beauties of her time. There were 
five children of this marriage, viz,, Henry, second 
Earl of Rochester and fourth Earl of Clarendon ; 
Anne, who became the Countess of Ossory ; Hen- 
rietta, who married James, Earl of Dalkeith ; 
Mary, who became the wife of Francis Seymour, 
Lord Con way ; and Catherine, who died unmarried 
on 19 July, 1737. See Chester's ' Westminster 
Abbey Registers,' G. E. C.'s 'Complete Peerage,' 
and Burke's 'Extinct Peerage.' None of these 
authorities makes any mention of a second mar- 
riage. G. F. R. B. 

(8 tb S. ix. 361, 497 ; x. 32). No list of topographical 
collections for counties can be complete without 
the Rev. Canon Mayo's excellent * Bibliotheca 
Dorsetiensis. ' I can only imagine that its absence 
from the list given by G. W. M. arises from the 
fact of its having been printed privately by sub- 
scription. Apparently a publisher's name is neces- 
sary to render a work famous. J. S. UDAL. 


The very valuable index issued by the Historical 
MSS. Commission, to which I could not pre- 
viously give the reference, is No. 31 of ' Accounts 
and Papers, 1890-1. It was issued 8 Dec., 1890. 

Q V. 

"FEER AND FLET" (8 th S, x. 76, 166, 339, 
422). The stanza quoted by MR. TERRY from 
Hardwick's ' Traditions, Superstitions, and Folk- 
lore' belongs to the well-known 'Lyke Wake 
Dirge,' which was first printed by Sir Walter 
Scott in the second volume of his ' Minstrelsy of 
the Scottish Border/ 1802. The first stanza of 
Scott's version runs as follows : 

This ae nighte, this ae nighte, 

Every nighte and alle, 
Fire, and sleet, and caridle-lighte, 

And Christe receive thye saule. 

Sir W. Scott supposed the word "sleet" to be 
" corrupted from selt or salt," which was formerly 
placed, in compliance with a popular superstition, 
on the breast of a corpse ; but there is an earlier 
version of this remarkable poem, which was found 
by Sir Henry Ellis among Aubrey's MSS., and 
printed by him in his edition of Brand in 1813. 
In this version, which was reprinted with greater 
correctness in 1881 in the Folk-lore Society's 
edition of Aubrey's * Remaines of Gentilisme and 
Judaisme,' p. 31, the first stanza is as follows : 

This can night, this ean night, 

Every night and awle : 
Fire and Fleet and Candle-light, 

And Christ recieve thy Sawle. 

Here the word " fleet " undoubtedly means water, 
and I agree with MR. TERRY in thinking that in 
the deed cited by MR. FERET the condition that 
the Widow Opwyk should have " feer and flet " in 
her dwelling-house merely means that she should 
have the right of fire and water therein. The 
expression was probably a legal commonplace in 
early times. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

COMMON PLEAS (7 tb S. ix. 48). So far back as 
the above reference information was sought con- 
cerning this judge, who died in 1856, but no 
answers seem to have been returned. In the 
course of my rather miscellaneous reading I find 
him alluded to in Gunning's ' Reminiscences of the 
University and Town of Cambridge ' as having in 
early life a good deal of money at command to spend 
on elections at Chester, a city which he represented 
for many years in Parliament. In the ' Life and 
Letters of the Rev. Fred. W. Robertson,' by the 
Rev. Stopford A. Brooke, Mr. Robertson mentions 
in a "Letter" (cxxxviii., vol. ii. p. 133) his having 
filled the office of High Sheriff's chaplain at Lewes, 
in Sussex, in 1852, when Sir John Jervis presided 
in the Crown Court at the assizes, and of him Mr. 
Robertson observes : 

"His charges to the jury surpassed in brilliance, 
clearness, interest, and conciseness, anything I ever 
could have conceived. The dullest cases became inter- 
esting directly he began to speak the most intricate 
and bewildered clear. I do not think above one verdict 
was questionable in the whole thirty-six cases which he 



[8"> g. xi. JAN. 2, 'i,7. 

As a special instance of his cleverness and 
Bagacity, the story is narrated of the card-sharping 
case. The counsel had affirmed that a perfectly 
fair pack of cards had been used; but when they 
were handed up to him Sir John told, without 
looking at their faces, the names of the cards. He 
then pointed out that on the backs there was a 
small dotted flower indicating the court cards. 
This story has frequently been told. But laudari a 
laudato viro is a feather even in the cap of a Chief 
Justice. Mr. Robertson died in 1853 (only a year 
afterwards), Sir John Jervis in 1856, and the 
decease of the latter is thus alluded to in the 
Prologue to the Westminster Play of that year 

the ' Andria': 

Verum et ipsa victimaa 
Pax habet, et nostris baud alienos sedibua 
Sunt quos lugemus Ilium, qui eummus modo 
Judex vicino praesidebat in foro. 
' Lusus Alter! Westmonasterienses,' vol. ii. p. 141. 

I have not been able to discover the place of his 
burial, but it easily could be found. His age was 
only fifty-four. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Louis PHILIPPE (8 th S. x. 495, 524). MR. 
PEET does not save Dr. Hugh Macmillan, whose 
words as quoted imply that Louis Philippe was 
successor by inheritance to a king. But there is 
no foundation for MR. PEET'S suggestion either. 
Louis Philippe as a young man was singularly 
like his father, as the famous picture at Chantilly 
of the hunt before the Revolution, with the Due 
d'Orleans and the Due de Chartres (Louis Philippe) 
in "pink," well shows. Moreover Egalite"'s wife 
was a lady of far too high character to lend herself 
to a " warming-pan plot," which would have had, 
in this instance no object. D. 

The suggestion conveyed by the words attributed 
to Dr. Hugh Macmillan, that Louis Philippe was 
' ' common " in looks, is absurd. He was one of 
the most beautiful children and handsomest youths 
of his time, as witness the signed drawing by 
Cosway and the chalk sketch by Carl Vernet 
(1787), both at Chantilly. 


The revival, even in a sermon for children, of the 
fable of Louis Philippe being a changeling is really 
amazing. No doubt Maria Stella Petronilla, 
married first to the Earl of Newborough and 
secondly to Baron Sternberg, believed the story of 
her putative father, Ciappini, that he received her 
in exchange for his son from the Duke of Orleans, 
travelling in Italy under the name of Comte de 
Joinville. It is also true that she obtained a 
recognition of her claims from the tribunal of 
Faenza. But neither the French tribunals nor 
the public credited so improbable and purposeless 
an exchange. Dr. Macmillan, moreover, shows 
singular ignorance of French history in styling her 

" the real child of the French king," for the man 
whom she claimed as her father was the Duke of 
Orleans, " lilgalite'," who was never king, and 
could never have foreseen that his son would 
ascend the throne. Louis Philippe had his faults, 
public and private, but to call him " ignoble " is 
monstrous, while to ascribe his ignobility, if I may 
use the word, to his being the son of Ciappini, 
and yet to confide in Ciappini's veracity, is 
illogical. J. G. ALGER. 


DUKE OF GLOUCESTER (8 tb S. x. 515). Prince 
William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, was son of 
Anne of Denmark, afterward Queen of England. 
He was born 24 July, 1689, and died 29 July, 
1700. Purcell composed a birthday cantata or 
ode for the duke's birthday festival in 1695. 
There is a portrait of the child prince and his 
mother, by Michael Dahl, in the National Portrait 
Gallery. W. H. CUMMINGS. 

THE MAN OF GHENT (8 tb S. x. 415, 499). 
Surely Guizot ! I wonder that no one has remem- 
bered this ; but such things are soon forgotten. I 
quite well recall this title of him, commonly quoted 
by English newspapers from French during the 
later years of his ministry, and I carried a vague 
impression that it had reference to some commercial 
treaty between France and Belgium, executed by 
him, or under his auspices, at Ghent. On looking 
into his ( Memoirs,' I find that during the three or 
four years from 1841 the question of a customs- 
union between the two countries was much dis- 
cussed : opposed by England and other powers, as 
tending to the absorption of Belgium into France. 
In the year 1845 a milder form of commercial 
treaty was ratified, probably displeasing to a 
great number of Frenchmen, as a concession to 
foreign jealousy ; but I cannot find any mention 
of Ghent in connexion herewith. Such works of 
Guizot's as I have consulted, both in the original 
and in translation, are indictable under Lord Camp- 
bell's Act as criminally destitute of index. 

0. B. MOUNT. 

EARLY NEWSPAPERS (8 tb S. x. 256). The 
Mercurius Theologicus, 1700, contains cata- 
logues of books "printed for, and sold by, 
John Taylor, at the Ship in St. Paul's Church- 
yard." There are advertisements of books 
in the Mercurius Reformatus, 1689. Both 
periodicals are to be seen at the British 
Museum, as well as the English Intelli- 
gencer, 1679, Mercurius Britannicus, Mercurius 
Domesticus, Mercurius Politicus, Mercurius 
Veridicus, Mercurius Infernus, and many 
other publications (political tracts, pamphlets, 
newspapers, and almanacs), with similar titles and 
of about the period indicated by B. P. S., cata- 
logued in the Burney Collection and elsewhere; 
but I cannot find an Index Intelligencer nor a 

8, XI. JAN. 2, '97.] 



Mercurius Clericus in any of the lists. The sets 
mentioned above are, for the most part, far from 
complete. E. G. CLAYTON. 


In the Strand Magazine for September, 1896, 
there is a paper by F. G. Kitton, entitled " Some 
Old Newspapers. From Charles I. to Queen 
Victoria. Illustrations from Old Prints, Paintings, 
and Facsimiles." CELER ET AUDAX. 

By Timperley's * Dictionary of Printers and 
Printing,' No. 1 of the Mercurius Clericus; or, 
News from Syra, for September 17 to 24, was 
issued in 1647, but when it ceased to be published 
is not noted. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 



Non annorum canities est laudanda, sed morum. 
This quotation is given in the foot-note to the following 
line in the Dolphin edition of Plautus : 

Non aetate, veruin ingenio adipiscitur sapientia. 

' Trinummi,' ii. 2, 88. 

"Non annorum," &c., is there attributed to Ambrosius; 
but it is not stated where in his works it occurs. Com* 
pare " Nihil turpius est, quam grandis natu senex, qui 
nullura aliud habet argumentum, quo se probet diu 
vixisse, praeter setatem " (Seneca, De Tranquillitate 
Animi,' iii. sec. 7). Compare also Proverbs xvi. 31; 
also Cicero, ' De Senectute,' xviii. sec. 62, " Non cani, 
non rugae,' ' &c. ROBERT PIKKPOINT. 


A Scots Mediaeval Architect. By P. Macgregor Chalmers. 

(Glasgow, Hodge & Co.) 

WE welcome this work gladly. With the exception of 
the preface, which, like those to some of Scott's novels, 
is a "wee bit ower modest," we cannot find anything 
whatsoever with which to find fault. We well remember 
the substance of its pages appearing in Scots Lore, a 
periodical which, we are sorry to say, has ceased to 
appear. So far as our memory serves us, we have some- 
what more in the present issue than in its predecessor. 

It used to be said that, while the names of all the im- 
portant Renaissance architects had been preserved for 
the admiration of posterity, nearly all those of the earlier 
times had been forgotten, in those days monastic 
chronicles and fabric rolls were but scantily used, and 
the great treasure which we have of national records 
was, we may say, almost without exaggeration, unknown 
to any one, save the keepers of the various repositories 
where they slumbered. Things have changed now, for 
though very much still remains to be done, arrangement 
and the work of the cataloguer have made so much pro- 
gress that, if sufficient industry be used, much new know- 
ledge will be produced relating to the history of not a 
few of our nobler ecclesiastical buildings. So far as 
research has at present gone, it still remains true that 
the architects to whom we owe so much are nearly all 
forgotten, or, if their names have been come upon, they 
stand alone, like the list of jurors at the top of an old 
manor court roll, without personal details, so that we may 
think of them as men who once lived and suffered. This 
seems the more singular when we call to mind that our 
Saxon and early Norman coins almost always, bore upon 

them the names of the moneyers by whom they were 
struck, and that this was a custom not confined to this 

Whether this almost universal suppression of the 
names of architects arose from religious feeling or from 
mere modesty, we are not in a position to decide; 
it ie, however, a noteworthy fact which should not be 
forgotten by students of mediaeval life. If we under- 
stand Mr. Chalmers aright, there are but two examples 
of architects commemorating themselves in all Scot- 
land. One of these is John Morow, whose name is 
found on a panel let into the wall at Melrose. There is 
another inscription over a doorway which has been read 
in various ways. Mr. Chalmers thinks, and we believe 
rightly, that the name is Johne Moryo, and that the two 
spellings indicate the same person, and that the true 

name in modern spelling is Murray. This John Morow 

for so he frequently spelt his name, however he may 
have pronounced it flourished in the middle of the fif- 
teenth century. He is to be found at Melrose and Pais- 
ley, and Mr. Chalmers has traced his handiwork in the 
Cathedral of Glasgow " in the beautiful Rood Screen, in 
the vaulting of the Aisle of Car Fergus, and in the vault- 
ing of the aisles of choir and nave." He turns up, too, 
in Nithsdale, Galloway, and St. Andrews. We have 
evidently before us, even if Mr. Chalmers should some- 
times be in error in his identifications and we have no 
reason for thinking he is an active, ardent, serviceable 
man, with a deep sense for beauty of form and great 
constructive ability. Of such a man it is desirable to 
know far more than we do at present. He seems to have 
been one of those active and intelligent Scots who in 
recent days have done so much for their own country. 
The author believes that the John Morow whose inscrip- 
tions yet remain can be identified with the John Murray 
who in 1479, in company with others, took a lease of 
lands in Ettrick. He was evidently a favourite at Court, 
for on one occasion James IV. gave him twenty angels 
to buy a horse. The records show many dealings of 
John Murray with the Crown ; but the friendship shown 
to him by the sovereign raised up powerful enemies. In 
1510, while on his way to the Sheriff Court at Selkirk 
he was assaulted by an armed band of Kerrs and Scotts 
and assassinated. All of us who love Scottish ballad 
poetry know ' The Outlaw Murray.' Mr. Chalmers has 
no doubt that it relates in some way to the great 
architect and feudal proprietor. He even suggests that 
Murray himself may have been the author of the ballad 
but for this he produces no evidence. 

Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland of the 
Reign of Elizabeth. Edited by Ernest George Atkinson. 
(Stationery Office.) 

THE history of Ireland has always been known to be dis- 
tressing to every humane man. There is probably no 
fifteen months during the whole long agony more terrible 
than those included in the present volume. Of the 
mediaeval time we know comparatively little; but of 
that little the national historians have seldom made 
good use. Now that the State Papers are being made 
accessible we find that seas of bloodshed and nameless 
horrors have been passed over in a few pages, some- 
times even in a line or two. The few months which 
went before and followed after the great battle of Ar- 
magh abound with incidents so shocking that we shrink 
from dwelling on them. 

The partial subjection of Ireland to England Lad been 
a long-standing grievance, which caused much suffering ; 
but it was not until the latter years of the sixteenth 
century that the cup of national agony was filled to the 
brim. England bad become powerful enough to deter- 
mine on the subjection of the whole island. The long 



L8 tt S. XI. JAN. 2, '97. 

war with France and the Wars of the Roses had come to 
an end in what seemed a remote past. They only 
lingered in the minds of the people as a vague tradition. 
England had, with some relapses, been increasing in 
wealth, and her people in military ardour. During the 
Middle Ages there had been race hatred and land 
hunger; but it was not until the reign of Henry VIII. 
that a third force perhaps the most potent of the three 
was added. The Protestant rulers of England deter- 
mined to compel the Irish to discard their old ways of 
thinking on religious subjects, and to accept a Church 
modelled on that of England. It is, perhaps, unreason- 
able for us, who live in times when the doctrine of 
universal toleration is received in civilized lands as one 
of the first principles of government, to blame our fore- 
fathers of three centuries ago for not being able to 
understand what we see BO clearly now. Elizabeth was 
no worse than other potentates. All of them, when they 
had the power, tried to enforce uniformity of faith by 
civil penalties ; but we do not remember any other case 
in Christian Europe where the results have been attended 
by so long a train of misfortunes. 

When the battle of Tyrone was fought, by which an 
old Welsh prophecy, " that the Earl of Tyrone should 
prevail against the English nation," seemed to have 
been fulfilled, nothing remained to be done but, at what- 
ever expenditure of cost, to conquer the Irish nation ; 
but, as the editor states, "Vacillation, corruption, and 
division marked the course of the State." How far this 
was the fault of the queen herself, or how far it rested 
on her advisers, we are not in a position to state. She 
was a fearless woman, who, as it seems to us, would have 
done her best ; but the tide of corruption was too strong 
for her. More than two centuries had to pass by ere 
common honesty could be made to prevail. That there 
were many honest men among her servants in Ireland 
we do not question ; but it is evident that a preponder- 
ance of men who went over did so merely to advance 
their fortunes. The great Irish victory of Armagh may 
be regarded as the centre of the lurid picture which 
these papers give us. Iii one instance we hear of Lady 
Moore being made prisoner, stripped of her clothing, 
and left to die of cold in a bog. In other instances we 
hear of the brains of little infants being dashed out, 
of hearts being torn from living bodies, and many other 
horrors we do not care to speak of. These things were 
done by what used to be called the " mere Irish." Can 
we feel certain nay, can we hope that acts equally 
detestable were not performed by the English soldiery. 

The editing of the volume is all that we could wish, 
and we are glad to find at the end of the preface a 
list of proverbs and out - of - the - way words, which 
will be of much use to students of the speech of former 

Colonial Days in Old New York. By Alice Morse 

Earle. (Nutt.) 

To most English students of folk-lore this volume, de- 
scribing life in what was once known as the New 
Netherlands, opens out a new field. It supplies a picture 
of Dutch habits, manners, rhymes, modes of thought. 
To the present day, says Miss Earle, Dutch influence 
and Dutch traits, as well as Dutch names, are ever 
present and are a force in New York life. Wholly 
unlike anything to be seen in England, or in many parts 
of America, is the life depicted, and the volume may be 
studied with interest and advantage as well as with 

Whitaker s Almanack for 1897. By Joseph Whitaker, 

F.S.A. (Whitaker.) 

AMONG the new features of this most indispensable of 
companions to the desk and the shelf are au. index to 

former issues, 1869-96, an alphabetical arrangement of 
Government offices, the addition of new orders to the 
Orders of Knighthood, and an enlarged list of fares. 
A special article is added on the longest reign. A per- 
petual calendar, for finding the day of the week at any 
time from the creation, also appears. Of this, in another 
shape, we have made frequent use. Tho Almanack will bo 
warmly welcomed. 

THE fourth part of Naval and Military Trophies 
(Nimmo) gives, in Mr. Gibbs's admirably artistic coloured 
designs, a tiger's head from the throne of Tippoo Sultan, 
from the royal collection, Windsor Castle ; the creese of 
the Rajah of Assam, and a splendid powder-horn, and 
the Duke of Marlborough's sword, all from the same 
collection; and the Duke of Wellington's telescope and 
the sword and hat worn by him at Waterloo, now in the 
possession of the present Duke. Full descriptions of 
these splendid trophies are once more supplied by Mr. 
Richard R. Holmes, F.S.A., the Queen's librarian. The 
tiger's head of the great Tippoo is a superb piece of 
work. All the objects are of high interest, and the 
work, half of which is now almost finished, constitutes 
itself a trophy, and will, when completed, rank as one of 
the most exemplary books of the season. 

WE have received the eleventh edition of The Lincoln 
Stamp Album, for home and foreign postage stamps, 
published by W. S. Lincoln. Into this many improve- 
ments are introduced, and the volume, the utility of 
which is known to collectors, will now hold over 6,500 
stamps. Further pages can be had by those requiring 
them. Reproductions of various scarce stamps are given 
on separate pages. An atlas and a catalogue of stamps 
add to the attractions and utility. 

BISHOP PEARSON during the later years of his life 
compiled a common-place book of remarkable passages 
and striking thoughts which he met with in the course 
of reading. His widow has placed these in the hands of 
Mr. Elliot Stock, who will publish them very shortly in 
a volume, with a preface by the Bishop of Manchester. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

WM. MORTON ("London, Liverpool, Hull"). All are 
ports, and the last two are described as seaports, though 
both are practically on rivers. All may, indeed, be con- 
sidered as seaports. 

BLUE UPRIGHT. Please send full address. We have 
a letter for you. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

&>> 8. XI. JAN. 9, W.] 





NOTES: Home Tooke's Diary, 21 The Guillotine, 22 
Law Stationer An Anomalous Parish, 24 Weather Folk- 
loreDialectJean Btienne Henry " Hummer Nick": 
" Humbug," 25 Portrait of Eobert Harley Eousseau 
and ' Hudibras ' Letheringham Priory' Tom Brown's 
Schooldays 'Evening Services, 26. 

QUERIES : Eagles Captured at Waterloo- 
Nelson Matagon Cupplestown Earl 
Laurence Litchfield Church of Scotland- 
J. GK Whittier The Germanic Diet - 
Browning Pope's Epitaph on Mrs. Corbet 
Statistics of Imposture Westchester 
St. Gregory, 28 Hannah More Ritchie 
Robert Hales Proverb, 29. 

Thomas Bolas 
of Anuandale- 
- Retort Robert 
(Jagots Clarel 
Places in Stoke 
of Craigtown- 

REPLIES : Religious Dancing, 29" They will never cut 
off my head," &c. "Wayzgoose" Dairymaids' Hair 
Ancient Cycling Spider Folk-lore, 30 John Hart 
"Hear, hear!" T. G. Killigrew, 31 Theatre in Totten- 
ham Court Road 'Robin Adair' Butler Cole Wave 
Names "As plain as a pike-staff," 32 Author Wanted 
Position of Communion Table Gibbet Hill " Parson's 
nose" Moravia: Stirling: Lindsay, 33 " Onna Dfiw" 
Shelta "Paul's purchase," 34 John Logan English 
Liturgy Landguard Fort Oak Boughs Cowdray, 85 
Peacock Feathers "Forester" English and Scotch 
Students at Padua " Pinaseed "" Leave off": "Aback," 
36 Abraham Lincoln Wyvill Hayne English Religious 
Brotherhoods Rev. G. A. Firth Eastbury House, 37. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Vol. XLIX. Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

I lately had entrusted to me an interleaved 
copy of the first edition of the * Diversions of 
Parley,' with notes and emendations for the second 
edition in the author's handwriting. The most 
interesting feature in the book, however, lay in a 
rough diary, kept by Home Tooke from May to 
October, 1794, whilst he was a prisoner in the 
Tower, awaiting his trial for high treason, extracts 
from which I now give for the readers of * N. & Q.' 
Since the author's death the volume remained con- 
tinuously in the possession of his descendants or 
kinsmen till some fifteen years ago, when it passed 
by will to the late owner, whose executor kindly 
lent it to me. The writing is in places somewhat 
crabbed and difficult to decipher : 

Thursday, May 15. Dine at Pearson's. Joyce's 
letter. May 16, 1794. Friday at Noon apprehended 
by Swift, 1'olice Officer, Marlborough Street, Glitton, 
clerk, Thornton, clerk, & 3 constables, Kennedy one of 
them. At the Treasury at 3. Nepean's civility. Reeves 
must hang me; but wished I might live afterwards. 
Privy Council at | past 8. Privy Council before whom 
I stood Dundas, Grenville, Buckingham, Amherst, 
Bayham, Staffordshire, Chancellor & 2 or 3 others 
Reeves, Fawkener, Ford, &c. 

Dundas " It is conceived," &c., " constitutional & corre- 
sponding societies, of loth of which you are an active 
and leading member," &c. My answer, "Refuse to be 
examined except some charge." 

Nepean. Cause my place of Confinement, 

Monday, May 19. To Tower. 

Tuesday, 20. Hunter asks me to write to Nepean. 
Kinghorn refused pen & ink. 

Wednesday, 21. Newspapers, &c., forbidden. 

Thursday, 22. Kinghorn will answer me from Gover 
nour about care of my family. 

Friday, 23. He will answer in a few days. Iron bars 
put up at the Window. Felix Vaughan has order from 
Privy Council to see me in prescence of Gaoler; King- 
horn being absent he saw me in prescenoe of Capt. 
Bruhl of the guards in garrison. 

Sat., May 24. I received from Vaughan's servant by 
order of Privy Council Pens, Ink, Paper, Tea, Sugar, 
Lozenges for my cough. Lodgings at Burford's. N.B. 
Government allows 13s. 4rf. per week. 

Mon., May 26. N.B. Governour opened my child's letter 
(Charlotte's) & sent it open by Kinghorn. Nepean 
would not open. Two new Warders, Bouguette & Pear- 
son. F. Vaughan paid me a visit of an hour. King- 
horn's watch in his hand. I gave him my Keys. Mr. 
Ford, the Justice, brought a letter to me from the Privy 
Council demanding my Keys, & he shewed me his 
authority (signed Dundas) for inspecting & taking my 
books & papers. Mr. Ford told me, he was directed 
not to take or to trouble himself about sedition or 
seditious papers but confine himself to the discovery of 
Treason, & especially the Treason of a Convention. 

Tuesday, May 27. My apartment changed from Bur- 
forde's where I had a walk on the wall of 8$ yards by 
1 for the air : and I was escorted by gentleman Gaoler, 
2 Warders & a file of Musqueteera to Mould's house. 
Burford & Mould both are Warders. I understand all 
the other prisoners have one Warder ; but I have alwaya 
Two, besides the Warder of the House, and a Centinel 
always at the door. The two Warders always sit in the 
same room with me ; & always lie all night in the same 
room with me. I am daily visited twice : i. e. t morning 
& evening by Kinghorn, Gentleman Gaoler, once by 
the Officers of the Garrison, & three times by a Serjeant 
sometimes four times. For my Close Stool I had an 
order from, Privy Council, the same for my snv$, the 
same for my shirts, stocks, stockings and handkerchiefs. 
[N.B. I learn (from Vaughan) that London Ev s Post of 
Monday May 27, says " that the Prisoners in the Tower 
have each a Counsel & Solicitor permitted to see them." 
This falsehood is probably inserted in other papers.] 

Wednesday, May 28. Vaughan visited me the 3rd time. 
Kinghorn sat dote. He says he has the Governor's 
order to hear every syllable that passes. Vaughan 
returned me key of my linen drawers : Ford kept key of 
bookcases, &c., & would return them tomorrow. He took 
away about thirty of my private letters (amongst which 
one to me from Cowper) most of them dated 1792, a 
letter signed Regulus, &c. The closet where executor- 
ship papers, Sir Rob 1 Bernard's, & my large travelling 
trunk, were, was locked up by Ford & the key taken 
away by Mr. Ford. Mr. Vaughan said Mr. Ford had 
dismissed Thornton (the Police Officer) from my house. 
So that Constables held possession of my house & slept 
there twelve days & eleven nights. N.B. Ford did not 
confine himself to papers of treason; for finding 
nothing of the kind or about Convention, he took away 
about thirty insignificant private letters. Mr. Ford said, 
he would apply to Privy Council that Warder should not 
sleep in the same room with me. That I might give 
Kinghorn something to carry for his listening, I told 
Vaughan in the broad terms that the Ministry might 

kiss . This night Kinghorn locked the Warder 

& me at ten o'clock into the chamber, so that if the 
Warder had had the cholic, he must > in the 



[8 th 8, XI. JAN. 9, '97. 

room for my regale as had nearly happened to Dixon 
the warder who attends Thelwall. 

Thursday, May 29, 1794. Warder & I rose at 5 o'clock ; 
but being locked in could get no fire or breakfast till 
7 o'clock. 

Friday, May 30. F. Vaughan visited me 4th time, told 
me that Frost was taken last night, at my house at 
Wimbledon (so that my family are now left defenceless 
again ; for Frost kindly went there to protect them). 
T. Williams the wine merchant is taken. Hardy was 
bro* yesterday to the Tower. Five persons, I know not 
whom, are sent to Newgate. Privy Council return my 
keys to Vaughan. By their direction Vaughan offers 
keys to me. I refuse to touch them, bid him keep them 
for the present, & take out some title deeds, and my 
will, which on General Murray's death, the Duke of 
Athol had caused Mr. Squire to return to me. Kinghorn, 
when Vaughan was going, interfered about my keys, 
which he wanted Vaughan to deliver to him, said he 
had been reported & blamed for suffering Vaughan to 
receive them before acknowledges he had not been 
reported, but had mentioned it himself. This Kinghorn 
is Gaeler, but not Gentleman Gaoler. He has uniformly 
given me fawning words ft most savage treatment. 
Vaughan says Mr. Ford would obtain from Privy Council 
(order) to remove Warder from sleeping in my room, but 
wished I would apply. N.B. My confinement in King's 
Bench ruined my Boy. God send that the Tower pro- 
duces no future mischief to my Girls. Before my appre- 
hension by Dundas's warrant, I had slept out of my 
house but one night (at Margate) for the laat seven years. 
Vaughan retained Gibbs for me yesterday. 

Saturday, May 31. Iron bars put up at window : the 
5th time of performing ceremony. Martin the Attorney 
bro ( to the Tower : put in a miserable apartment at 
Jackson's the Warder, a relation of Einghorn's 1 At ten 
o'clock this night, Kinghorn says, he has just received 
order to remove the Warder's bed into adjoining room. 

Sunday, June 1, 1794. Warder's bed removed to adjoin- 
ing room. I walked upon the Leads twice for 20 
minutes, each time, attended by two Warders and a 
Centinel with bayonet fixed, 1st time whilst my bed was 
turned up and the room swept ; the 2 d time whilst my 
bed was making for the night. 

Monday, June 2. This morning at six o'Clock, the Yeo- 
man Porter (a naturalised Frenchman or Swiss, who 
had been a servant of Lord Shipbrook, General Vernon's 
brother, the L t governour of the Tower) found great fault 
with Bouguet, the Warder, for permitting me to walk 
upon the Leads. N.B. I have now been this day at 
noon, 17 days & nights in close custody, without any 
hint or conjecture what action or crime can be laid to 
my charge. I rec d for 2 d week 13s. 4d. government 
maintenance of a prisoner ; so that they have at last found 
out a method to make me a pensioner against my will. 
F. Vaughan visited me 5th time. He had received from 
H 50. He gave me 20 & will give F. Wild- 
man to pay Mrs. Hart 10 due to her the 1st of May, 
1794. N.B. Mr. Tooke gave my girls 10 10 May 24. 
Two new Warders, Finney, L d Cornwallis's servant, 
Lockit, Abp. (1) Cornwallis's cook. 

Tuesday, June 3, 1794. Half a pound of Snuff sent by 
Mr. Vaughan was turned out of the paper & examined 
by Kinghorn. At noon Kinghorn bro* a half sieve 
sent by my girls, with gooseberries, pease, strawberries. 
It was opened and in it was a Letter from Charlotte 
which Kinghorn took to carry to the governour Mr. 
York. At ten at night (for I stand up to read it) King- 
horn brought it back to me, open. [N.B. This is the 
second time the governor has opened and read my girl's 
letters, and Bent them back to me open, so that Gaoler, 
& if he pleased, the whole Garrison might read them, 

A very little delicacy or even reflection would lead a 
governour (if he did break open letters from a prisoner's 
family) at least to inclose them in a sealed note from 
himself, that the prisoner might know his private affairs 
were open only to the governour himself & not to every 
fellow.] I had permission to send some strawberries by 
one of the Warders to Bonney. 

G. J. W. 

(.To le continued.) 


(See my Note on 'Louis XVI.' &c., 8^ S. x. 249: also 
8 th S. x. 195, 298.) 

The guillotine has already been many times 
discussed in * N. & Q.'; but as I find nothing new 
in any of the notes, all of which I have read, and 
nothing in any way bearing on the history of the 
guillotine as I shall give it, I see no reason for 
giving a list of them. My account is borrowed, as 
I said in my note above quoted that it would be, 
from the ' Me"moires des Sanson ' (Paris, 1862-3). 
It may, of course, be inaccurate ; but as one of 
the Sanson family had much to do with the intro- 
duction of the instrument, there is much ground 
for believing in its accuracy. 

Dr. Guillotin (strangely enough called Dr. Guil- 
lotine in the generally accurate account in the 
ninth edition of the 'Encycl. Brit.') bad, as early 
as 21 January, 1790,* three years to the day 
before the execution of Louis XVI., proposed that 
the execution of every one condemned to death 
should be by decapitation, and that this should 
take place " par 1'effet d'un simple me'canisme " 
(iii. 390). This motion was referred to a com- 
mittee of seven, and did not become law till 1791 
(the 'Encycl.' says on 6 October), and in the 
mean time it bad been so modified that all that 
was stated with regard to the mode of execution 
was that "tout condamn6 a mort aurait la tete 
tranchee," without any mention of the instrument. 
This alarmed G. H. Sanson, and he presented a 
memoir to the Minister of Justice, in which he 
pointed out 

"toutes les difficult e's de la decollation par 1'epee : la 
necessite d'une fermete et d'un courage qu'on ne ren- 
contre point chez tous les patients : f 1'impossibilite des 

* According to the 'Encycl.' he brought forward thig 
motion on 1 December, 1789, at the same time that he 
proposed that all offenders and criminals should be 
punished in precisely the same manner, no matter what 
their rank or station. But, according to Sanson, this 
last motion was brought forward on 28 November, and 
was carried on 1 December, 1789 j whilst the other 
motion was not proposed till 21 January, 1790, as I have 
stated above. See vol. iii. pp. 387, 388. 

f He might have added, nor in all executioners. De- 
capitation by the sword was not at that time much prac- 
tised in France, as it was reserved for those of high rank. 
But even when it was frequently resorted to, as in the 
days of Richelieu, it was often unskilfully performed. 
Thus we learn from i. 86 that the head of De Thou 
was not completely severed until the eleventh stroke, 
owing to the agitation of the executioner. 



executions multiples, & cause de Ja fatigue des 
sujettes a s'dbrecher ou a perdre leur fil." 

Besides which, when several criminals had to be 
executed successively, the last ones to suffer would 
be so overcome by the sight of the blood of the 
others that they would cot all of them be even 
able to maintain themselves in a suitable posi- 
tion. From these and other considerations, there- 
fore, Sanson came to the conclusion that it was 
indispensable to adopt some machine 

" qui fixat le patient daps la position horizontal e, pour 
qu'il n'eut plus a eoutenir le poids de son corps, et qui 
permit d'operer avec plus de precision et de sftretc que 
la main de 1'homme n'en peut avoir." 

Dr. Guillotin was entirely of Sanson's opinion, 
and he went several times to Sanson's house to 
see whether they could devise together a machine 
which should meet every requirement. But they 
could hit upon nothing. They examined three 
German engravings by Pentz, Aldegreder (the 
'Encycl.'has Penez and Aldegrever), and Lucas 
Granacb, as well as an Italian engraving by 
Achille Bocchi, this last of the " Mannaia," 
which the ' Encycl.' tells us was used as early as 
the thirteenth century. They examined also the 
instrument used earlier still in Persia, the " Scotch 
maiden," and an instrument that had been used in 
1632 at Toulouse for the execution of the Marshal 
de Montmorency, and had previously been in 
use in that part of the country. But all these 
machines had the one capital defect that the 
criminal was made to kneel and could not be so 
securely fastened as to be altogether incapable of 
making any movement. The question, was, how- 
ever, quickly to be solved, and that in a very un- 
expected way. 

For some time a German of the name of Schmidt, 
a maker of harpsichords, but also well acquainted 
with mechanics, had been in the habit of coming 
in to Sanson's in the evening, and Sanson had 
often spoken to him about the fix in which Dr. 
Guillotin and himself then were. One evening, 
when Schmidt was playing on the harpsichord and 
Sanson on his violin or violoncello (for it was 
especially their mutual passion for music, though 
also the purchase by Sanson of certain musical 
instruments from Schmidt, which had created the 
intimacy), Sanson's thoughts once more reverted 
to that other instrument which was to him a 
matter of such serious concern, and he let fall a 
few words about it. Schmidt at once exclaimed 
in his broken French, " Attentez, che crois que 
ch'ai fotre affaire, ch'y ai bense*," and seizing hold 
of a pencil, with a few rapid strokes he made a 
drawing : " O'e"tait la Guillotine ! " Yes, there it 
was, the guillotine with its knife raised up on high 
between two posts and set in motion by a cord 
with its tilting board (" planche a bascule ") which 
with the subject fastened at full length upon it 
could be rapidly lowered into such a position that 

his neck should come precisely where the sharp 
edge of the knife would fall. The difficulty was 
conquered, the problem solved. Schmidt had at 
last discovered the means of decapitating a criminal 
in a horizontal position, without its being possible 
for him to make the slightest movement. 

It was this drawing of Schmidt's which, as I 
recorded in my last note, was submitted to 
Louis XVI. by Dr. Antoine Louis, and in which 
the king substituted a straight edge set slantingly 
for the crescent drawn by Schmidt. This crescent 
Schmidt had apparently borrowed from some old 
engraving, perhaps that of Aldegrever mentioned 
by M. CHATEAU (last reference). And according 
to the same correspondent the knife in Bocchi's 
engraving has a straight edge, so that Louis XVI. 
did^ not originate this ; but probably the edge was 
horizontal, and not set slantingly as Louis drew 

On 7 March, 1792, five days after Louis XVI, 
had altered Schmidt's drawing, Dr. Louis pre- 
sented his report to the Assembly, and recom- 
mended Louis XVI.'s modification, with the pro- 
viso that if, upon trial, a knife of any other form 
should be found to work better, it should be 
adopted. Experiments were made upon three 
dead bodies on 17 April, 1792. The slanting edge 
was used in two cases, the horizontal edge in one. 
In both its cases the former was successful ; in its 
one case the horizontal edge failed, and thus the 
slanting edge (called by Sanson " la lame oblique," 
p. 406) was adjudged to have gained the day, and 
eight days later, on 25 April, 1792, a highway 
robber, named Pelletier, was executed by the first 
guillotine made, t The name given to it was at 
first either Louison or Louisette (from Dr. Louis), 
or Guillotine (from Dr. Guillotin) indifferently ; 
but this last name finally prevailed, probably from 
its being regarded as less familiarj and more 

There were six factors concerned, therefore, in 
the production of the guillotine, viz., Guillotin, 

' This edge, which starts upwards from right to left, 
forms an acute angle which would enter into the right 
side of the neck (see the engraving in Webster, s.v. 
" Guillotine "), and so secure a deep entrance from which 
the incision would be carried right across, whereas the 
horizontal edge might fail to obtain a sufficient entrance 
in consequence of the strong ligament of the back of 
the neck, called by anatomists the " ligamentum 

f This guillotine was constructed by a carpenter of 
the name of Guidon, and cost 5,500 francs. 

J And yet Guillotin, like Louison and Louisette, is 
only a diminutive of a Christian name, and, indeed, a 
double diminutive. For Guillotin probably = Guille 
(=our Will) -{- the two diminutive endings ot and in> 
and, if so, is much the same as little Billie (Billee). 
Larchey, indeed, will not allow that Guille represents 
more than the first half of Guill(e)aume, but Pott (third 
edition, p. 192) agrees with me, and Body, in his book 
about Liege family names (p. 203), has " Guillaume dit 



. XI. JAN. 9/97. 

Sanson, the old engravings of antecedent machines, 
Schmidt, Dr. Louis, and Louis XVI. Schmidt is 
commonly looked upon as the most important of 
these ; but he would not have produced the machine 
without the very important assistance of Sanson, 
who told him what modifications in the old machines 
were required, whilst Louis XVI.'s improvement 
was of great value. 

The account given by the c Encyl. Brit.' accords, 
as I have said, pretty nearly with what I have 
narrated, and yet the writer of the article did not 
consult Sanson's ' M^moires.' As, however, among 
the books quoted I notice one by Louis Dubois, 
entitled ' Recherches Historiques et Physiologiques 
sur la Guillotine et Details sur Sanson/ I am 
inclined to believe that the writer of the article was 
almost as much indebted to Sanson as I have been. 
As for J. W. Croker's book, I have not seen it ; 
but, to judge from the numerous quotations I have 
seen from it in 'N. & Q.,' the information given 
can scarcely be remarkable for its accuracy. 

In conclusion, I may say that the guillotine which 
is exhibited in the Chamber of Horrors at Madame 
Tussaud's is stated to be the very one which served 
for the execution of Louis XVI. Now, this latter 
guillotine was removed as early as 30 April, 1793, 
From the Place de la Revolution (now the Place de 
la Concorde), where it had been standing ever since 
the 21st of the preceding January (the date of the 
king's execution), and a new one was substituted 
for it, in which many modifications deemed neces- 
sary by Sanson for the successful performance of 
several successive executions had been carried out 
under his direction (see vol. iv. p. 82). It is, there- 
fore, quite possible that the Tussaud family really 
did obtain possession of the original machine, for I 
believe that they already had an exhibition at Paris 
at the time of, and indeed some time before, the 
death of Lonis XVI. And as but few heads had 
fallen under the knife* of that guillotine, one would 
expect to see it in good condition. 


Sydenliam Hill. 

LAW STATIONER. *The Century Dictionary' 
has this description : " A stationer who keeps on 
sale the articles required by lawyers, such as 
parchment, tape, foolscap, brief- paper, &c., and 
Who sometimes, in England, takes in drafts or 
writings to be fairly copied or engrossed for 
lawyers." I disagree with this; it should be "one 
who in England takes in drafts or writings to be 
either fair copied or engrossed for lawyers, and who 
sometimes keeps on sale," &c. 

Though only a change in the order of the 
sentences, the difference in the description is great, 
in fact the difference between right and wrong. 

* It would almost seem, from what is said in pp. 77, 78, 
that the knife which cut off Louis' head was never used 
again. At all events, it was very quickly changed. 

Mr. Whitney writes "fairly copied." You would 
never hear such a thing in a lawyer's office nor in 
a law stationer's. It may be bad grammar, but 
lawyers always say, "Take that to be fair copied," 
or, " Make a fair copy by such a time." Again, Mr. 
Whitney says, "fairly copied or engrossed," as if 
they were the same thing ; but they are not. If 
I say, " Take this to the stationer to be fair copied," 
it comes back fair copied on paper, as a draft to 
be reread and finally corrected. I then send the 
fair copy as a draft to the stationer to be en- 
grossed ; it then comes back better and more 
carefully written and ready for signature. 

I have left in the words "in England but I 
imagine they would not be necessary for a dic- 
tionary published in England. Why has Mr. 
Whitney been so particular? Are there no law 
stationers in America? I understand there will 
not be any or many left in England soon, as the 
type-writer is improving them off the face of the 
earth. So, then, to " go with the times/' the law 
stationer now sets up as a type-writer, and starts 
a shop and sells things, as per Mr. Whitney's 
description (which in times to come will probably 
be more accurate than mine), and then in his shop 
window adds cycles (generally ladies') to the other 
miscellaneous articles. 

Under " Engross " * The Century ' has a correct 
description, with what I contend is an incorrect or 
misleading illustration from the 'Tale of a Tub.' 
Swift says, " Jack had provided a fair copy of his 
father's will, engrossed in form upon a large skin 
of parchment." With the word "fair," the 
description is overdone ; omit it and then the 
sentence will read correctly, and as I believe Swift 
would have written it had he been acquainted 
with the practice of English lawyers (i.e. solicitors). 
I should think it must have been a rather excep- 
tional thing even in Swift's time to have a will 
engrossed on parchment for signature by a testator. 
It would be interesting to know when the practice 
(if it ever was one) ceased. I never saw a will on 
parchment, though I never saw a "probate" of a 
will on anything else.* I think Swift has made a 
mistake from always seeing the parchment probates 
of wills. Parchment was much more commonly 
used in early days ; no doubt it was even thirty 
years ago more used than now. I have searched in 
all sorts of books, but can find nothing upon the 
subject of parchment wills. RALPH THOMAS. 

AN ANOMALOUS PARISH. Baker mentions in 
his 'History of Northamptonshire' (A.D. 1822-36) 
that Stotesbury, or Stottesbury, near Brackley, 
presents the singular anomaly of a parish without 

* Original wills are not handed about like deeds, but 
are lodged in the registries, unless, indeed, they relate 
solely to realty, in which case they are the same aa 
deeds : they do not require probate, which is only given 
for personalty. 

8> S. XI. JAN. 9, W.] 



a village or a church. In the ' Clergy List ' for 
1886 it figures as having a population of thirty- 
four, and an income of 25l. t and that it ia held 
along with the adjoining rectory of Helmdon, 
which is in the gift of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford. In 1886 it still had no church. 


WEATHER FOLK-LORE. A curious piece of 
superstition, still current in Berkshire, is referred 
to in ' Letters to Marco/ by George D. Leslie. 
On p. 48 Mr. Leslie says : 

" The people here [i. e. at Wallingford on Thames] 
have a curious superstition about the wandering German 
bands that visit us at times. It is that they invariably 
bring rain. When they see them crossing the bridge 
they say, ' There come the Germans ; it will rain to- 
morrow.' My gardener firmly believes in this. I suppose 
it is the old spirit of barbarism that lingers in the 
country, which, in old times, used to burn witches and 
shrew mice." 

J. M. MAcKiNLAT, F. S.A.Scot. 

[See ' German Bands,' 8 th S. vi. 28, 114, 215.] 

DIALECT. A friend of mine tells me that she 
has heard peffy used in North Lincolnshire in the 
sense of tough, stringy: e.g., "These beet-roots is 
very peffy" According to Peacock's ' Manley and 
Corringham Glossary/ peff means the pith of a 
plant. G. W. 

[Of. pejf, to cough faintly, familiar in the North. 
Might stringy beet-root be called peffy, as apt to make 
you cough ?] 

JEAN ETIENNE HENRY. Is anything known of 
Jean Etienne Henry ? The following is the copy 
of a memorial from him to Pius VII., which he 
apparently presented to the Pope during his 
Holiness's residence in Paris, 1804-5, on the occa- 
sion of the coronation of Napoleon. I am not 
aware whether the document has ever been made 
public. I found a MS. copy (a translation of the 
original) among some papers dating from about 

To our Holy Father Pope Pius the 7th. 

Most Holy Father, Jean Etienne Henry (son of the 
late Jean Antoine Henry, formerly Counsellor of Par- 
liament and Judge of the Lordship of Vivier and other 
Royalties and of Dlle. Marie Barbe Noel) a native of 
Tinery, diocese of Metz, canton of Delme, department 
of Meurthe, now aged 53 years. 

Humbly showeth to Your Holiness that he began his 
Novitiate among the Mendicant Friars of the Order of 
St. Jean de Dieu, and was initiated by the monastic 
name of Edouard. That even at the time he made his 
vows, he had no predilection for a religious life, but 
inexperienced and incapable of appreciating the im- 
portance and severity of the obligations those vows 
brought him under. He was seduced by a monk of the 
said order, who had insinuated himself into a fatal 
ascendancy over his feelings and his judgment, aided by 
the fear of disobeying his Parents, who having a slender 
fortune ' and large family, incessantly extolled the 
honors and wealth of the monastic life, and magnified 
the dangers he would have to encounter in the world. 

That in fact when he made his public profession, his 
Heart gave the lie to the Oaths his lipa pronounced, so 
that he has never believed them to be obligatory upon 
him in the sight of God. 

He begs to observe to your Holiness that he is not 
a Priest, never having taken Holy orders. 

He has hitherto overcome the feelings, which at all 
times strongly tempted him to solicit the defeasance of 
his vows. He has endured through the Grace of God, 
the Disgust of a situation for which Providence never 
intended him, and zealously discharged the duties of his 
Station, both as an individual and as Superior of a Con- 
vent, until the French Revolution spreading even to the 
New World, deprived him of support, by overturning 
the religious establishments of the Island of Martinique 
(in the year 1792), which he had for sixteen years 
superintended, and drove him to seek a refuge in a 
foreign land. 

Thus thrown adrift upon the world, and given up to 
the sway of lustful passions, he fell into habits which 
will prove a great scandal to the Church and a horrible 
impediment to the Salvation of his Soul, unless he shall 
be allowed to make them legitimate. 

For this purpose, Most Holy Father, and in considera- 
tion of the Arts and deceits used to induce him to take 
his Vows (which must therefore be esteemed void in the 
sight of God), considering that the present laws of 
France have absolved him from his obligations towards 
men, considering that the Monastic establishments of 
Martinique (where he lived for twenty-six years and 
where, accustomed to the Climate, he must pass the 
remainder of his days) are irrevocably passed into the 
hands of the laity, and all his former means of sub- 
sistence lost. And considering the honor of the Church 
and the Salvation of his Soul, deign Most Holy Father 
to open the Treasures of your Grace in favor of your 
poor Supplicant and absolve him from his Vows. 

Full of remorse and of respect for and submission to 
the Head of the Church, he will faithfully perform 
whatever penance Your Holiness shall be pleased to 
think needful to impose upon the most humble and 
most respectful of his Servants. J. E. HENRY. 

20th November, 1804. 


36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W. 

"HUMMER NICK" : " HUM-BUG." A few weeks 
ago a man who lives at Morley, near Leeds, said 
in my hearing, " Hah the hummer did ta do it ? '* 
Of course I made a note of this at once, and soon 
found out that he meant, " How the deuce," &c. 
I have since ascertained that the expression " How 
the hummer," or "What the hummer,*' is not 
unfrequently heard in the North of England. I 
find it at Whitwell, in East Derbyshire j at Dron* 
field, in North Derbyshire ; at Penis tone, in West 
Yorkshire ; and in the neighbourhood of Leeds* 
Near Wakefield a being called Hummer Nick also 
occurs now and then in the popular speech. A 
man will say, " Well, I '11 go to Hummer Nick/ 
by which he means " go to the devil.'* It should 
be noted that the h in "hummer" is always 
sounded. People never say "th* ummer" or 
" t' ummer." 

It is at once obvious that Hummer or Hummer 
Nick is the Norse giant Hymir, a name which, 
according to Vigfusson, is derived from Mm, 
Now hUm, when used in poetry, means the sea j 



S. XI. JAN. 9, '97. 

in prose it means twilight. The word " humbug," 
therefore, means twilight bug, twilight goblin. 
In England twilight was formerly regarded as 
malignant or unkindly.* It was the time when 
ghosts trooped forth. 

As regards the word " bug," the ' New Eng. 
Diet.' quotes Coverdale's version of Psalm xcii. 5 : 
" Thou shalt not nede to be afrayed for eny bugges 
by night. " It also refers to the expression " To 
swear by no bugs " as meaning to take a genuine 
oath, not a mere pretence. 

One would like to see reports from other parts 
of the country about Hummer and Hummer Nick. 

S. O. ADDT. 

FORD. On a recent visit to the British Museum, 
at the top of a case near the Print Eoom, I saw a 
fine portrait in oils, half length, of a statesman 
wearing a long flowing wig, and in the right hand 
holding a white wand of office. On inquiry from the 
curator of the Department he was unable to tell me 
whom it represented. The portrait much needed 
cleaning, and I am inclined to believe that it is 
engraved in Lodge's * Portraits,' and depicts Robert 
Sarley, Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, Baron 
Barley of Wigmore, the first peer of that line, 
who died in 1724, and to have been painted by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller. In a list of portraits prefixed 
to vol. vii. Cabinet Edition of Lodge's ' Portraits/ 
" No. 4 " is said to be that of " Robert Harley, 
Earl of Oxford, from the collection in the British 
Museum." If my surmise is correct, it is worthy 
of a better position than it at present occupies. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

ROUSSEAU AND * HUDIBRAS.' Unless a common 
original can be traced, Rousseau would seem to 
have borrowed from 'Hudibras.' In verses entitled 
'L'Altee de Sylvie,' published in 'L'Ami des 
Muses * in 1759, he says : 

On me Terra par jalousie 
Predher mes caduques vertus, 
Et eouvent blarner par en vie 
Lea plaisirs que je n'aurai plus. 

fie may have seen Towneley's French transla- 
tion of Hudibras/ published in 1758, but if so the 
borrowing must have been from the English text, 
also given by it, for Towneley's rendering of the 
famous couplet "Compound for sins" is very 
feeble J 

Oe qui leur plait eat legitime, 
Et ce qui leur deplait, un crime. 


LETHERINGHAM PRIORY. In the 'Letters of 
Horace Walpole * (ed. 1891), vol. ii. p. 463, there 

* "Maligna lux.uel dulia, tweonulleoht." Wright- 
WUlcker, ' Vocab* ' 175, 39. 

is a strange little slip, more strangely endorsed by 
Peter Cunningham. "Since that," writes Wal- 
pole, " I went to see an old house [at Wingfield] 
built by Secretary Naunton." The description 
that follows of the house and the church is very 
interesting to any one who knows them, but 
Wingfield should of course be Letheringham Priory, 
near Wickham Market, Suffolk. The Priory still 
stands ; but Cunningham's note asserts that " the 
house has long been level with the ground the 
church destroyed by churchwarden renewals and 
alterations, and the Wingfield and Naunton monu- 
ments shamefully scattered. When I visited 
Wingfield, in 1852, 1 discovered part of Secretary 
Naunton's monument in a farm-wall building." 
The history of Letheringham has yet to be written. 
Ample collections were made by the late Oapt. 
Brooke, and are still in the library at Ufford. 


c ToM BROWN'S SCHOOLDAYS? In a catalogue 
of Tabart's "Juvenile Library" (157, New Bond 
Street), appended to their 'Children's Book of 
Trades,' 1805, the following title occurs : 

" First going to School, or a History of the Feelings 
and Adventures of Tom Brown on his First Going to 
School, with Letters to hia Sisters, adorned with beauti- 
ful Engravings, price 2s." 

Has this ever been pointed out as a strange pre- 
cursor of our ever delightful ' Tom Brown's School- 
days ' ? One suspects that the only resemblance 
is in the title-pages ; still, Tom Hughes may have 
had a reminiscence of the little work quoted in 
taking the name of Tom Brown. Letters to his 
sisters is rather suggestive of namby-pambiness, 
and it will be recollected that Tom particularly 
warns Arthur, on their first night in Gray's study : 
" Don't you say you can sing ; and don't you ever 
talk about home, or your mother and sisters." 

H. E. M, 
St. Petersburg. 

Services on Sunday evenings have been for many 
years at stated seasons held in the nave or choir 
of Westminster Abbey, and to many people it has 
seemed a very great mystery why this great 
" temple of reconciliation " should not be open all 
the year round. Dean Stanley, in his ' Memorials 
of Westminster Abbey,' told us that " much 
assuredly remains to be done to place it on a level 
with the increasing demands of the human mind 
and with the changing wants of the English 
people." Changes to meet these requirements have 
from time to time been made ; increased light and 
a complete system of warming were introduced, 
and the usefulness of this " fortress of the Church 
of England" has become greater than it ever was 
before. The prayer used at the installation of a 
dean and canon, in which it is asked " that those 
things which he hath promised, and which his duty 

8" 1 S. XI. JAN. 9, '97.] 



requires, he may faithfully perform, to the praise 
and glory of the name of God and the enlargement 
of His Church," has in many cases borne much 
fruit, and as this is the "natural centre of the 
religious life and truth, if not to the whole metro- 
polis, at least to the city of Westminster," it is 
pleasing to be able to record that at the last 
meeting of the Dean and Chapter proposals were 
made for a continual Sunday evening service, and 
that the first of them took place on 27 Dec., 1896, 
when Canon Gore was the preacher. This event 
seems worthy of being recorded in the pages of 
' N. & Q.' W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 

14 (late 20), Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

in his despatch to Lord Bathurst, after the Battle 
of Waterloo, dated 19 June, 1815 (Gurwood's 
' Despatches, 1 vol. xii. p. 484), says : " I send with 
this Despatch Three Eagles, taken by the Troops 
in this action, which Major Percy will have the 
honor of laying at the feet of His Koyal Highness." 
Two eagles captured at Waterloo (one by the 
Scots Greys, the other by the Royal Dragoons) 
are now in the chapel of the Royal Hospital at 
Chelsea. Can any of your readers inform me what 
became of the third eagle ; and by what regiment 
it was captured ? The two eagles at Chelsea were 
transferred there, together with all the other eagles 
and standards in the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 
from that chapel in 1835 by order of the king, 
and it does not appear that more than two eagles 
captured at Waterloo were ever deposited in 
Whitehall chapel. 

The Annual Register ' for 1816 (vol. Iviii. p. 7) 
gives an account of the placing of the Waterloo 
eagles in the chapel at Whitehall on 18 January 
of that year, with the usual ceremony and form. 
The number deposited is not mentioned, but it is 
stated that the eagles were carried by two sergeants, 
and, as at previous ceremonies of the kind (see, for 
instance, * Annual Register/ liv. 123, for 1812, 
giving an account of the ceremony of depositing 
the eagles and colours taken in Spain, which took 
place on 30 September, 1812) the number of ser- 
geants detailed to bear the colours and eagles 
corresponded to the number deposited each 
sergeant carrying one it may be inferred that only 
two eagles were deposited at Whitehall on 
18 January, 1816. 

It looks as if between the date of the arrival oi 
the three eagles in England and January, 1816 a 
period of some six months one had been senl 
elsewhere than to Whitehall chapel. C. R. 

THOMAS BOLAS.- In Egerton Castle's * Book- 
Plates/ p. 120, a book-plate is engraved as 
belonging to Thomas Bolas, 1740. The arms are 
the same as are borne by the Bowles family. Who 
was Thomas Bolas ? ENQUIRER. 

NELSON. Wanted Admiral Nelson's coat of 
arms 1796-7, before he was made a peer. 


MATAGON. In Brother Foley's ' Records of 
the English Province S.J.' mention is made of 
a Walloon Jesuit priest named Francis Matthews 
(Mathieux ?), who was born at Li&ge, 1617, spent 
some years in England, and was a constant visitor 
of the Catholics imprisoned in the Tower, contriving 
secretly to celebrate Mass there every day. He 
died a victim of charity during the plague at 
Ypres in 1667. Father Mathieux is described in 
the above work as "of the Matagon family." 
What family was this ? M. 

have been striving to get at facts from printed 
sources with reference to the exact locality, size, 
and history of this village or hamlet, which I am 
told, with apparent truthful knowingness, owes its 
existence to three brother Scots, who settled it 
between 1680 and 1690. So far I have been unable 
to hit the right authority, printed or otherwise. The 
place is located on the banks of the Kellswater. 
Can some Irish antiquary help me out ? 


Long wood, Mass., U.S. 

EARL OF ANN AN DALE. The late G. A. Sala, 
in his ' Journeys in the County of Middlesex/ 
states that Mr. Alexander Copeland, who once 
lived at Sussex House, Fulham, let it "to a 
person who said he was the Earl of Annandale, 
who could not get any one else to agree to the 
proposition." Can any one throw light on this 
story? Mr. Copeland died in 1834, and his 
widow, Mrs. Lucy Copeland, continued to reside 
at the house till 1842. I know nothing of any sot- 
disant Earl of Annandale having lived at the 
house. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

I shall be glad to trace him in England. His 
descendants intermarried with Kerseys, of Hing- 
ham, Mass., and used their name as a forename. 

A. 0. H. 

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. What is the " Church 
of Scotland," mentioned in the fifty-fifth section of 
the Canons of Canterbury? The Canons were 
promulgated in 1604. Was the Episcopal Church 
of Scotland then in existence ? KOM OMBO. 

"FASESYING." What is to be understood by 
the terms "came fasesying"? What connexion 



8. XI. JAN. 9, '97. 

has it with the surname Fesy, Fesey, Phecy, Fezy, 
Feacy, Feacye, Feassaye, &c. 1 Any information 
about this family, its origin, &c., would be accept- 
able. The above names are taken from a list of 
Berkshire wills ; but I have heard the name is 
found in the register of Brill and Long Orendon, 
Buoks. Is the name a common one ? H. F. 

poet, who is idolized by his countrymen not un- 
like Burns is by the Scotch, bears a patronymic 
which would seem to have escaped all record in 
the annala of English topology, a department of 
literature in which the English excel every other 
nationality, certainly to the shame of their neigh- 
bours the Scots and the Irish. If the name be 
English, in what part of England does it abound ? 


Massachusetts, U.S. 

THE GERMANIC DIET. One of the most far- 
reaching diets ever held in the German empire 
was that of Mayence (1298), which claimed to strip 
the imperial crimson from the shoulders of the 
Emperor Adolf of Nassau, who had been crowned at 
Aix-la-Chapelle six years previouly, and to choose 
Albert of Hapsburg in his stead. The right of 
the diet to do this is greatly in doubt. I shall be 
glad to learn of any authorities bearing on the 
question of the franchises of the Germanic diet, 
and especially on the doings of that of Mayence. 

It will not be forgotten that Adolf fell at the 
battle of Gellheim, shortly after, by his foe's hand, 
and that the latter was again called to the crimson 
(if again it be), but was himself slain ten years 
later by his nephew, Duke John of Suabia, at 
Windisch, on the Reuss, and this very question 
raised by Rudolf yon Wasta, charged with being 
accessory. THREAD GOWN. 

Vancouver's Island. 

RETORT. In a life of Sir John Birkenhead 
('Lives of the Poets,' by Mr. Gibber and other 
hands, 1753) I find the following :- 

" It is said of Birkenhead, that when an unmannerly 
Member of Parliament, in opposing him, took occasion 
to say that he was surprised to hear an alehouse-keeper's 
son talk so confidently in the House, he coolly replied, 
'I am an alehouse-keeper's son, I own it, and am not 
ashamed of it; but had the gentleman who upbraided 
me with my birth been thus descended, in all probability 
he would have been of the same profession himself '; a 
reply at once sensible and witty." 

Has not this " retort courteous " been ascribed to 
more than one distinguished person since ? Bir- 
kenhead died 1679. G. T. SHERBORN. 

his sermon at Marylebone Parish Church, might 
have said that those of the congregation who, on 
leaving the church, walked westwards would 
presently come to, a chapel in which. Robert 

Browning preached the sermon, one Sunday morn- 
ing about twenty-five years ago. It is called 
the Paddington Congregational Church. Have 
any of Browning's occasional sermons been pub- 
lished ? It is highly probable that shorthand 
reports exist. On this occasion, at least, the 
sermon was announced beforehand by posters, 
and would hardly fail to attract some reporters. 


Can any reader of ' N. & Q,' tell me something 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Corbet, on whose monument, in 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, there is an epitaph 
by Pope, beginning : 

Here rests a woman good without pretence ? 

Did her husband belong to the Shropshire Corbets ? 

E. W. 

GAGOTS. Mr. Wright, in a paper on the Cagots, 
in his ' Archaeological Essays,' mentions that such- 
like communities existed elsewhere than in France 
and Spain. Can any reader confirm this; for I 
can find them only in connexion with these two 
countries ? He likewise mentions that they pro- 
bably existed in England also, coming to this 
conclusion from the fact that in several churches 
doors, not unlike Cagots' doors, had been found 
built up. Is this the case ? I should be greatly 
obliged by any one helping me here. 


CLAREL. Sir Richard Fitz- William married 
Elizabeth Clarel (she died 22 July, 1504), and Sir 
John Fitz-William, of Sprotborough, married 
Margaret Clarel. Were these ladies sisters, and 
daughters of Thomas Clarel, or Clavel, of Ald- 
wark, co. York, by Elizabeth, or Margaret, his 
wife, daughter of Sir John Scrope ? 


Dundrum, co. Down. 

Paul, or some other humourist mention this ; or is 
it the title of a book 1 A. B. 

WESTCHESTER. E. Bulkeley's 'Apology ' (Lon- 
don, 1608) mentions a " Mr. Goodman, preacher 
of Westchester." Where is this ; and what Mr. 
Goodman was preacher then? I can only find 
Westchester, U.S.A. 0. S. 

most valuable work Kelly's * Somerset Directory ' 
I find places with the following names are in the 
said parish of Stoke : to wit, Mare Green, Hunt- 
ham, High Huntham, Woodhill, Burroughbridge, 
Sedgemoor, Stathe Court, Stathe, Churley, Dykes, 
Sturt's Farm, Slough, Walker's Farm, Curry Load 
Farm, Parsonage Farm, Woodhouse Farm, Frog 
Lane, and Turkey. Such " gawky" names in 
romantic Somerset ! If we give queer ones here, 
it is evidently by inheritance, But, leaving the 

8"> S. XI. Jus. 9, '97.J 



"gawks" out, I beg to ask, Have any of these 
places old halls, or their remains ; and were any 
manors subinfeudations of the capital manor of 
Stoke, now held, I believe, by the Dean and 
Chapter of Wells ? P. S. P. CONNER. 

Octorara, How lands viHo, Maryland. 

Can any of your readers furnish a clue to a very 
possible link of consanguinity between the family 
of Hannah More and that of John Smith, the 
celebrated mezzotint engraver ? The friendly 
relations between Hannah More and Garrick are 
well knowo, and there is extant an impression in 
wax of Sir Godfrey Kneller's portrait presented by 
Garrick to Patty (Martha), Hannah More's sister, 
with some verses in his autograph. On the 
assumption of an affinity between the families of 
Smith and More, a hint or request for such a 
memento from the quiet, unobtrusive Patty, who 
entertained the very strongest family affections, 
would seem very natural, rejoicing as she then was 
in the heyday of her sister's fame, as Kneller was 
not only closely associated with Smith in his art, 
but also a personal friend. This hypothesis is 
further accentuated by a drawing by Kneller a 
sketch portrait with the inscription in his auto- 
graph, " Drawn by the life Mr. Smith, Mrs. More's 
Father." The early recollections of Mr. Gladstone 
include a touching as well as picturesque memorial 
of the gifted authoress, the friend of Garrick, of 
Johnson, and the virtuous Duchess of Gloucester 
as the good old Nestor has told us the interest 
of which would not be diminished by a further 
retrospect into " the dark backward and abysm of 
time." S. McDoNALD. 

8, Edward Street, N.W. 

RITCHIE OP CRAIGTOWN. In 1758 this family 
matriculated a coat, Quarterly, 1 and 4, Arg., on a 
chief gules three lions' heads erased of the first ; 
2 and 3, Az., a crescent or between three cross cross- 
lets arg. The first and fourth quarters are, I presume, 
for Ritchie ; but for whom are the second and 
third quarters ? I find no information on the 
point in Mr. J. Balfour Paul's valuable ' Ordinary 
of Scottish Arms,' which, unfortunately, does not 
give the name of each quartering in most of the 
quartered coats, thus detracting from the useful- 
ness of a work most interesting to students of 
heraldry. ARMIGER. 

ROBERT HALES. Robert Hales is stated to 
have been appointed Lord Treasurer of England in 
succession to Brantyngham in 1381. Any in- 
formation concerning him would be welcome. 


ORIGIN OF PROVERB. Could you, or any of 
your readers, inform me of the origin of the 
proverb " Let sleeping dogs lie " ? W. G. 0. 

See 6tn S. ix. 68 173. 

(8 th S. x. 115, 202.) 

Don Jose Maria de Valdenebro, the learned 
sub-librarian of the University of Sevilla, assures 
me that the occasions when the seises dance in the 
Sta. Yglesia Patriarcal of this ancient Hispalis are 
the octaves of Corpus Christi, the Conception of the 
Blessed Virgin, and the last three days of the 
Carnaval, but not Christmas, as I said in my haste. 
He has lent me the volume entitled " Glorias 
Sevillanas : Noticia Histtfrica de la Devocion y 
Culto que la muy noble y muy leal Ciudad de 
Sevilla ha profesado a la Inmaculada Conception 
de la Virgen Maria desde los tiempos de la Anti- 
gu'edad hasta la presente e"poca por el Presbf tero 
Don Manuel Serrano y Ortega Ldo. en Derecho 
Civil y Candnico. Sevilla, Imp. de E. Rasco, 
Bustos Tavera 1, 1893" (pp. 920 and iii). In this, 
"Capitulo xvi.," pp. 724 to 736, treats of the 
singing and dancing of these specially endowed 
quiresters; and "Ld,m 25," facing p. 730, gives 
us a photograph of them in their special costume. 
This dress is that of a court page of the sixteenth 
century, consisting of a grey felt hat with plumes, 
which the boys wear during the dance ; a jacket, 
called vaquero, of azul celeste (sky-blue) silk with 
yellow strips and with long sleeves, all tight-fitting ; 
sashes or ribbons of the same stuff, called bandas, 
hanging from both shoulders, like those of the toga 
talaris worn by commensales in Oxford ; ruffs ; 
stoles of white silk passed over the left shoulder 
and under the other ; white silk tight knicker- 
bockers ; white cotton stockings ; white satin 
shoes with blue and white bows. I have seen them 
these last few evenings since the Vespers of the 
7th, when they made their appearance in the 
choir of the Sagrario, or Chapel of the Holy Sacra- 
ment, which is the place where the cathedral 
services take place during the repairs required by 
the collapse of the vaulting nine years ago. On 
that day they did not dance, but they have done 
so the last three evenings, beginning at 5 o'clock, 
after compline. They are ten in number, though 
said to have been six formerly, as their name sug- 
gests. Placing themselves in two rows, on either 
side of the space just before the altar, they kneel 
at first, then sing bareheaded, standing still, and 
finally don their hats and begin the right-and-left 
swaying of their bodies and the movement of the 
feet, which is continuous. All the time they are 
accompanied by an orchestra standing in the corner 
between the archbishop's chair and the end of the 
altar. At times they rhythmically click their 
postizas. They sing all the time. There is no 
hopping or jumping, but the dance takes the form 
of a pacing-drill-like quadrille, in which they shift 
their positions. It lasts for ten minuses. 



[8 S. XI, JAN. 9, '97. 

general effect is decidedly agreeable and cheerfully 
reverential. The movements remind one a little 
of the strutty walking of the actors in a Souletin 
pastoral in Basqueland. The archbishop, one of 
the best and most eloquent men in Spain, has 
attended the ceremony each evening, kneeling at 
his faldstool, while the venerable Infanta Maria 
Luisa Fernando knelt or sat at hers on the opposite 
side of the sanctuary, each behind a row of seises 
(in the singular seise). He terminates the ceremony, 
which it is needless to say is very numerously 
attended, by giving his benediction from the altar. 
But this is immediately preceded by the exposition 
of the Sacred Host, and followed by the announce- 
ment, made by the Dean, that His Grace grants 
eighty days' indulgence to all those present. As 
he leaves the church, preceded by the metropolitical 
cross, nearly all the bells of the unrivalled Giralda 
tower clang forth a joyous peal, " like sweet bells 
jangled out of tune." It is a pity that a short book 
of the words and music, with a few historical notes, 
is not sold. The proceeds would be useful for the 
restoration of the squarest cathedral in Spain. 
Hto. San Joseph Giral Delpino, in ' A Dictionary, 
Spanish and English, 1 London, 1763, has, " Seises 
are six boys that are choice singers, belonging to 
the Cathedral of Toledo, and living apart from 
the rest, a council of six that governs a town, the 
sices on the dice." Here Toledo may be a slip of 
the pen, and the press too, for Sevilla ; or did the 
usage exist at Toledo as well in 1763 ? 


(8 th S. x. 455.) The particulars of the interview, 
as related by one who was present, are these : 

" King Charles II., after taking two or three turns one 
morning in St. James's Park (as was his usual custom), 
attended only by the Duke of Leeds and my Lord 
Cromarty, walked up Constitution Hill, and from thence 
into Hyde Park. But just as he was crossing the road, 
the Duke of York's coach was nearly arrived there. The 
duke had been hunting that morning on Hounslow 
Heath, and was returning in hia coach, escorted by a party 
of the guards, who, as soon as they the saw king, sud- 
denly halted, and consequently stopt the coach. The Duke, 
being acquainted with the occasion of the halt, immedi- 
ately got out of his coach, and after saluting the king, 
said he was greatly surprised to find his Majesty in such 
a place with such a small attendance, and that he thought 
his Majesty exposed himself to some danger. ' No kind 
of danger, James, for I am sure no man in England will 
take away my life to make you king.' This was the king's 
answer. The old Lord Cromarty often mentioned this 
anecdote to his friends." King's ' Political and Biblical 
Anecdotes, '1819, p. 63. 


The actual saying referred to occurs in * Peveril 
of the Peak,' chap, xlv., near the end : 

'* In the daytime the king (Charles II.) was commonly 
Been in the public wal^a alone, or attended only by one 
or two pereqpi j and hia answer to the remonstrance of 

his brother, on the risk of thus exposing his person, is 
well known : ' Believe me, James,' he said, * no one will 
murder me to make you king.' ' 


" WAYZGOOSE" (8 th S. x. 432, 483). In PROF. 
SKEAT'S note on the word " wayzgoose," read 
before the Philological Society on 9 June, 1891, 
he connects wayz with M.E. ivase, a wisp of straw, 
also a torch. This M.E. word is evidently iden- 
tical with Middle Dutch wase, a bundle, torch ; 
Danish and Swedish vase, a bundle of straw. But 
in no English, nor German, nor Scandinavian 
dialect can it be shown that the word wase means 
<f stubble." Hence the difficulty of accepting 
PROF. SKEAT'S explanation of " wayz-goose" as 
meaning "stubble-goose." "Stubble" is a very 
different thing from a twist of straw. But in the 
same note PROF. SKEAT asks us to believe some- 
thing much more incredible. He affirms that M.E. 
wase is identical with Du. wase and Sw. vase, and 
at the same time answers to an impossible O.E. 
type wrcefys the pedigree being ivase, warse, wrase, 
*wrcess, *wrce]>s! I wonder if PROF. SKEAT 
really proposes an analogous derivation for the 
identical Sw. vase. If so, he would have to derive 
vase from weifc, the strong stem of Old Norse 
wffia (nfca), " to writhe, twist," a rather difficult 
task, as most Scandinavian scholars would allow. 



495). There appears no reason to think that this 
is more than a solitary instance, or that the 
"raiders" cut off the hair of dairymaids more 
than of other maids, or that they had any other 
reason for it more than sheer rudeness and in- 
solence to the poor girla. It does not seem very 
likely that they sold the hair to a barber to make 
wigs of. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

ANCIENT CYCLING (8 th S. x. 373, 441). In the 
Sketch of 18 Nov., 1896, p. 142, there is an illus- 
tration of a Draisienne to which are attached five 
cyclists. The illustration is entitled * Going to the 
Races, 1819.' CELER ET AUDAX. 

SPIDER FOLK-LORE (8 th S. ix. 7, 195, 256, 437, 
494). Dr. Adam Clarke, in a note in his Bible 
commentary on 1 Samuel xxiv. 9, gives a somewhat 
different turn in the application of this legend. He 
says : " The rabbins have invented a most curious 
conceit to account for Saul's [sic] security." Then 
follows a quotation, but without a reference to the 
authority : " God foreseeing that Saul would come 
to this cave, caused a spider to weave her web over 
the mouth of it, which, when Saul perceived, he 
took for granted that no person had lately been 
there, and consequently he entered it without 

8. XI. JAN. 9, '97.] 



suspicion.' 1 This ends the quotation ; but further 
on he adds : " This is a Jewish tradition, and one 
of the most elegant and instructive in their whole 
collection. B. G. 

The Argyllshire legend of Bruce and the spider 
is given in * Records of Argyll,' by Lord Archi- 
bald Campbell, 1885, at p. 374. 



JOHN HART (8 th S. x. 436). On 9 May, 1721, 
the king nominated him Governor of the Leeward 
Islands, and he arrived at his seat of government 
on 19 December following. He was at continual 
variance with the House of Assembly of Antigua 
as to his salary, and at one time removed his 
family to the neighbouring island of St. Kitts. 
In 1725 various petitions were presented against 
him, and he was replaced by the Earl of London- 
derry, sailing for England on 14 June, 1727. 



For his conduct in Church matters, see Ander- 
son's ' Colonial Church/ iii. 181-187. 


"HEAR, HEAR ! " (4 th S. ix. 200, 229, 285 ; 6 th 
S. xii. 346 ; 8 th S. iv. 447; v. 34.) A striking 
description of parliamentary applause, which bears 
upon the genesis of this phrase, is to be found in 
John, Earl Russell's 'Life and Times of Charles 
James Fox ' (vol. iii. p. 285). An account is there 
given of Pitt's famous speech of 23 May, 1803, 
upon the renewed outbreak of war with France ; 
and in a letter of Lord Dudley (then Mr. Ward) 
to the Rev. Edward Copleston (afterwards Bishop 
of Llandaff), it is said : 

" When he [Pitt] rose, there was first a violent and 
almost universal cry of : * Mr. Pitt ! Mr. Pitt ! ' He 
was then cheered before he had uttered a syllable a 
mark of approbation which was repeated at almost all 
the brilliant passages and remarkable sentiments; and 
when he sat down, there followed one of the longest, 
most eager, and most enthusiastic bursts of applause I 
ever heard in any place on any occasion. As far as I 
observed, however, it was confined to the parliamentary 
'Hear him t Hear him ! ' but it is possible the exclama- 
tions in the body of the House might have hindered me 
from hearing the clapping of hands in the Gallery." 

' The parliamentary ' Hear him ! Hear him ! ' " 
thus to be noted in 1803, is of just the same period 
as that which was mentioned in Canning's * Ana- 
creontic ' on Addington : 

When his speeches hobble vilely, 

What " Hear him'a " burst from Brother Hiley. 

And it is again to be found a score of years later, 
when Byron published the thirteenth canto of 
'Don Juan,' in the ninety-first stanza of which 
the maker of a maiden speech is declared to be 
Proud of his' Hearhimsf" 

But it is in connexion with Canning that record 
of the present variant is first to be found at least, 
so far as investigation has yet penetrated, for the 
cry of the " wise woman out of the city, Hear, 
hear," mentioned in 2 Samuel xx. 16, though it 
furnished the occasion of a question to the readers 
of *N. & Q.' by the late LORD LYTTELTON, is 
scarcely in point in this relation. Canning, in his 
' New Morality,' which appeared in 1798, had the 

E'en C w n dropt a sentimental tear, 

And stout St. A dr w yelp'd a softer " Hear ! " 

but a forward step was made in an apparently 
authorized report of his speech of 10 April, 1805, 
upon the proposed impeachment of Lord Melville 
(embodied in Leman Thomas Rede's ' Memoir of 
the Right Hon. George Canning/ published in 
1827), which includes among the interjections, " A 
cry of hear ! hear ! " with the quaint addition, two 
lines further on, " Still a loud cry of hear I " 
(p. 152.) 

I find also in Mr. T. E. Kebbel's 'Selected 
Speeches of the late Right Honourable the Earl 
of Beaconsfield ' an address of Benjamin Disraeli, 
delivered at High Wycombe on 16 Dec., 1834, 
which shows that Canning may further be con- 
sidered the indirect cause of the introduction of 
"Hear, hear," into our list of popular cries, for 
it was in the course of satirizing the quondam Can- 
ningites who had turned Reformers that Disraeli 
referred to " the Right Hon. Mr. Ellice, who was 
so good as to send us down a member, crying 
' Hear, hear ! ' ' (vol. i. p. 16.) It was not long 
after this that Dickens used " Hear, hear ! " in his 
description of the charity dinner in ( Sketches by 
Boz, 1 and the phrase is now part of our colloquial 

While upon the subject, I would ask what are 
the foreign equivalents of " Hear, hear ! " as a 
mode of parliamentary applause. It is declared 
not to be known in the United States Congress, 
while " Tres bien " may be regarded as the French 
form. Are there others ? 


An elaborate pedigree of the Killigrew family is 
given in the 'Visitation of Cornwall/ edited by 
Lieut.-Col. J. L. Vivian, 1887, p. 270. Charles 
Killigrew, of Somerset House and Thornham Hall, 
co. Suffolk, born 29 Dec., 1655, buried 8 Jan., 
1725, married Jemima (surname not given 
Bokenham (?) probably of Thornham, co. Suffolk); 
she survived her husband, is named in his will, 
and was buried at Thornham. The issue of this 
marriage were two sons. Guilford, a lieutenant in 
Lord Mark's regiment of Dragoons, died without 
(legitimate) issue j will proved 23 July, 1751 ; 
left his property in trust for Guilford Boyes, living 
under his protection, who was baptized 22 Sept., 
1730, at Allerton, in Yorkshire, as daughter of 



[8th 8. XI. JAN. 9, '97. 

John Boyes, and apprenticed to a milliner in 
Manchester. Charles, the second son, died s.p. 
9 March, 1756. If A. T. M. applied to the Rector 
of Thornham, and made inquiries whether Jemima, 
(at one time) wife of Charles Killigrew, was buried 
under that name or that of De la Force, it would 
probably settle the question of Guilford being the 
same person as Thomas Guilford. 


The annexed entry records the death of his 
widow : " Oct. 19. In Carolina-row, Bristol, 
aged 91, Mrs. Killigrew, widow of the late Mr. T. 
Guildford K., wine*merchant, of that city " (Gent. 
Mag., Nov. 1809, vol. Ixxix. part ii. p. 1079). 


S. x. 495). As a mere guess, I suggest that Foote's 
mention of "these gentlemen, public performers 

in Tottenham Court Road," makes reference 

to George Whitefield, whose tabernacle was there. 
Beyond question there is a sneer in the words. The 
histrionic exaggeration of Whitefield's style is thus 
spoken of by Johnson : 

" Whitefield never drew as much attention. As a 
mountebank does, he did not draw attention by doing 
better than others, but doing what was strange. Were 
Astley to preach a sermon standing upon his head on 
a horse's back he would collect a multitude to hear 
him; but no wise man would say he had made a 
better sermon for that." (In Boswell, eet. seventy.) 


Foote's remarks refer not to a theatre, but to 
George Whitefield's chapel in Tottenham Court 
Road. See Mr. Tyerman's Life of Whitefield.' 


Doubtless this was in Tottenham Street, 
Tottenham Court Road. The rooms were 
originally built by Francis Pasquail, and ob- 
tained the name of the "King's Concert 
Rooms." They were appropriated for the " Con- 
certs of Ancient Music," patronized by King 
George III. and Queen Charlotte ; but being 
too small for the subscribing nobility and gentry, 
the concerts were first transferred to the King's 
Theatre, Haymarket, and eventually to the con- 
cert rooms in Hanover Square. In 1810 the 
rooms were converted into a theatre, which for some 
years was known as " The Theatre of Variety." It 
subsequently bore the names of the Tottenham 
Street, Regency, Royal West London, Royal Fitz- 
roy, or Queen's Theatre. 


71, Brecknock Road. 

ROBIN ADAIR ' (8 th S. x. 196, 242, 304, 426). 
The memoirs of Sir Robert Adair in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, 1855, new series, xliv. 535, and 
in the ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' say nothing about his 
descent, but in the latter there is a trifling error, 

which may be worth correction. It is stated that 
Adair was created a K.C.B. in 1809. In that 
year there was only one class of the Order of the 
Bath, and Adair was created a K.B. By a notifi- 
cation in the London Gazette, January 2, 1815, the 
order was extended, and divided into the three 
classes which now exist, viz., G.C.B., K.C.B. , and 
C.B. All the former knights became thereupon 
G.C.B.s., and amongst these, of course, was Adair, 
who was never, therefore, a K.C.B. At the date of 
his death, October 3, 1855, at the age of ninety- 
two, he was the senior knight of the order. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

BUTLER COLE (8 th S. x. 495). Thomas Butler, 
of Kirkland Hall, in the parish of Garstang, Lanca- 
shire, was born in 1695, and married the daughter 
of Edmund Cole, of Cole, his son Alexander, of 
Kirkland and Cole, in 1811 devised his estates to 
his great-nephew, Thomas Butler, whose only son, 
Thomas, took the surname of Cole in addition to 
his own, by letters patent dated December 16, 
1817. He died in 1864. I have never been able 
to trace any connexion between the author of 
' Hudibras ' and this family. For details concern- 
ing Butlers of Kirkland Hall see the ' History of 
Garstang ' (Chetham Society, vols. civ. and cv.). 


WAVE NAMES (8 th S. x. 432). Your corre- 
spondent says that the notes he gives under this 
heading " were culled from the Family Herald a 
few years ago ; I cannot give the exact date." I 
should much like to know that date. It is a 
curious coincidence that the whole of the remainder 
of MR. H ALE'S note agrees almost verbatim with 
part of a "turnover" on "waves," written by 
myself in the Globe of 17 March, 1896, less than a 
year ago. I am not a reader of the Family Herald, 
and know nothing of anything that it may have 
contained on this subject. My authorities for the 
names and statements which MR. HALE gives, 
without any quotation marks, from my article, 
were the Folk-lore Journal (Folk-lore Society, 
1885), vol. iii. p. 306, and Edward FitzGerald's 
' Sea Words and Phrases along the Suffolk Coast,' 
printed in the East Anglian, 1869, vol. iii. 
pp. 347-358. The Lincolnshire statement had no 
book authority. G. L. APPERSON. 

"AS PLAIN AS A PIKE-STAFF " (8 th S. ix. 346 J 

x. 141). MR. H. CHICH ESTER HART writes that 
" it was a droll idea to suggest that this phrase was 
due to a writer in 1691." So far as I know, no 
one has suggested any such thing. I stated that 
Byrom was born in 1691, and then showed that the 
expression was much earlier than Byrom's birth. 
The idea that Byrom was a writer in 1691 is too 
ludicrous. MR. HART gives as a reference for the 
use of the expression, * Merry Drollery/ reprint 

8> S. XI. JiH. 9, '97.] 



by Ebsworth, p. 228, 1661. This date must be a 
mistake, as the reprint, according to my copy, is 
of the 1691 edition. Mr. Ebsworth, however, in 
his appendix, remarks that the text referred to 
agrees virtu ally with 'Anecdote against Melancholy,' 
3661, pp. 11. Now the passage to which MR. 
HART refers is almost identical with the earlier 
version quoted by me from ' Wit Kestor'd,' 1658. 
He refers, moreover, to Dekker's * Witch of Ed- 
montoD,' apparently for the use of " pack-staff." 
My copy of the play is in J. Pearson's reprint of 
Dekker's * Works,' vol. iv., 1873, in which the 
reading is " pike-staff": 

Sawy. I understand thee not. Be plain, my son. 
Y. Bank. As a Pike-staff, Mother : you know Kate 
Carter. P. 872. 

A note on p. 447 states that the play appears to 
have been brought on the stage in 1623. MR. 
HART'S date is 1621, The play was not published 
till 1658. Inaccuracy in ' N. & Q.' valde deflendum 
est. This must be my excuse for the above remarks. 


The passage in Marston's * Scourge of Villanie ' 
alluded to at the second reference runs thus : 

Faire age ! 

When 'tis a high and hard thing t' have repute 
Of a compleat villaino, perfect, absolute ; 
And roguing vertuo brings a man defame, 
A packstaffa epethite, and scorned name. 

It can hardly be said that the proverb is quoted 
here, though it may be referred to. It is worth 
noting that in the " Mermaid " edition of Middle- 
ton's 'Witch of Edmonton' the word is printed 
"pike-staff." 0. 0. B. 

AUTHOR WANTED (8 tt S. x. 436, 504). An 
anonymous Greek version of u Twinkle, twinkle, 
little star" is printed in N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. vi. 482. 
On the Latin version, consult 6* S. iii. 45, 177. 

W. 0. B. 

376 ; x. 226, 259, 325, 499). In the apse of the 
College Church here, the communion table stands 
close to the east wall. It is vested with a crimson 
ante-pendium. In St. Mary's (Established Church) 
the table stands under the pulpit. In the parish 
church of St. Nicholas, Aberdeen (the east church), 
there is one, likewise vested, under the pulpit, 
and another in Drum's Aisle of same church, which 
is used for the daily weekday services. 

St. Andrews, N.6. 

As your correspondent 0. W. W. ends with a 
query, addressed apparently to me, I venture to 
reply that a faculty to confirm an arrangement 
made in accordance with a clergyman's interpre- 
tation of an option given by an Act of Parliament 
is not the same as a faculty to give authority to 
that Act. The Ornaments Rubric is enforced by 
the Act of Uniformity; but money has been 

squandered, and priests have been put in gaol, as 
the result of private interpretations. Faculties 
are needed for many structural changes in churches, 
which when done are quite lawful, but which 
without a previous faculty are not lawful and may 
have to be undone. 


GIBBET HILL (8 th S. ix. 388, 432 ; x. 244). 
A slight mound, now rased, in the Castle Green at 
Launceston, upon which the scaffold was erected 
in the days when this was an assize town, was 
known as Gallows Hill ; and the name was also 
given (and is still used) to a portion of St. Stephen's 
Down, about two miles from the town, whither 
certain of the condemned prisoners used to be taken 
in a cart, with ropes around their necks, for 
execution. DUNHEVED. 

There is a Gibbet Hill, near Hindhead, where 
three tramps murdered a sailor, 24 September, 
1786, under circumstances which must be fresh in. 
the minds of novel readers through Mr. Baring- 
Gould's powerful story ' The Broom-Squire.' 



I see in Cassell's ' Gazetteer of Great Britain 
and Ireland,' "Gibbet Hills and Forty Foot 
Bridge, formerly a parish, but now amalgamated 
with Swineshead, South Lincolnshire.' 1 Surely the 
annals of such a parish must be very entertaining, 


THE "PARSON'S NOSE" (8 tb S. x. 496). la 
' Noctes Ambrosianse,' vol. ii, p. 320, edited 1855, 
this is called the "Bishop." The Shepherd, 
North, and Tickler are supposed to be discussing 
a very fine goose, when Tickler says, " Out 
the apron off ' the Bishop,' North ; but you 
must have a longer spoon to get into the interior." 
From Blackwood's Magazine, December, 1829. 


The " Pope's nose " is almost, or quite, as com- 
mon as the other phrase, I should say. There is 
a witty but dirty story of an Irishman and the 
" Pope's nose " which is good evidence of this. 

C. C. B. 

The ' Slang Dictionary ' says : " Pope's nose, the 
extremity of the rump of a roast fowl, sometimes 
devilled, as a dainty, for epicures, also known as 
the Parson's nose." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

MORAVIA : STIRLING : LINDSAY (8 th S. x. 295). 
The books I have at hand on these families 
state there were several persons and families 
of the name of Striveling, or Stirling, and that 
the information concerning them is so meagre 
that their relationship cannot be definitely ascer- 
tained. Walter de Striveling (circa 1153) left 



[8> S. XI, JAN. 9, '97. 

two sons; his eldest, Robert (1170-1200), had 
two sons, of whom the eldest, Sir Alexander, who 
was knighted by King Alexander II, married in 
1234 a daughter of Sir Firskin de Kerdal, and by 
her had three sons : (1) Sir John, his heir ; (2) Sir 
Alexander, progenitor of the Stirlings of Calder ; 
(3) William (circa 1292), who is thought to be the 
forefather of the Stirlings of Glenesk. Sir John 
Stirling, of Glenesk, probably his grandson, left 
an only daughter Catherine, who married (date 
of settlement 1365) Sir Alexander Lindsay, whose 
son, Sir David of Glenesk, was created Earl of 

If J. D. had given his authority for supposing 
there was any connexion between the families of 
Moravia and Stirling it might have been easier to 
follow up the relationship. Freskin (1124) is the 
name of the first-mentioned personage of the family 
of Moravia. Perhaps J. D. has, through the 
similarity in the name of the above-mentioned 
Firskin de Kerdal, thought they were one and the 
same person. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

"ONNA Dw" (8 th S. x. 495). Correctly 

written, this is "Owna Dew." In Welsh it is 

Ofna Duw, which in South Wales is pronounced 

very much like the Cornish. The literal meaning 

is "Fear God." The words are part of a motto 

once highly popular in Cornwall: "Owna Dew, 

parthy an Matern, ha cara guz contrevogion": 

'Fear God, honour the King, and love your 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

SHELTA (8 th S. viii. 348, 435, 475; x. 434, 521). 
I thank COL. PRIDEAUX for pointing out the 
looseness of my remark that change of initial is 
'the" basis of Shelta. Alter it to a basis of 
Sbelta, and I think it may stand good. But to 
discharge my indebtedness for this correction, I 
venture to point out that COL. PRIDEAUX himself 
has made two mistakes in his letter. 

1. The conversion of gizzard into mizzard he 
calls rhyming slang ; but although in a way every 
word which differs from another only in the initial 
may be said to be rhyming slang, that is not the 
correct use of the term. Rhyming slang should be 
a system of phrases (not words), and more often 
than not the last or rhyming word is omitted, and 
the first, or non-rhyming, part of the phrase em- 
ployed alone. " A pair of turtles on his martins," 
meaning a pair of turtle-doves (gloves) on his St. 
Martin's-le-Grands (hands), is an example from 
Farmer and Henley. 

2.^ He has evolved an imaginary principle by 
mixing together two pages of the Journal of the 
Gipsy-lore Society which refer to entirely different 
things. MR. SAMPSON'S list of sounds interchange- 
able in Shelta is a guide to pronunciation. Prof. 
Meyer's third process is a guide to derivation. 
The name Shelta itself is admitted on all hands to 

have changed an original B into Sh t dead against 
the law which COL. PRIDEAUX thinks he has dis- 

MR. SAMPSON is not so easily disposed of. As 
his differences from me are more matters of opinion 
than of fact, I will take them in order. 

1. He says Shelta is not a " dialect." I have no 
time to split straws, so will cede this delicate 

2. He says Shelta is not a variety of English 
slang. But in his article in Chambers he himself 
alludes to it as one of the varieties of English cant. 
"Shelta contributes largely to other English cants" 
are his exact words. If slang and cant are not the 
same, this is surely splitting straws again. 

3. " Mizzard, slam, dan, reener, are not Sbelta." 
The truth is, that there is Shelta and Shelta. MR. 
SAMPSON appears to confine the term to " deep " 
Shelta, which, like " deep " Romany, has no ad- 
mixture of English. But mwzard, slam, dan, reener, 
have undergone a change peculiarly Shelta, and 
are used by the classes that speak Shelta. 

4. MR. SAMPSON has not the grace to admit 
that I am right about grawney being Shelta, but 
goes out of his way to call it an " English corrup- 
tion " of Shelta granya. The fact is, Shelta being 
an unwritten tongue, orthography is a matter of 
individual ear. The scientific spelling of this word 
would be graina, after Irish faine (or fainne), so 
that grawney and granya are alike phonetic. To 
quarrel about their respective merits would be like 
the cockney tourists, who could not agree whether 
to write Boolong or Booloin. Leland writes many 
Shelta words differently from MR. SAMPSON. Are 
these all " English corruptions " ? 


If it is really a fact that Irish is the basis of 
Shelta, this surely gives some solidity to a sus- 
picion which I, for one, have long entertained, 
namely, that our Gipsies are the nomadic remnant 
of a Celtic people. Is this supposition too mani- 
festly wrong to be entertained ? 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

"PAUL'S PURCHASE" (8 th S. x. 355, 401, 481). 
This coin is mentioned in Medwin's ' Conversa- 
tions of Lord Byron ' (at p. 126 of " a new edition," 
London, Colburn, 1824). The passage, being short 
and seasonable, may be worth quoting :~ 

" [Lord Byron's] dinner, when alone, cost five Pauls ; 
and thinking be was overcharged, he gave his bills to a 
lady of my acquaintance to examine. At a Christmas- 
day dinner be had ordered a plum-pudding d I'Anglaise. 
Somebody afterwards told him it was not good. ' Not 
good ! ' said be : ' why, it ougbt to be good ; it cost 
fifteen Pauls.' ' 

About 2s. for a nobleman's dinner sounds frugal, 
and an allowance of 6s. 3d. to defray the cost of 
the pudding at his Christmas party is suggestive, 
to the initiated, of something but slightly superior. 

S. XI. JAN. 9, '97.] 


to the " plum-duff " of schoolboy days. Taken by 
itself, this trait could have almost been read as a 
sign that Mrs. William s's prophecy as to Byron's 
dying a miser might ultimately come true. But 
the dinner took place at Pisa, and the failure of 
the pudding may well be set down to the foreign 
cook's inexperience. Byron, if abstemious in food 
himself, feasted his friends right royally on his fixed 
days, when, as our author observes, " every sort 
of wine, every luxury of the season and English 
delicacy, were displayed." "I never knew any 
man [adds Medwin] do the honours of his house 
with greater kindness and hospitality." 

On p. 335 Medwin says of the poet : " Miserly 
in trifles about to lavish his whole fortune on the 
Greeks," &c. ; and yet again, on p. 304 : " Lord 
Byron was the best of masters," &c. ; and, 

"I remember one day, aa we were entering the hall 
after our ride, meeting a little boy, of three or four 
years old, of the coachman's, whom he took up in his 
arms and presented with a ten-ptml piece." 

A fair set off against the fif teen-paul pudding story. 

St. Petersburg. 

JOHN LOGAN (8 th S. x. 495). He may have 
been buried in St. James's Burial-ground in the 
Hampstead Eoad. T. N. 

S. x. 515). Bishop Westcott, in his * English 
Bible,' points out the various translations repre- 
sented in the Prayer Book. The offertory sentences 
and "comfortable words" are probably Oranmer's 
own^ translation from the Latin. The evangelical 
canticles display "the same independence" of 
versions. The Psalms are revised from the Great 
Bible. At the Savoy Conference the Puritans 
demanded the exclusive use of the Authorized 
Version, and the bishops conceded the Epistles 
and Gospels, but the other parts remained as 
before. See also Procter's * Prayer Book* and 
Mombert's ' English Versions.' 


LANDGUARD FORT, SUFFOLK (8 th S. x. 615). I 
know nothing of the history of the fort, but I can 
give a date or two of some of the governors and 
another name. 

1626. Henry Rich, first Earl of Holland, 
second son of the first Earl of Warwick; a Royalist; 
beheaded as such, 9 March, 1649; married Isabel 
Cope, and had descendants, who succeeded to the 
earldom of Warwick and expired in 1759. 

1661. Robert Rich, third Earl of Warwick, 
["here is some mistake here, for Robert, third earl, 
died in 1659, and the earl of 1661, his brother, was 
named Charles. 

1749. Capt. Philip Thicknesse, who married 
Mary, daughter of James, sixth Earl of Castle- 

haven, and had George, who in 1777 succeeded his 
uncle as Lord Audley, which title fell into abey- 
ance in 1872 between his two great-granddaughters. 
Capt. Thicknesse died in 1792, leaving by will 
his right hand to be cut off and sent to his son 
Lord Audley, that since he had forgotten his duty 
to his father, it might remind him of his duty 
towards God. Whether the executors carried out 
this bequest I know not. 

0. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

In 'Excursions through Suffolk' (1819), vol. ii. 
p. 34, it is stated that 

" the old fort stood a little to the north of the present 

fort. The erection of the former is supposed to have 
taken place in the beginning of the reign of Charles I. 

The old fort being demolished, the present rose in 

the room of it in 1718." 

According to Chamberlayne's ' Magnse Britannise 
Notitia'for 1710, Lieut.-Col. Edward Jones was 
the governor, Capt. Francis Hammond the lieu- 
tenant-governor, and Edward Rust the captain. 
A master gunner and six other gunners were 
included in the establishment. G. F. R. B. 

A portrait of Henry Rich, Earl of Holland, is 
engraved in Pepys's 'Diary ' (Bonn's edition), vol. i., 
after Vandyke, 



OAK BOUGHS (8 tt S. x. 75, 385, 486). In the 
paragraph from ' Old English Customs,' by P. H. 
Ditchfield, is the oddest jumble of mistakes : 
"Another stated that the regiment saved the life 
of Charles II. at the battle of Dettingen, and stood 
round the tree in which the king was hidden." It 
was George II. who fought at Dettingen, and 
Charles II. who was hidden in the tree, and most 
certainly he was not guarded by any regiment 
whatever, his only protectors being Capt. Care- 
less and Penderell. CHARLOTTE G. BOGER. 
Chart Sutton, Kent. 

COWDRAY : DE CAUDRET (8 th S. x. 235, 485). 
I thank correspondents for interesting informa- 
tion regarding the origin of Cowdray. Since my 
query appeared I have discovered a connexion 
between the De Coudrys and the town of Caen. 
"In a bull of Innocent III. to the H6tel Dieu in 
that town the following names occur : Wnillelmi 
Comitis de Harcort, Rogier de Mandeville, and 
Wadum de Coudreie, A.D. 1210." I think it pro- 
bable these Norman de Coudre"es were connected 
with the De Mandevilles as well as De Bohuns. 
Cowdray in Sussex may have been held by the De 
Coudrays, hence the name. T. W. C. 

This name is common in Surrey and Sussex. 
Cowderay is one variant. Is it possible that the 
cloth was named from its inventor ? Caudrey is 
not greatly different from corduroy. In Westmor- 



land Christopher Wharton married Mary Cowdray. 
One of his couBins, William Wharton, married 
Mary, daughter of Owen Bray, of Shere, Surrey 
(d. 1563?). A. C. H. ' 

531 ; v. 75, 167 ; ix. 408, 458 ; x. 33, 358, 479). 
It may be noted that peacocks' feathers are not 
uncommon in German heraldry, and thus can 
hardly have been considered unlucky in old days. 
In the Ritter-Saal of this old castle of the Habs- 
burgs is a fresco in which the Habsburger is 
represented bearing peacocks' feathers in his 
helmet. And the mane of the Habsburg lion is to 
be seen here, and elsewhere, ornamented with 
peacocks' feathers. Some of the reigning families 
of Germany, e. g., Anhalt, Mecklenburg, &c., bear 
peacocks' feathers, either as a crest or with the 
crest. Further, Schiller, in * William Tell,' alludes 
to them as a knightly ornament, old Attinghauser 
saying to Eudenz 

Die Pfauenfeder tragat du stolz zur Schau. 
I think other correspondents have already noticed 
that in the East peacocks' feathers are carried as 
a symbol of royalty. The durbar furniture of the 
Resident at Nagpore included, besides sundry 
silver maces and staves, a " chowrie," or fly- wisp, 
with a solid gold handle, and a " trophy of pea- 
cocks' feathers " with a similar gold handle. And 
such articles are to be seen at most durbars. 


SchloBS Wildeck, Switzerland. 

From the following extract from Taylor's 
'Churches Deliverances' it would appear that 
peacocks' feathers were the insignia of some Papal 
decoration. Stukeley was an ambitious English- 
man, much lauded by Elizabethan poets, more 
especially by George Peele in the 'Battle of 
Alcazar ' : 

And Stukeley from the Pope a prize had wonne 
A holy peacock's taile (a proper toy). 

P. 143, ed. 1630. 


" FORESTER " (8 th S. x. 255, 301, 345). MR. 
BRADLEY may like to be referred to one of Mr. 
John Murray's publications in 1895, viz., 'The 
New Forest,' by Rose 0. de Crespigny and Horace 
Hutchinson, with illustrations. At p. 144 et seq. 
there is an account of the Forest ponies and some 
remarks on their supposed descent. I only had 
ten minutes' glimpse of the book, but I noticed 
that the Forest geese are warmly praised for their 
intelligence and other mental qualities. They 
roam the forest at their own sweet will by day, 
and return home, unsolicited, at nightfall. I have 
always thought the goose a much maligned volatile. 
The Romans knew better than the detractors of 
this sensible fowl, and if I mistake not it is Buffon 

who remarks that the goose is a better farmyard 
sentinel than the dog, the latter being sometimes 
silenced by a bribe of food, whereas the goose is 
disturbed and cackles at the slightest sounds at 
night, and is noisiest when fed. H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

(8> S. viii. 223, 233, 411 ; ix. 329). Since mak- 
ing my previous communications on this subject, 
I find that the "Gabriel Onifield" of the lists 
therein given is identical with Gabriel Honyfield, 
of Westwell (near Ashford), co. Kent, M.D., son 
and heir of Richard Honyfield, gent., and who was 
living in 1677, and party to an indenture of that 
date, together with Jane Honyfield, of the same 
place, widow, and James Symons, of Aldington 
(near Hythe), same county, &c., relating to a 
messuage, &c., in Aldington aforesaid. This Dr. 
Honyfield does not, however, appear to have been 
a member of the London College of Physicians. 

W. I. R. V. 

"PINASEED" (8 th S. x. 212, 320, 402). Really 
and truly "pinaseed" is a condensation of "a pin 
to see it." A pin was the charge for looking at 
the "flower mosaic," nor would children unfold 
the pin-show unless the fee was paid in advance. 
" Seed " is a pronunciation of saw in the county of 
Derby. The " pinaseed " lines mostly used were : 

Gimmy a pin, ter stick imershin 
An' ahl pag yer off ter Darby, 

Another :- 

Gimmy a pin, ter stick imerchln 
Ter carry my lord ter London. 


Give me a pin, to stick in my chin, 
To carry my lady to London. 

London bridge is broken down, 
It 'a time to put my lady down. 

This used to be (and perhaps still is) sung when 
two children joined hands and carried a third 
round the room. I never heard it connected with 
the flower peep-shows, or poppet - shows, as I 
think we called them many years ago. 

M. E. P. 

I have a distinct recollection that when I was 
a little boy in a country school in Cardiganshire we 
used to put violets and daisies, or any other small 
flowers, under glass, as told by your other corre- 
spondents, and sometimes heads from pictures cut 
from our spelling books; but the lines we de- 
claimed were 

Pins a piece to look at a show, 
Lords and ladies all in a row. 

D. M. R. 

"LEAVE OFF": "ABACK" (8 S. x. 356). If 
the best English is that which is best "under- 
standed of the people," Dean Church's phrases 

8 th S. XI. JAN. 9, '97.] 


could hardly be bettered. " Give over," or 


o'er," is much more familiar in the mouths 

In England they had eleven houses, in 


Midland- Counties folk, at any rate, than " leave 
off." In Lancashire they say, absurdly enough, 
" hold on," when they mean "leave off"; but 
what better can you expect from Lancashire 
people ? For " aback," in the sense of " ago," we 
of the Midlands should say "back" "so many 
years back " -but the other form would be per- 
fectly understood. C. C. B. 

Authorities for the use of "give over" from 
Johnson are : 

"They must give over." Hooker. 
"Give not over BO." 'Measure for Measure.' 
" Never to give over." Bacon, ' N. H.' 
' Why then give over to be king." Bacon. 
' Yet gives not o'er, though desperate of success." 

1 Must we now give o'er." Denham. 
' It would be well for all authors if they knew when 
to give over." Addison. 

Johnson pronounces " aback" to be " obsolete." 


ABRAHAM LINCOLN (8 th S. x. 436). Through 
the courtesy of Mr. B. C. Dixon, of Streatham, I 
am enabled to answer my own query at this refer- 
ence'. The book inquired for is 'A Memorial 
Lincoln Bibliography,' &c., by A. Boyd (Albany, 
New York, 1870, 8vo.). G. L. APPERSON. 

WYVILL (8 th S. x. 336). The name of Zerubbabel 
Wyvill (1762-1837), a native of Maidenhead, 
appears in David Baptie's ' Handbook of Musical 
Biography.' GUALTERULUS. 

HAYNE : HAYNES (8"> S. x. 615). A good many 
years ago I was lodging at St. Ives, Cornwall, with 

little niece. The child wanted very much to 
bathe, but having no ladies with me, and the tents 
being in charge of men only, I was puzzled how to 
manage it till the Mayoress of St. Ives kindly 
volunteered to take charge of her. That lady was 
a Mrs. Edward Hain, which will add another to 
IAINES'S many spellings. I afterwards found 
the name so spelt was common there. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

In the West of England this surname may be 
safely derived from the Welsh and Cornish hen = 
old, the elder. Compare Vaughan, from Vychan 
ittle, the younger. Probably the "up- 
country " names, Haynes, &c., are entirely distinct 
from the Cornish cognomen Hain and the Devon- 
3ayne. British hen = Irish sean, Latin 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

-Trinitarians. An order founded at 
Rome in 1198 by St. John of Matha and Felix of 

Scotland five, and in Ireland one, Called some- 
times Red Friars, from the colour of the cross on 
their dress, or Maturins, because they had a house 
in Paris near the Chapel of St. Maturin. 

St. Andrews, N.B 

REV. G. A. FIRTH (8 th S. x. 153, 206). A re- 
markable instance of a clergyman holding the same 
living for a period far longer than that recorded at 
the first reference is given in the Times of 12 Sept., 
1896. It is there stated that the Rev. and the 
Hon. George Gustavus Chetwynd Talbot, recently 

" was the third eon of the second Earl Talbot, and was 
born in 1810. He was educated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, where he took his bachelor's degree in 1831, and 
was ordained priest in 1834 by the then Bishop of Glou- 
cester, Dr. Monk. In the same year he was appointed 
rector of Withington, Gloucestershire, which he held 
down to hia death for the long period of sixty-two years." 

C. M. P. 

In the Exeter Gazette obituary column, 9 Sept., 
1896, occurs the following additional illustration 
of clerical tenacity to a good living when once it 
is acquired : 

" Gunning. On September 7th, 1896, the Kev. Peter 
Gunning, M. A., Merton College, Oxon, for 51 years 
Rector of Inwardleigh, Devon. Funeral at St. Mary's 
Church, Exbourne, at 4 P.M. on Friday." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

The Rev. Bartholomew Edwards, M.A. B.A. 
1811 St. John's, Cambridge, was appointed to the 
rectory of Ashill, Norfolk, in 1813, and died 
21 Feb., 1889, within a few days of completing 
his hundredth year, and after having resided at . 
Ashill for an unbroken period of seventy-six years. 
See a memoir in the St. John's magazine, the 
Eagle, xv. 481. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

Nearly ten years ago (7 tb S. ii. 344) I asked a 
question concerning the Rev. Gregory Palmer, 
minister of West Haddon, Northamptonshire, in 
the seventeenth century. He was vicar for more 
than fifty-two years, having been born in the parish. 
He died also and was buried at West Haddon, 
where his tomb may still be seen. I imagine his 
case must be well-nigh unique. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

The present rector of Cromer has been curate and 
rector more years than the above gentleman was 
curate and vicar of Malton. Mr. Fitch became 
rector of Cromer in 1852, but was previously 
curate, I believe, from 1843 to 1852. He is re- 
tiring from the benefice owing to increasing 
infirmities, M.A. 

522), Perhaps as the owner of Eastbury House 



[8 8, XI. JAN. 9, '97, 

I may be allowed to say that though local tradition 
connects it with the Gunpowder Plot, I have never 
found trustworthy evidence in support of the tra- 
dition. Sometimes there are grounds for a local 
tradition which history has not chronicled, and 
there might be in this case, but not to my know- 
ledge. Mr. Barrett ia wrong in saying that the 
house was built by Sir Wm. Denham in the reign 
of Queen Mary. He died in 1548, i. e., five years 
before the accession of Mary, having held the pro- 
perty only three years. His heir and son-in-law, 
Wm. Abbot, held the estate till 1557, when it was 
conveyed to John Keele, who sold it in the same 
year to Clement Sisley, in whose family it remained 
for fifty years. I believe Sisley built the house 
(the ground plan of which is in the shape of the 
letter E) in the reign of Elizabeth, circa 1572. 

Poltimore Rectory, Exeter. 


Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sidney 
Lee. Vol. XL1X. Robinson Russell. (Smith. Elder 

JUST before the new year came out, with unfailing 
punctuality, the forty-ninth volume of this monumental 
work, the whole of -which, according to the rate of 
progress that is made, should be in the hands of the 
subscribers in a couple of years. It is continued with 
the care and accurary that have always distinguished it. 
To the editor has gradually been assigned principally 
that province in literature which is both poetical and 
antiquarian, and the sixteenth and seventeenth century 
rhymers are, as a rule, dealt with by him. These, so far 
as the present volume ia concerned, include no man of 
conspicuous eminence. First among them comes, in 
alphabetical precedency, Clement Robinson, the editor 
of 'A Handefull of Pleasant DeliteV reprinted in 1871 
for the Spenser Society. Concerning the merits of this 
rather hidebound singer Mr. Lee is dumb. Jn dealing 
with Ralph Robinson, the translator of the 'Utopia,' 
fl. 1551, concerning whom scarcely any particulars sur- 
vive, Mr. Lee holds that his rendering, though redundant 
in style, has not been replaced by later translations. 
Not conspicuous as a writer is Daniel Rogers, diplomatist, 
whose biography Mr. Lee has undertaken; but he was a 
man of scholarly tastes and a friend of Camden. John 
Rogers, d. 1555, is principally known as the first, and 
not the least brave, of the victims of Marian persecu- 
tiona man who broke the ice valiantly, and stirred 
greatly the pulses of those who saw his death. His 
share in the production of Tindal's Bible gives him some 
importance from the literary standpoint. William Roper, 
the biographer and son-in-law of Sir Thomas More, 
almost supplied a parallel instance of martyrdom on the 
other side, but made his submission to the Council of 
Elizabeth. High praise is given Roper's biography. Con- 
cerning John Rpus, the Warwick antiquary, few parti- 
culars are accessible. Mr. Lee holds there is no evidence 
for Wood's statements that he was at Balliol College, or 
became, on leaving Oxford, Canon of Oseney. Of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Rowe Mr. Lee supplies an interesting life. 
He is, however, at more pains to collect what is said 
oncoming her by Dr. Johnson, Klopstock, and Wieland, 

and to depict her influence upon Prior and Pope, than to 
dwell himself upon her merits. He credits her with 
employing the epistolary method "with much skill." 
Nicholas Rowe, the dramatist and Laureate, is the most 
important literary personage with whom he deals. 
Rowe's blank verse is credited with suavity, but he is 
said to show little power of characterization. His edition 
of Shakspeare comes in for a measure of eulogy, and the 
personal gifts that commended him to Pope are pleas- 
ingly described. Samuel Rowlands, the poet and satirist, 
receives ample treatment, the bibliographical part of 
the biography having special value. Samuel Rowley, 
the dramatist, sometimes confounded with Samuel Row- 
lands, and Ruggle, the author of ' Ignoramus/ are also 
in Mr. Lee's hands. Mr. Leslie Stephen's name is absent 
from the latest volume. Prince Rupert is, perhaps, the 
most showy character in the volume. Of his striking and 
picturesque career Mr. C. H. Firth gives an animated 
description. Rupert's stubborn and wilful, but energetic 
youth gave good promise of his heroic career. He is 
credited with an innovation in cavalry tactics which 
exercised an important influence. His alleged invention 
of mezzotint is discredited. Prof. Laughton has several 
brilliant lives of sailors, at the head of which stand 
Rodney and Rooke. The Rossettis are in the hands of 
Dr. Qarnett, who writes concerning Dante Gabriel with 
much warmth and no less discretion. Dr. Garnett 
dwells upon the rekindling of Rossetti's poetical faculty 
in the dismal years in which the poet-painter remained 
under the influence of chloral. Before all things, it is 
held, he was an artist. Some departments of human 
life had no existence for him, " and his reasoning powers 
were hardly beyond the average." His instincts, how- 
ever, "were potent, and his perceptions keen and true." 
To Christina Rossetti warm praise is awarded. Another 
important biography from the same pen is that of 
Samuel Rogers. Mr. Austin Dobson contributes bio- 
graphies of characteristic excellence of Roubillac and of 
Rowbotham, an appreciative life of Romney being due 
to Mr. Walter Armstrong. Among those supplying many 
lives, and so constituting the backbone of the under- 
taking, Mr. Thomas Seccombe, Mr. J. M. Rigg, Mr. G. F. 
Russell Barker, Mr. Fraser Rae, Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole, 
and Mr. W. P. Courtney are conspicuous. Mr. Barker's 
life of " Prosperity " Robinson, afterwards first Earl of 
Ripon, is the most striking. All, however, are good. Mr. 
Seccombe writes on William Rogers, the educational 
reformer; John Robinson, Bishop of London; John 
Rolfe, the colonist; William Rowley, the dramatist, and 
many more. Mr. Rigg is responsible for Sir Samuel 
Romilly. Mr. Norman Maccoll contributes an account 
of the career of Rose, the translator of Ariosto, concern- 
ing whom very little was previously known. One of the 
most erudite biographies ia that, by Miss Kate Norgate, 
of Roger, Bishop of Worcester. Mr. Thomas Bayne's 
contributions include Alexander Rodger, poet, the author 
of ' Robin Tamson's Smiddy. 1 The opening life, that of 
Anastasia Robinson, is by Mr. G. A. Aitken. Space 
fails us to dwell on the important lives sent by the Rev. 
W. Hunt, Dr. Norman Moore, Mr. Warwick Wroth, 
Mr. Thompson Cooper, Mr. R. E. Graves, Dr. Jessopp, 
Mr. Charles Welch, and others of Mr. Lee's admirable 

THE recent issues of the Intermediaire contain, among 
other information, a long, though avowedly incomplete, 
list of the sacred wells existing in France; a short 
account of the chemise of the Blessed Virgin, which is 
preserved as a peculiar treasure at Chartres ; and a note 
on another curious relic. It appears that formerly there 
was exhibited in the Cathedral of Cologne a phial con- 
taining a sneeze, which escaped the Holy Spirit at the 
time of the Annunciation, for a correspondent of the 

8 tt &XI.jAH.9,'97.] 



Intermediate makes the declaration, " J'ai lu, de mes 
yeux, la chose dans une nomenclature des reliques de la 
dite cathedrale, sur le lieu meme." Another corre- 
spondent, in the number for 20 Oct., 1896, describes 
the maraichinage as still practised in Vend6e between 
betrothed couples, in spite of the opposition of the 
clergy to hereditary custom ; and under the date of 
20 November appears a French version of the folk-tale 
relating the misdeeds of the man who murdered his 
wives by tickling the soles of their feet, a story which 
has made its way into Italy and into England also, for 
some thirty-five years ago it used to be told in Lincoln- 
shire nurseries. 

THE number of Melusine for September and October, 
1896, furnishes its readers with a continuation of M. 
Tuchmann's observations on the beliefs connected with 
fascination. It also gives further notes on the legend of 
Cola Peace and its variants, and contains an article on 
the brazen serpent and the Book of the Secrets of 
Enoch, besides another instalment of Breton proverbs. 

THE communication of the most interest to English 
people in the Giornale di Eruditions for October, 1896', 
relates to the discovery of vaccination, which is attri- 
buted to J. A. Rabaut-Pommier, a French Huguenot 
pastor, born at Nimes in 1744, from whom, it is asserted, 
Jenner acquired the idea in a somewhat indirect manner. 
Having acquired it, however, the English doctor under- 
took a series of laborious observations, with the result 
that he finally claimed to be the originator of a new 
method of controlling the ravages of smallpox. 

THE title of Mr. Archer's paper in the Fortnightly, 
'The Blight of the Drama,' is to some extent ironical. 
There is no blight on the drama. He has, indeed, no 
special objection to the musical comedy or farce, which 
now finds favour with the public, and sees in the popu- 
larity of ' The Sign of the Cross ' " a far more depressing 
portent " than in that of 'My Girl' or 'Monte Carlo.' 
' A Visit to Andorra ' describes a visit to one of the least- 
known portions of Europe of some eminently pushing 
Englishmen. It inspires little desire in the reader to 
repeat the experiment, though the difficulties expe- 
rienced were scarcely greater than maybe encountered 
in many parts of Spain. Mr. H. D. Traill, writing on 
'The New Realism,' takes as its representatives Mr. 
Stephen Crane, the author of 'The Red Badge of 
Courage,' and Mr. Arthur Morrison, the author of ' The 
Child of the Jago.' Mr. Morrison gets the lion's share 
of attention. Mr. Traill's comments are worthy of atten- 
tion. When were they otherwise? 'A Brilliant Irish 
Novelist,' by Mr. G. Barnett-Smitb, deals with the work 
of William Carleton, and is a piece of sound criticism. 
We remember being, in youth, more stirred by a novel 
of his than we ever have been by any subsequent fiction. 
Not having reread it, we are not sure how much the 
impressions are worth. Mr. Barnett-Smith, however, 
confirms the impressions we retain. Writing on * Depre- 
dators of the Nation,' the Earl of Meath draws a con- 
trast between America and England very favourable to 
ourselves, especially as regards freedom. Sir E. J. Reed, 
in li.s 'Dr. Cornelius Hertz and the French Republic,' 
a vehement defence of personal liberty, seems to take an 
equally sanguine view of the state of things as betwixt 
England and France. In a number of the Nineteenth 
Century of special interest to statesmen, politicians, and 
controversialists, but a small space is reserved for more 
peaceful and less stimulating subjects. Prominent in this 
portion stands the ' Mr. G. F. Watts, R. A., his Art and 
Mission,' of Mr. M. II. Spielman. Mr. Watts is credited 
with a passionate desire to raise painting intellectually to 
the side of poetry, and to combat the idea, very current 
of late, that " Art for Art " is the only principle. From 

a letter of the painter are quoted the words, " I do not 
deny that beautiful technique is sufficient to constitute an 
extremely valuable achievement ; but it can never alone 
place a work on the level of the highest effort in poetry; 
and by this it should stand." This will be regarded by 
many modern critics as "pestilent heresy," but it fur- 
nishes a clue to the significance of much of the painter's 
highest work. Symbolism is said by the writer to be the 
most obvious characteristic of Mr. Watts. We dare not 
enter on the subject, but commend the article. Mr. H. J. 
Palmer, the editor of the Yorkshire Post, supplies a 
curious but instructive paper on 'The March of the 
Advertiser.' The transformation that has been accom- 
plished within the last year or two in advertising wears, 
to men experienced in journalism, "the aspect of a 
revolution." Mr. G. Barnett-Smith gives, in ' Napoleon 
on Himself,' a few notes, previously unpublished, by Sir 
George Cockburn, who was in charge of the Emperor 
at St. Helena before the arrival of Sir Hudson Lowe. 
The light they cast is not very brilliant, but it is wel- 
come. We are not quite sure that we catch the full 
intention of the Hon. Emily Lawless in her 'Note on 
the Ethics of Literary Forgery.' The Comte de Calonne 
writes on 'The Dame de Chateaubriant,' and combats 
successfully the notion that she was slain by her hus- 
band's orders. In the New Review Mr. Charles Whibley 
finds a congenial subject in writing on ' The Caliph of 
Pon thill,' otherwise William Beckford. It is amusing to 
hear Beckford's remark concerning Count Hamilton 
the author of 'Les Quatre Facardins' was his kinsman 
" I think Count Hamilton will smile on me when we are 
introduced to each other in Paradise." His ' Excursion 
to the Monasteries of Alobaga and Batalha ' is said to be 
a work of pure imagination, with grandeur as its motive 
and Petronius as its model. ' Coventry Patmore ' is the 
subject of an appreciative study by Mr. Arthur Symons. 
Of Patmore it is said that at its very highest his art 
becomes abstract ecstasy. In his love poetry, " out of 
which all but the very essence of passion has been con- 
sumed," love is seen to be " the supreme wisdom even 
more than the supreme delight." The eulogy generally 
is eloquent, and, it is not to be doubted, sincere. The 
general estimate strikes us as too high. Mr. F. C. Keary's 
4 Phantasms ' may be read with pleasure, and the article 
' Are we an Athletic People 1 ' with amusement. The 
frontispiece to the new issue of the Century consists of a 
portrait of Prince Bismarck, to accompany an account 
of its painter, Franz von Lenbach. Other illustrations 
to this consist of portraits of Lenbach by himself and of 
Prof. Edward Emerson, of the reproduction of a capital 
photograph of the painter with his infant daughter, and 
of views of his house and studio. An account follows of 
the interesting methods now in practice for the instruc- 
tion of deaf mutes. ' Campaigning with Grant ' continues 
to be the piece de resistance- 'Napoleon's Interest in the 
Battle of New Orleans' gives a description, from a letter 
of General Jackson, of the terrible repulse of the English 
on that field. Modern Athens attracts at present much 
attention in America, and the paper on public spirit in 
that city is finely illustrated, Mr. Godkin has a sensible 
contribution on ' The Absurdity of War.' ' The Ladies 
of Llangollen ' are well described, and there is a paper 
worth study, by Mr. Mahan, of the United States Navy, 
on ' Nelson in the Battle of the Nile.' In Scribner's 
the homes of two great writers are described that 
of Thackeray by Mr. Eyre Crowe, A.R.A., and that of 
Victor Hugo by M. G. Jeanniot. Mr. Crowe's pictures 
of Thackeray's haunts include those in Paris as well as 
in London, with spots in Ireland, in Boulogne, and else- 
where. A facsimile of a letter also appears. The 
Strangers' Room in the Reform Club, with a portrait of 
Thackeray, is depicted, and not the more familiar Lauut 



[8 8. XI. JAN. 9, '97. 

at the Garrick. * Victor Hugo'a House at Guernsey' 
has many portraits of the poet, some showing him very 
unlike what he subsequently became. A curious sketch 
of Tennyson reading ' Maud ' follows. ' A Bystander's 
Notes of a Massacre ' is less grim than might be inferred 
from its title. A frontispiece to the Pall Mall presents 
the Grand Canal, Venice. ' Lux Hominum ' is finely 
illustrated by Mr. Percy Spence. ' Warwick Castle,' 
illustrated by special photograph?, is described by the 
Countess of Warwick. Very striking are the designs of 
Mr. Arthur H. Buckland to ' The Story of Naskata.' 
1 Garris and the Bridge of Boats in 1814 ' gives an ani- 
mated account of the invasion of France by the English 
army in Spain, with views of Fuentarabia and St. Jean 
de Luz, from old prints. ' Curling ' is described by the 
Lord Advocate for Scotland. In ' Stories of British 
Battles,' in the English Illustrated, Mr. J. D. Symon 
gives ' A Tale of Ramillies,' with very spirited pictures 
of the fight by Mr. Woodville. Mr. Clark Russell sup- 
plies further ' Pictures from the Life of Nelson.' Mr. 
William Simpson depicts ' A Delhi Zenana,' a spot few 
Occidentals are permitted to inspect. The most striking 
designs in a richly illustrated number are those to poems, 
new or old. ' Women's Colleges in Oxford ' are depicted 
from photographs. The Corrikill maintains its recon- 
quered honour?, and is readable from cover to cover. 
Mr. C. H. Firth gives a very moving account of ' The 
Execution of Charles I.' ' Three Weeks at the Court of 
Windsor,' by Sir Charles Murray, presents a very inter- 
esting picture of Court life during the early years of the 
Queen. Mr. Augustine Birrell, Q.C., M.P., describes 
vigorously the House of Commons, ' Pages from a 
Private Diary 3 are agreeably continued. The writer 
seems astonished at a desire of Coleridge's which we think 
is both natural and common. ' The Romantic Side of 
Montaigne,' in Temple Bar, presents an unfamiliar 
aspect of the great essayist. ' Sir Philip Sidney and his 
Friend Languet ' deals with well-known historical rela- 
tions. ' Whimsical Will Making ' is an entertaining 
chapter in human nature. 'A Disappearing Soldiery' 
refers to the Zouaves, and ' The English Ulysses ' to 

. Macmillan's has a good critical paper on 
' Novels of Irish Life/ and a very picturesque sketch of 
Mr. Charles Lamb, of the India House. ' Catullus and his 
Friends' has an agreeable literary flavour. 'Juanita's 
Revenge ' is a powerful description of warlike proceed- 
ings Major Martin A. S. Hume, in the Gentleman's, 
under the title of ' The Madness of Mercy Newdigate,' 
presents a picture of life in Spain in the time of the 
Armada. A horrible subject, that of ' Chinese Punish- 
ments,' is treated of by Mr. Parker. * Women as Book- 
Lovers ' opens out a pleasant vista into bibliography. 
' The Damerel Spectres,' in Longman's, is a brilliant 
burlesque, inspired, one might think, by Mr. Lang. Mr. 
Lang is himself more than usually happy in his ' At the 
Sign of the Ship.' 'The "Donna" in 1896' is to be 
commended to attention. The action of the "Donna" 
is unobtrusive and admirable. Belgravia has an article 
on ' Superstition in Cornwall.' Chapman's Magazine 
has the usual collection of short stories. 

PART XL. of Casaell's Gazetteer, Muff te Newchapel, 
supplies title and prefatory matter to a new volume. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, of which a full account is given, 
id the most important article in it. Naseby, Naworth 
Castle, Neath Abbey, the Needles, and Newark Castle 
are among the spots illustrated. 

MR. ROBERT H. FRYAR, of Bath, promises ' Magnetic 
Magic,' a digest of the practical parts of the master- 
pieces of that eminent occultist L. A. Cahagnet, F.T.S., 
rendered for the first time from the French, edited by 
the translator, with a portrait of the author. 


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H. T. (" Terminations in 'ance ' and ' ence ' "). Con- 
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CORRIGENDA. 8 th S. x. 184, col. 2, 1. 21 from bottom 
for " Americans " read Armenians; p. 519, col. 2, 1. 19 
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. XI. JAN. 16, '97.] 




CONTENT S. N 264. 

NOTES The Queen's Reign, 41 Casanoviana, 42 The 
Patron Saint of Auchterarder-Blanco White's Sonnet 
The Thrush and the Blackbird, 45' Hamlet - Scot 
"Twill" "Arse-versS" Gog and Magog Santiago 

QUERIES :-Waterspout and Whirlwind" Harpie "-Cart- 
wright's 'Rovall Slave ' Pinckney Family Hertford 
Street, Mayfair-" Boonded." 47-Miss May Wilkins-The 
Lapwing-The Duke of Wellington -Pigeons-Medieval 
Accounts" Aceldama " " She "Robert Dyer Ridolio 
Swine Eating Coal" Milles MS." Duddington Church, 
48 Shakspeare ' Belshazzar's Feast 'The Black Prince's 
Sword Rev. T. L, Soley Moses Horton, 49. 

REPLIES: The County of Nichol, 49-T. G. Kilhgrew 
" God save the King "The Man of Ghent, 50 J. Beeverell 

The Shamrock R. Topcliffe Exploded Tradition 
Church Tower Buttresses " A Nott Stag," 51 " Cord- 
wainers" Duke of Otranto Gopher Nonjurors Leo- 
nardo da Vinci, 52 " Imperium et libertas" 'The Mill' 
Bishop Williams Sir Horace St. Paul, 53" Registrum 
Chartarum Normannise" Longevity Female Names, 54 
St. Sampson' Hardyknute ' Mainwaring Deed Saun- 
derson Family Leather Chalice Cases, 55 Lady Almeria 
Carpenter Squib Wanted John Andr6 Wife Shod by 
Husband " Gnoff e " Hilt Atterbury Petworth Gaol, 
56 Judge Guest Molly Lepel " Dear knows "Duke of 
Gloucester Bull and Boar, 57 Sir John Jervis Authors 
Wanted, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Rye's ' Records and Record Search- 
ing ' ' Oxford English Dictionary' ' English Dialect 
Dictionary 'Baring-Gould's ' English Mimtrelsie' Levi's 
' Transcendental Magic 'Newton's ' Dictionary of Birds ' 

Jusserand's 'Romance of a King's Life ' Brushfield's 
Raleghana' and ' Devonshire Briefs' Tancock's ' Chelms- 
ford Registers ' ' Ex-Libris Journal.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See 8 th S. x. 134, 221.) 

I gather from your foot-note that you now regard 
this subject as closed; but I venture, notwith- 
standing, to submib that there remains something 
to be said by way of useful protest and warning to 
your contemporaries, and, in inditing the necessary 
criticism, I ask of your courtesy that I may be 
allowed to correct an error in my previous com- 
munication, and thus practically demonstrate my 
entire agreement with MR. WARREN. 

In my calculation the parenthetical proposition 
at the close of my letter not occurring to me at 
the moment, that, in law, there is no division of a 
day I failed to perceive that the first day of each 
reign (as well as the last of the reign or period) 
must be counted inclusive. Hence I omitted one 
day in each computation, namely, 25 Oct., 1760, 
and 20 June, 1830. This adds one day to each 
total, and the sum should be 21,645, as MR. 
WARREN has it, and not 21, 644, as I inadvertently 

made it. 

At p. 30 of vol. x., in a note to the second 
column, in my reply anent ' Parish Constables' 
Staves,' I pointed out a popular error as to 
Queen Elizabeth prevalent in London at the 
time of the Popish Plot in Charles II. 's reign, 
whereby 17 November in each year was kept as I 

the anniversary of the great sovereign's birth. I 
have cited, in the text of the paper to which that 
note applies, the broadside wherein this error 
appeared in 1680 ; but there apparently prevailed 
considerable confusion in the popular at least, in 
the metropolitan mind at this period, for, in an 
analogous broadside, published in the preceding 
year 1679, the day specified is referred to as the 
anniversary of the Protestant queen's coronation. 
This, of course, is also an error, which has, not 
unnaturally, misled so able a romancist as Sir 
Walter Besant, as we may see by a reference to 
his charming novel, ' For Faith and Freedom.' 

I think Sir Walter Scott also makes the same 
mistake in ' Peveril of the Peak.' Queen Elizabeth 
was crowned on the second Sunday after the feast 
of the Epiphany, 15 Jan., 1558/9. Are we 
making history to-day in danger of falling into 
similar confusion anent good and great Queen 
Victoria ? It would seem like it. In the Daily 
Telegraph of Tuesday, 15 September, 1896 (two- 
thirds down col. 1, p. 8), in the reported par- 
ticulars of the then recently revealed dynamite 
conspiracy, we find Accession Day (20 June) at 
all events, by the context attributed to 23 Sep- 
tember, and in the next column of the same 
number and page (three-fourths down), the error is 
repeated in express terms, "on the 23rd of the 
present month, the date of the Queen's accession to 
the throne [italics mine], a dynamite outrage should 
be perpetrated in this country," &c. A similar 
mistake is to be found in several other serials, and 
it is not uncommon to come across another erro- 
neous phrase, "the 23rd inst. [i.e., Sept., 1896], 
the completion of the sixtieth year of Her Majesty's 
reign," &c. Now readers of * N. & Q.,' at all 
events, do not need to be informed that the 
"Accession Day " of Victoria is 20 June, and that 
the sixtieth year of her benignant reign will not 
be completed until the midnight of Saturday, 
19 June, 1897 ; but casual readers of the current 
journals of to-day seem as liable to fall into chrono- 
logical error as their ancestors of two centuries 
ago in their mixing up of Gunpowder Plot Day, 
Queen Elizabeth's birthday, her accession and her 
coronation ; and the Stuart public had the greater 
excuse, not only in the immature condition of the 
press of that day, but in the fact that the early 
events of the virgin monarch's life were double 
the distance away in point of time from them that 
the corresponding epochs in Victoria's career are 
from us. Writers for the press would even now do 
well to take note of this warning. At least they 
would be spared for the future displaying the con- 
fusion that pervades the Daily Telegraph in its 
issue of the memorable day of the past year, Wed- 
nesday, 23 September, a state of mental confusion 
which even so accomplished a writer as Sir Edwin 
Arnold seems to share. This gentleman appears 
with another contributor, writing under the head- 


S. XI. JAN. 16, '97. 

ing ' Observances in London and the Provinces ' 
to be under the impression that " Coronation 
Day " and " Accession Day " are synonymous, or, 
at least, convertible terms. To paraphrase an 
obsolete advertisement trade phrase, they conduce 
to the unhistorian-like inference that they are the 
same concern. Take the anonymous writer first. 
One-third of the way down col. 3, p. 5, under the 
heading I have quoted, we find the sentence, 

"In obedience to the wish of the Queen, anything in 
the nature of an official celebration of the auspicious 
occasion of which this [23 September] is the date will 
be deferred until Coronation Day [italics mine] next 
Bummer, when the Royal Lady will have ruled the 
destinies of Great Britain for the unprecedented space 
of sixty years." 

As a matter of literal accuracy, on the recur- 
rence of the anniversary of the Coronation Day in 
the present year Her Majesty " will have ruled," 
&c., fifty-nine years and nine days. Does not the 
journalist mean "Accession " when he writes 
" Coronation " Day ? Now for Sir Edwin Arnold. 
On p. 7, cols. 5 and 6, he eloquently describes the 
ceremonial of the proclamation of Her Majesty's 
accession to the crown (20 June, 1837) in the 
" provincial town where we lived " (three-fourths 
down col. 5). Probably, then, he beheld the pro- 
cession on Wednesday, 21 June. One- fourth down 
the next column, under the sub-heading ' Develop- 
ments, Little and Large,' he goes on to illustrate the 
advance we socially have made since that date 
with an interesting episode of lucifer matches 
being sold in the streets, " as I returned home " 
(after witnessing the proclamation ceremony be it 
observed), " at a halfpenny a match,' 1 subsequently 
recurring incidentally to " all the details of that 
time of proclamation and coronation" (italics 
mine). The combination of " proclamation" and 
" coronation " might be read with the qualification 
of the words " of that time " taking the period to 
extend over the intervening year and eight days ; but 
we are precluded from adopting this explanation 
by the context (half-way down the column), "which 
[the lucifer matches] I thus saw sold for a halfpenny 
a sample on the Queen's coronation day " (italics 
mine) ; and, later on, the domestic convenience is 
referred to as " the coronation match "j and re- 
ferring to the same occasion " when those corona- 
tion trumpets sounded "; and again fixing the 
date as 1837 there is the explicit statement that 
" the Reform Act was but five years old." Eight, 
as applied to the proclamation, but the great 
enfranchisement measure was over six years old 
at the time of the coronation. Passim, more 
especially in col. 7, Sir Edwin makes it clear that 
he is exclusively referring to 1837. I need not 
analyze the able article in greater detail. Suffice 
it to say that the impression left on the mind of 
any reader must be that the proclamation and 
coronation ceremonies are treated throughout as, 
at all events, contemporaneous, if not synony- 

mous, functions. Now I, alas ! am old enough to 
remember both celebrations a year or two older 
than Sir Edwin and his fellow contributor. Per- 
sonally I saw the whole of the proclamation proces- 
sion and a great part of the coronation procession in 
the London streets at as I have said an interval 
of a year and eight days, for Her Majesty was 
proclaimed in the metropolis on Tuesday, 20 June, 
1837, and crowned in Westminster Abbey on 
Thursday, 28 June, in the following year, 1838. 
Surely our modern journalism should show an 
advance in historical accuracy upon the coarse 
broadsheets that purveyed news two centuries and 
more ago. E converso, " if they did these things 
in the green tree what shall they do in the dry ] " 
It is perhaps hypercritical to point ont that Sir 
Edwin Arnold has erred a mere slip of the pen, of 
course when he (one-fourth down col 7, p. 8) 
writes, " When, in 1853, Her Majesty's heart was 
weighed down with anxiety for her soldiers in the 
Crimea," no British soldier having set foot on that 
peninsula until Thursday, 14 Sept., 1854; but he 
may be profitably reminded that Lord Raglan 
landed with the troops, and died before Sebastopol 
on Thursday, 28 June, 1855, and did not return 
even temporarily to England in the interval, so 
that the hero of the story about the little princess 
must be some other Crimean officer ; indeed, the 
anecdote has been told of Lord Cardigan, but the 
episode is probably apocryphal, for what that dis- 
tinguished cavalry general could have to do with 
the taking of the great Russian stronghold, beyond 
his presence with his light troopers between the for- 
tress and the harbour of Balaklava, it is difficult to 

It may be urged that I should with more pro- 
priety have addressed these strictures to the journal 
in which the errors appeared ; but I ever bear in 
mind Theodore Hook's warning,* which may be 
paraphrased thus : "A correction of a newspaper 
inaccuracy resembles very much the attempt of 
Hercules to crop the Hydra, without the slightest 
chance of his ultimate success." NEMO. 


(Continued from 8 th S. x. 313.) 
Among the letters of introduction brought by 
Casanova to England was one for Lady Harring- 

" Lady Harrington, who resided in St. James's Park, 
was always at home to her visitors on Sundays. Gamb- 
ling, elsewhere forbidden on the Sabbath, was permitted 
at her house, for no better reason than that it stood 
within the immediate jurisdiction of the king ! In no 
other quarter of London are gaming and music tolerated 
on Sundays, and the police unceremoniously enter pri- 
vate dwellings upon the slighted suspicion that these 
pastimes are indulged in. But taverns and places of 

* 'Gilbert Gurney,' vol. ii. chap. i,. in the single- 
volume edition, p. 155, 

8 S. XI. JAB. 16, '97.] 



evil repute are open on that day, and there people may 
amuse themselves as they please." 

Caroline, Countess of Harrington, was a daughter 
of the second Duke of Grafton. In 1746 she 
married the Earl of Harrington, and ten years 
later became a leader of London society. Her 
position in 1763 was analogous to that occupied 
fifty years later by the beautiful Lady Jersey. 
Lady Harrington, who died in 1784, is frequently 
mentioned by chroniclers of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, among others by Biron, Due de Lauzun.* 
When Casanova made her acquaintance she was 
about forty years of age, and though no longer 
handsome, she bore traces of a former beauty. 
Lady Harrington received him in a salon full of 
fashionable people who were playing cards at small 
tables. In view of her position, as one of Teresa 
Cornelys's lady patronesses, Lady Harrington saw 
an opening for a stroke of business. Before Casa- 
nova had been ten minutes in her society she 
contrived to sell him a ball ticket for two guineas. 

" ( By the way,' she said, as though struck by a sudden 
inspiration ; ' next Thursday there will be an assembly 
of the nobility in Soho Square. Here is a ticket of 
admission, ball and supper only two guineas a mere 
nothing.' When I handed her the money she wrote on 
the back of the ticket the words: 'Paid. Harrington.' 
I took care not to tell her that I was acquainted with 
Madame Cornelys." 

Having thus done what she conceived to be her 
duty, Lady Harrington presented her visitor to 
Lady Northumberland, who happened to be play- 
ing whist at the further end of the room : 

" At the conclusion of the rubber my presentation took 
place. Lady Northumberland received me graciously, 
and invited me to join in around game. Although we 
played for small stakes I managed in a short time to lose 
fifteen guineas a debt which I heedlessly discharged in 
gold. On leaving the table Lady Harrington drew me 
aside, and asked whether I possessed any bank-notes. I 
told her that my portfolio contained about fifty notes, 
but none for less than one hundred guineas. 

"'Then why not change one of those notes?' she 
said. ' It is an unpardonable gaucherie to pay your losses 
in coin. Did you not remark the smile upon that lady's 
face when you handed her the gold ? ' 

" ' I was impressed by the lady's beauty,' said I. ' Who 
is she ? ' 

" ' Lady Coventry, a daughter of the Duchess of 

' Shall I make my excuses ? ' 

' That is not necessary. The thing is done, and 
there's an end of it. After all,' continued Lady Har- 
rington, * Lady Coventry ought not to mind having 
gained fifteen shillings, which is the present rate of 
exchange.' ' 

Among those whose acquaintance Casanova 
made at Lady Harrington's was one whom he 
invariably styles "Lord Hervey, the hero of 
Havannah." The gallant officer in question was, 
of course, Capt. (afterwards Commodore) Harvey, 
who commanded H.M.S. Dragon at the siege 
of Havannah in 1762. He had married Miss 

* ' Memoirea de Lauzun,' Paris, 1822, p. 117. 

Chudleigh, from whom he was then separated. 
That lady afterwards became celebrated as the 
Duchess of Kingston. A portrait of Capt. Har- 
vey, with a brief notice of his career, appeared in 
the London Magazine for November, 1763. Casa- 
nova tells us that one day, while walking in Hyde 
Park with Capt. Harvey, a gentleman came up 
and entered into conversation with Harvey. After 
they had parted Casanova inquired his name. 
" He is a brother of Lord Brockill, who was exe- 
cuted for murder," replied Harvey. And then 
ensued a philosophic discussion which is well 
worth reading. My sole reason for mentioning 
this matter is that I have not been able, even with 
the assistance of the learned Mr. Edward Wai- 
ford, to discover any nobleman bearing that or 
any similar name who suffered the extreme penalty 
of the law for any such crime. The only title in 
the peerage which at all resembles the name in 
question is that of Lord Broghill. This title is one 
of the inferior titles of the Earls of Cork and 
Orrery. It was created in 1627, in favour of Koger 
Boyle, afterwards Earl of Orrery, who was distin- 
guished for his learning and for his military skill 
in and after the time of Cromwell. No owner of 
that title was ever executed. Being certain that 
Casanova would not have mentioned this incident 
unless there had been ground for such a state- 
ment, I offer the problem for solution to those who 
may be interested in such matters. 

" One morning I went with Martinelli to the British 
Museum, where I saw some fine pictures by Rubens and 
Van Dyck. In the evening we went to Drury Lane 
Theatre, where, owing to a change in the programme, 
there was a serious disturbance. Although several 
members of the royal family were in the house at the 
time, their presence was not sufficient to abash the 
rioters. Garrick in vain came three times to the front 
of the stage, and attempted to address the people. He 
was received with hisses and hooting, while apples, 
potatoes, and other missiles were hurled at him. Upon 
the fall of the curtain the people in the pit rose in a body, 
and stormed the stage. Everything was broken, and the 
scenery torn into shreds. I never saw such destruction 
nothing but the bare walls remained. Martinelli 
laughed a good deal at this spectacle of mob fury. Aa 
for myself, I had lately been reading Montesquieu and 
Voltaire, who both uphold the sagacity and self-control 
of the English people. After that exhibition of un- 
reasoning impulse I scarcely knew what to think of those 
great philosophers. It seemed as though their doc- 
trines had just received a crushing refutation." 

On 25 Jan., 1763, there was a riot at Drury 
Lane Theatre, and on 24 Feb., 1763, there was a 
similar riot at Covent Garden, but I have not been 
able to find any record of an cmeute at a London 
theatre during the summer of that year. It is, of 
course, possible that Casanova, in his declining 
years, may have regarded as a personal experience 
an episode which he had heard freely discussed. 
A similar effect is said to have been produced on 
the mind of George IV. at the bare mention of the 
battle of Waterloo the curious result of a graphic 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8-s.xi.jA.i6,'9r. 

description upon an imaginative mind or, possibly 
in some cases, a too retentive memory. The men- 
tion of poor old David Garrick's name suggests the 

St. James's Chronicle, 15 Sept., 1763 : 
" Mr. Garrick left his house in Southampton Street, 
Corent Garden, for Italy." 

On the day fixed for the ball at Soho Square, 
Casanova presented himself at Carlisle House, and 
found the rooms already full of people. Lady 
Harrington, the most influential of her patronesses, 
handed over to the Cornelys the money she had 
amassed by the sale of tickets a sum which on 
that occasion happened to be considerably in excess 
of the average receipts. 

" I will not try to describe that soiree, which has left 
no lasting impression on my memory. I found the 
manners of that vast assemblage BO stiff and cold, that, 
at the end of a couple of hours, unable to support the 
tedium longer, I seized my hat and left the place." 

Casanova's impressions of London are instructive. 

"London is about the last place in the world wherein 
to reside when in low spirits. Its environments, like its 
atmosphere, are sombre and dull. In vain I tried to 
dissipate the gloom by which I was afflicted. My days 
were passed in wandering aimlessly about the streets, 
and when exhausted I took refuge in coffee houses. 
The people who came in and went out formed my sole 
distraction. It amused me to watch all those parrot 
faces, resembling nutcrackers their pinched mouths 
opening and shutting as if worked by a spring articu- 
lating shrill strident sounds, while they methodically 
munched long slices of buttered bread and emptied huge 
bowls of tea. 

One day, while Casanova was in the neighbour- 
hood of Piccadilly, be saw a large crowd of people. 
Meeting Martinelli by chance, he inquired the 
cause. I quote Casanova's words, as they refer to 
an incident which has been independently recorded 
in the ' Memoirs of George Selwyn ': 

"'That crowd,' said Martinelli, 'is surrounding an 
unfortunate man who has received a violent blow while 

' Cannot he be saved ? ' 

" ' A doctor who came upon the scene wished to bleed 
him,' answered Martinelli; 'but, strange to say, two 
gentlemen, having betted one hundred guineas on the 
issue of life or death resulting from that blow, decline 
to allow the doctor to interfere.' 

" ' Do you mean to say that the life of that man will 
be sacrified for the sake of a bet ] ' 

" ' Probably. The rage for betting is deep rooted in 
this country, and there are everywhere in London clubs 
where betting is the chief amusement.' 

" ' And if this man dies, what will be done to his 

" ' If the fight was not a fair one if there was any 
foul play he will be hanged. If otherwise, his right 
hand will be branded with a hot iron. That mark will 
show that the man has already caused the death of a 
fellow creature, and that his neck is ripe for the gibbet.' 
' Let us suppose that a man thus branded is himself 

'"In that case he has only to show his hand, and he 
1 be left in peace. If he kills his assailant in self- 
defence the law will absolve him.' " 

It would be instructive to compare that extract 
with the version narrated by George Selwyn. It 
is surely a strange coincidence that an incident 
of no general interest, occurring in the streets of 
London, should have appeared in the memoirs of 
two persons living in countries far apart and utterly 
unknown to each other. 

Wishing to test Casanova's accuracy in regard 
to details unconnected with matters of history, I 
pitched upon the following paragraph : 

"My brother Jean made me a present of an onyx 
of great beauty. It was a cameo representing Venus 
at the bath, a real antique, for with a powerful magni- 
fying glass the name of the sculptor Sostratus, who 
flourished twenty-three centuries ago, could be distinctly 
read. Two years later I sold that gem to Doctor Maati 
in London for three hundred pounds. It is probably 
still at the British Museum." 

It seemed to me that this statement might be 
put to the proof, and, thanks to the courtesy of 
the British Museum authorities, my researches led 
to the following result. Of Dr. Masti (probably 
Musters) nothing is known. He may have sold 
the cameo during his lifetime, or it may have been 
acquired by Mr. Townley; but certainly he did 
not dispose of it to the British Museum. No. 802 
in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities 
is an onyx cameo representing Aphrodite ; and 
No. 2309 is an onyx cameo representing a satyr 
seated, clutching at the robe of a maenad who 
stands (back to front) looking at him. In her 
right hand is a thyrsus inscribed CI20TPAT 
(Sostrat), but presumably thus engraven in 
modern times. This gem came to the Museum in 
the Townley Collection (1814). It is mentioned 
by Brunn,* who quotes Casanova's words. 

The Lord Pembroke of that day was a friend of 
Casanova. His name frequently appears in this 
portion of the 'Memoirs.' In 1763 Henry, tenth 
Earl of Pembroke, was twenty-nine years old. 
He had married, in 1756, a daughter of the third 
Duke of Marlborough, and resided (presumably 
apart from his wife) at Chelsea, where Casanova 
frequently dined with him. Lord Pembroke at- 
tained to the rank of a lieutenant-general in the 
army ; was colonel-in-chief of the 1st Dragoons, 
and died in 1794. In his youth he seems to have 
been a libertine, and, like most sportsmen in those 
days, was strongly addicted to cock-fighting. His 
marriage was no bar to his bohemianism, and he 
introduced Casanova to some very shady people, 
through whom he made the acquaintance of New- 
gate. Lady Pembroke is never mentioned in the 
' Memoirs.' That good woman survived her hus- 
band thirty-seven years, and died in 1831. Early 
in September of this yearf Commodore Harvey, 
accompanied by Lord Pembroke, Sir William 
Boothby, and Mr. St. John, left London for Ply- 

* 'Gesch. der Gr. Kunstler, ' vol. ii. p. 587. 
t See St. Jameis Chronicle, 6 Sept., 1763. 

S. XI. JAN. 16, '97.] 



mouth in order to conduct H.R.H. the Duke of 
York to the Mediterranean. 

33, Tedworth Square, Chelsea. 

parish church of Auchterarder was undoubtedly 
dedicated to St. Mackessog. This appears from 
the foundation charter of the Abbey of Inchaffray 
of 1200 and subsequent charters contained in the 
chartulary. A well a short distance to the south 
of the church still bears the time-honoured name 
of the saint, while his day, 10 March, is kept as 
one of the principal fairs of the town. 

A mistake has crept in and been perpetuated 
in ascribing the patronage to St. Kentigern or 
St. Mungo. Dr. Eankin, in his interesting and 
otherwise accurate article on the ancient churches 
of Strathearn contributed to the ' Chronicles of 
Strathearn,' refers to this dedication, and endea- 
vours to account for it by supposing that there 
may have been an altar or side chapel dedicated to 
St. Mungo in the church of St. Mackessog ; but 
there is nothing to warrant such an assumption. 
There is neither a side chapel on the outside of 
the building nor room within its narrow walls for 
a side altar, and there is no historical evidence to 
support such a theory. The error appears to have 
originated in a random statement in the inaccurate 
account of Auchterarder contributed to * The New 
Statistical Account of Scotland,' Perth, 290, and 
perpetuated by other writers, notably by Walcot 
in his * Scoti Monasticon ' and the * Historians of 
Scotland,' vol. v. xc. 

I observe that a writer of a guide-book, 
' Walks round Auchterarder/ says that the chapel 
within the town where the present parish church 
stands was said to have been dedicated to St. 
Mungo. This is also erroneous. The chapel 
was dedicated to our Lady. This appears 
from a charter, dated 3 December, 1477, by 
Symon Wylde, burgess of the burgh of Auch- 
terarder, in favour of Agnes Wylde, his brother's 
daughter, and John Young, her husband, of two 
crofts on the north side of the burgh. One of the 
crofts is described as " Ilia proximius capelle nostre 
Domine," and the reddendo is " servicio et susten- 
tacione dicte capelle sex solidos vsualis monete 
Scocie annui redditus annuatim." This shows 
that not only was the chapel dedicated to our 
Lady, but a stipend of six shillings Scots was im- 
posed upon the adjacent croft for its service and 
upkeep. Sir Alexander Hyrdman, priest, had then 
the adjoining croft on the west. It is evident that 
while the church of St. Mackessog was the parish 
church, there was a pre-Reformation chapel within 
the town, above referred to ; and while the cure of 
the parish church was served by a parochial curate 
appointed by the Abbey of Inchaffray, the burgh 
chapel had also a chaplain. Sir David Cardney 

was curate of the parish church in 1520, while Sir 
William Ewinsone was at the same time chaplain. 
In 1603 the chapel yard was used for holding the 
Burgh Courts, an inquest under a brieve of lining 
having been then held in it. 

Dr. Rankin appears to suppose that the present 
parish church dates only from 1660. The present 
church was built about that time, but replaced 
the old chapel of our Lady of unknown antiquity. 

A. G. REID. 


well-known analogy drawn by J. Blanco White 
between Night and Death, as the possible revealer 
of glories unseen in this life, may perhaps have 
been suggested by a somewhat similar comparison 
made by Madame de Stael in * Corinne/ adfinem. 
The passage to which I refer runs thus : 

"Deja la nuit s'avance a mea regards, maia le ciel 
n'est il pas plus beau pendant la nuit? Des milliera 
d'6toiles le decorent. II n'est de jour qu'un desert. 
Ainsi, lea ombres eternelles reveleiit d'innombrables 
pensees que 1'eclat de la prosperity faisent oublier." 

Thos. Moore's conclusion of his hymn, beginning, 
" Oh ! Thou who dry'st the mourner's tear," pre- 
sents yet another mode of treating the same natural 
phenomenon : 

Then sorrow, touch'd by Thee, grows bright 

With more than rapture's ray; 
As darkness shows us worlds of light, 

We never saw by day ! 


in the Saturday Review of 15 Aug., 1896, review- 
ing Mr. J. H. Crawford's ' Wild Life of Scotland,' 
finds an example of the naturalist's " realistically 
poetical style " in a contrast that is set forth 
between the thrush and the blackbird. This is 
how the matter appears to these two authorities : 

"The mavis breaks into song in the morning 'in a 
glad matin breathing the hopefulness of daybreak. The 
blackbird belongs to the evening, as his very colour 
would suggest. His song is a vesper, according with the 
soberness of twilight.' ' 

Has either of these writers been among the hedge- 
rows at dawn in early summer ; or has it ever 
been his lot to be on the point of falling asleep at 
that early hour in a bedroom overlooking shrub- 
beries ? If so, his observation must have been 
restricted in some extraordinary way if he failed 
to notice the singing of blackbirds. The fact is 
that, with the doubtful exception of the robin, the 
blackbird is probably the quickest of Scottish 
songsters to hail with its full liquid notes the 
approach of smiling morn. No doubt it sings, and 
sings very beautifully, in the evening as well, con- 
tinuing its minstrelsy till dewy eve has fairly 
settled over the landscape, as if taking the last 
farewell of the day that it was so prompt to herald. 
Very nearly the same may be said of the thrush. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 th a xi. JAN. ie, 

Both birds are heard to advantage in the morning 
and the evening, and the distinction that assigns 
one of the periods to each, however "realistically 
poetical " it may be, is neither scientific nor accu- 
Helensburgb, N.B. 

' HAMLET,' 1603. In a very interesting article 
describing the Shakesperean books preserved at 
Warwick Castle, which appeared in vol. i. of ' The 
Shakesperean,' occurs the following startling 
statement : " The earliest edition of * Hamlet,' 
for Nicholas Ling and John Trundell, 1603." 
At first I imagined it was possibly a facsimile; but, 
proceeding further, I noted that all facsimiles were 
clearly mentioned. Surely there must be some 
mistake, as copies of this edition are so rare that 
for many years the Duke of Devonshire's copy 
was the only one known to be extant ; however, 
another copy turned up, which is now in the 
British Museum. Most of the copies of Shake- 
sperean quartos can be traced to the different 
owners' libraries. Surely the rarest and most 
cherished one would have been notified by some 
Shakesperean bibliographer i There are many 
other editions described as original in this Warwick 
collection; but until the originality of the 
'Hamlet' copy is confirmed the others must 
remain doubtful. MAURICE JONAS. 

2, Drapers' Gardens. 


SCOT" AS A HORSE'S NAME. Chaucer (Prol. 
616) mentions Scot as a horse's name ; of which 
there are numerous examples, as the name is in 
use still. But the following note, at p. 60 of the 
Third Series of ' Collectanea ' of the Oxford His- 
torical Society, is well worth notice. The editor 
remarks that horses' names are often given in old 
inventories, and adds, 

in Berington's inventory of the stock on the estates 
in 1389 [note the date] we find bayard porter, bayard 
pyn-hors, bayard cutte, gray Scot, bayard blind, gray 
Frampton, gray ambler, gryme, gray doxo, bay blind, 
gray bleb, gray Rougton, Scot, brune, gray Hard, Gyll, 

In this contemporary list Scot appears twice. 


" TWILL." I am able to give very early quota- 
tions for this word, which was introduced into 
England from the Netherlands, probably in the 
time of Edward III. In an inventory written 
about the year 1400, printed in the Third Series 
of ' Collectanea ' of the Oxford Historical Society, 
at p. 44, is the entry : "Item, i manutergium 
tweyld pro principalibus. " Again, in a similar 
list, dated 1456, at p. 52, we find : " Item, unum 
manutergium tweld pro principalibus." 


' ARSE-VERS." This expression is quoted in 
the ' English Dialect Dictionary ' (so splendidly 
begun, felix faustumque sit /) from Bailey (1721), 

Jamieson, and others, as a spell written on a house 
to prevent it from burning. All these authorities 
fail to note that it is a direct borrowing of the 
archaic Latin arse verse, an incantation against fire 
preserved by Festus, which he says meant " ignem 
averte " (avert arson). It must have been con- 
veyed bodily by some classical dominie. 

S. Woodford. 

GOG AND MAGOG. An old West-Country book, 
' Specimens of Cornish Provincial Dialect,' gives 
the following unmistakably Western version of the 
origin of these names : 

"The Trenoodles was well to do as long agone as one 
thousand and one hundred years before the Christian 
era; for, about this time, the grand wrestling bout 
corned off at the Hoe at Plemouth, between Corn'meus 
and Gog-magog, when Cornineus thrawed hea man by a 
Cornish hug (then first found out by he), and gived hea 
name to Cornwall, which were the prize aa they wrestled 
for. Gog-magog was so bedoled, and so sheamed at 
being beat, that he dedn't live long after, and leaved two 
sons who divided hes name between them, and was after- 
wards great figurs up along en the town-hall to Lunnon 
church town." 



SANTIAGO. The popularity of [St. James, as 
patron of Spain, has led the Spaniards to enlarge 
the name from lago to Santiago. This is brought 
out strongly in the Spanish version of Acts i. 13, 
where both St. James the Greater and St. James 
the Less are mentioned : "Donde tenian su morada 
Pedro, y Santiago, y Juan, y Andres, Felipe y 
Tomas, BartolomI y Mateo, Santiago hijo de Alfeo, 
y Simon el Zelador, y Judas hermano de Santiago." 
And in the "Orden de los Libros" the San is 
actually duplicated, thus : " Epistola Catolica de 
S. Santiago." The fact that the Spanish New 
Testament is a Protestant translation makes the 
case only the stronger. 


Portland, Oregon. 

" ANIMALCULE." I was under the impression 
that this incorrect plural of animalculurn, which 
one often meets with instead of animalcula, was 
a product of this enlightened century. This, how- 
ever, is not the case, as I have recently found it 
in Foote's 'The Devil upon Two Sticks,* 1768, 
III. ii.: 

"Hellebore Brethren and students, I am going to 

open to you some notable discoveries that I have made, 
respecting the source, or primary cause of all distempers 
incidental to the human machine : And these, brethren, 
I attribute to certain animalculce, or piscatory entities, 
that insinuate themselves thro' the pores into the blood, 
and in that fluid sport, toss, and tumble about, like 
mackarel or codfish in the great deep." 

Here we have in anticipation the modern theory 
of germs, bacilli, bacteria, et id genus online. 


3. XI. JAN, 16, '97.] 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

superstitions concerning these survived the bacillus 
of the Board School ? Are they, or were they, 
regarded exclusively as workers of evil, as abodes 
of the sky-chief, or a storm-demon ? Moreover, 
is it certain that they are fired at by sailors purely 
on philosophic grounds ? 

In Dalmatia firearms are looked upon as pro- 
tective against them in the same sense with which 
the Russian peasant regards his hatchet, which he 
hurls at them believing them to be wizard- wrought. 
The fisher-folk at Amalfi and Majori, on perceiv- 
ing a " coda d'acqua " approaching, are wont to 
utter a conjuration of so blasphemous a nature 
that I failed to induce any one to repeat it. 
' Usano parole contro la legge Cattolica." Never- 
theless, they declare it to produce satisfactory 
results, and they obtain absolution for employing 
it. On uttering it contortions of a violent nature 
are said to be observed in the spout, and presently 
it parts asunder in the midst. The work of a 
demon is undone by a countercharm in this 
instance, one evidently not Christian. 

Thomas Aquinas, inspired doubtless by Clemens 
Alexandrinus, admitted that demons could and 
did, by consent of God, cause these phenomena ; 
Bonaventura admitted the same ; and Albertus 
Magnus gravely followed suit. At the Lake of 
Scanno, near Sulmona, I was informed that in the 
olden days many a whirlwind was there raised and 
despatched on its evil errand by "forza magica." 
Albertus states that a certain powder thrown into 
a well will cause a whirlwind. This teaching 
became a dogma of the faith, and, enlightened as 
he is in many respects, the present Pontiff, despite 
his observatory, abides by the scientific teaching 
of the author of the ' Summa' i. e. y of the thir- 
teenth century. 

If, however, we turn to earlier sources of 
doctrine concerning such physical manifestations, 
great surprises come upon us. I turn to the Book 
of Job, and find that the phenomena of cloudland, 
especially the whirlwind, are emanations of a 
direct single Deity. From the clouds he sends 
forth blessing or chastisement, from the whirlwind 
he utters himself. The clouds are his especial 
domain, his arsenals, his pavilions. Nor is the 
Book of Job alone in this monotheistic doctrine ; 
the Major and Minor Prophets appear to be in 
accord with it. 

In the classics we find Lucretius, and the 

Greeks before him, designating the waterspout 

'prester, the burner," while Lucan (vii. 156) 

termg it ( Pytbopa.8, Aquarum," By the way, 

readers of the former poet may profit by the com- 
parison of his fine description (vi. 423) of a water- 
spout with the following, by the traveller-poet of 
Portugal, who loves to tell of " Sea-changes lands- 
man never apprehendeth ": 

Little by little growing high in air, 

With bigger girth than thickest mast it loomed ; 
Here slim its middle, broad its bosom, where 

Huge gulps of water were in floods enwombed ; 
The wave of every wave it seemed to share ; 

While gathered vapours o'er its summit gloomed, 
Increasing ever more, and overcharged 

As the vast waterload its bulk enlarged. 

But when 'twas wholly filled and fully fed, 
Withdrawn the footing planted on the main, 

Athwart the welkin pouring floods it fled, 
With water bathing 'jacent watery plain, 

And all the waves it sucked in waves it shed 
Wherein no salty savour mote remain. 

' Lusiad,' v. 20, 22 (R. F. Burton). 


"HARPIE" OR "HARPY." Can any of the 
readers of ' N. & Q.' throw light on the origin and 
the meaning of "harpy" ; also tell me if the 
creature is anywhere used in heraldry ? 


[Lat. Harpyia, pi. harpyice, Gr. apQviai, the 
snatchers, in Homer a personification of whirlwinds, 
later a hideous winged bird of prey. Cf. Greek apTn;, 
a bird of prey, dp7r-a-iv, snatch, seize. In Greek 
mythology a ravening and obscene monster, with the 
face and body of a woman, the wings of a bird, and 
feet and fingers with sharp claws. You will find in 
heraldry the harpy represented as a vulture, with the 
head and breast of a woman, a harpy with wings 
extended and inverted, also a demi-harpy displayed.] 

the readers of ' N. & Q.' give me a list of the 
various editions of W. Cartwright's play * The 
Royall Slave'? Has it been reprinted in the 
course of this century in its original form ? 

A. E. H. SWAEN. 

PINCKNEY FAMILY. The Pinckney family bear 
the same arms as the original Percies, five fusils 
in fesse (one branch having the fusils in pale). 
Were the Pinckneys and the Percies connected 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ? 


Langton Rectory, Malton, Yorks. 

'May fair and Belgravia' it is stated (at p. 105) 
that Hertford Street was formerly called Garrick 
Street. What is the authority for this statement ? 


"BOONDED." This word is said to be used in 
Westmorland in the sense of "swollen, inflamed." 
Thus, " T' back ov his hand was o' boonded up, 
thoo nivver saw seek o' seet," I should be glad to 



know whether any of the readers of 'N. & Q.' 
have ever heard the word. 

The Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

Miss MAT E. WILKINS. This writer's first 
published story was written for a fifty - dollar 
prize offered by the Boston Budget. The story 
was called 'The Ghost Family.' Can any 
American correspondent kindly give me the exact 
reference for the number of the Budget containing 
this story? The story of Miss Wilkins's early 
experience with the editress of Harper's Bazaar 
was told by a writer in the New York Critic 
some year or two back. I shall be much obliged 
if some one can give me also the reference for this 
number of the Critic. G. L. APPERSON. 

any of your readers tell me the origin, or give me 
any further particulars of the following legend, 
mentioned in Dr. Brewer's ' Dictionary of Phrase 
and Fable,' under the head " Water-Discoverer " ? 
" The Persians believe that the lapwing (hudhud) 
has the power of discovering water underground." 

W. F. B. 

THE DUKE OP WELLINGTON. Can any of your 
correspondents say on what authority the state- 
ment is made that the Duke of Wellington once 
said, " Waterloo was won on the playing fields of 

SOULS. Dr. Brewer, in the last edition of * Phrase 
and Fable,' has the following note, s.v. " Mouse " : 
*' No doubt pigeons were at one time trained to 
represent the departing soul, and also to represent 
the Holy Ghost." What authority is there for this 
statement ? Can any examples be given ? 


MEDIEVAL ACCOUNTS. -In 'The Ceramic Art 
of Great Britain/ p. 66, the author, Llewellynn 
Jewitt, says : 

" One of the earliest written notices of crockery we 
have is the oft-quoted entry in the account of payments 
by the executors of Queen Eleanor, wife of Edward I : 
' Item Juliana la potere pro ccc picheriis die anniversarii 
Beginae viijs. vjd.' ' 

He gives another quotation from the same MS., 
but no reference. Can any correspondent say 
where this roll of accounts may be seen or any 
copy of it ? As it is so " oft quoted," it has pro- 
bably been printed. OLIVER BAKER. 

101, Gough Road, Birmingham. 

"ACELDAMA," ACTS i. 19. Will some one 
inform me how Aceldama is usually pronounced 
from the reading-desks of the Church of England ; 
whether with the p soft or hard ? The popular 

dictionaries, e. g., Nuttall's, give it soft. This, I 
think, unwarrantable. Were c in English always 
soft before e there might be some excuse ; but, as 
it is sometimes hard, as in " sceptic," there is 
none. The Textus Receptus has 'AKeXSa/xa ; 
the Sinaitic and Alexandrine MSS., 'AxeA-Sa/xax'; 
the Vatican, 'A/ccXSa/xax'. The Revised Version, 
I am glad to see, has Akeldama. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

THE PRONOUN " SHE." At 8 th S. x. 152, MR. 
PLATT suggested a quite new explanation of this 
difficult word. At any rate, it is not given in any 
dictionary. I have been waiting in the hope that 
some one better qualified than myself would chal- 
lenge it ; but, as it seems to have attracted no 
criticism, I hope I may be pardoned for asking thus 
late if there is any ground for supposing that the 
sound which MR. PLATT mentions really existed 
in Anglo-Saxon. FRANK EVANS. 

ROBERT DYER. Wanted the date and age at 
death of Robert Dyer, purser in the Royal Navy, 
who was buried at the Falkland Islands. He 
married at St. Germans, in 1754, Sarah Boger, 
daughter of Richard Boger, surgeon, of St. Ger- 
mans, Cornwall. A. S. DYER. 

3, Blomfteld Street, Bayawater. 

RIDOLIO. Can any of your readers inform me 
what is the modern name of " Ridolio, a city of 
England"? The mention of it occurs in Belluacensis, 
quoted in a translation of an Italian book written 
in the seventeenth century. The incident, casually 
mentioned by Belluacensis, took place in the four- 
teenth century, " when a pestilence raged in that 
city." There is nothing to indicate the locality, 
and I can find no such place as Ridolio in the 
' Orbis Latinus,' nor in the only ancient atlas that 
I have been able to consult at present. 


Do SWINE EAT COAL? The captain of the 
Auckland, which left Seville recently, told me that 
a pig which got lost in the coal hole of a sailing 
ship at a northern English port arrrived safely at 
Java, having had nothing to eat but coal. The 
rector of Fledborough, Notts, tells me that he has 
seen pigs eat coal, and that it would be held in 
the Midlands a sign of ignorance to ask if they do. 
Will other animals eat it ? PALAMEDES. 

"MiLLES MS." What is the document cited 
by this name in Halliwell's 'Provincial Glossary'? 
Does it still exist ; and in whose hands ? Q. V. 


Can any of your readers explain why in the south 
porch of this church there should be a two-light 
window on the eastern side, and a single- light 
window on the western, there being nothing 
peculiar in the surroundings to call for a difference 

8i S. XI. JAN. 16, '97.] 



between the windows ? I may add, what I believe 
is of architectural interest, that the two-light 
window is all one stone, a piece of old Barnack 
rag, coroprisiDg the four sides of the window and 
the dividing mullion. The two arches of the 
window are round. CELER ET AUDAX. 

' King John,' V. ii. 74-76 (Globe Text). This is 
one of those passages in Shakespeare which seem 
to have been suggested by some familiar emblem. 
Does a symbolical illustration to this effect appear 
in any of the emblem-books of the sixteenth 
century? E. P. B. 

* BELSHAZZAR'S FEAST.' Some forty ^ years 
ago I read a three-volume novel giving a description 
of the siege of Babylon, the writing on the wall, 
the diversion of the river, death of Belshazzar, &c. 
I think the name of the novel was ' Belshazzar's 
Feast,' but in this I may be mistaken. If one of 
your older readers has come across the book, which 
he may recognize from my brief outline, and could 
give me its proper designation, and tell me whether 
it is still extant and where a copy is likely to be 
found, I should feel very much obliged to him. 

T. S. 

sword ever in Canterbury Cathedral? Somner 
(1640) and Battely (1703) say nothing about it, as 
far as I can find. Dart (1727) says nothing, but 
his engraving of the tomb shows a short empty 
scabb&rd suspended above the canopy. Buncombe 
(1783) mentions the scabbard, and adds, "The 
sword itself is said to have been taken away by 
Oliver Cromwell." Hasted (1800) says, " The sword 
itself, as is reported, was taken away by Oliver 
Cromwell," and adds, "Mr. Todd supposes that 
[the target] perhaps snared the same fate with the 
renowned warrior's sword, which was stolen in the 
great rebellion" (Hasted, xi. 411, note). Stothard, 
Woolnoth, and Blore repeat the Cromwell story. 
I want to know, supposing the sword to have been 
in Canterbury Cathedral (which I at present 
doubt), where it is now. I know where " it is said " 
to be, but the "it is said " as to its present where- 
abouts is no more satisfactory than the Cromwell 
story. J. M. COWPER. 


known of the antecedents and connexions of the 
Rev. Thomas Lockey Soley (or Solay), who was 
rector of Northfield, Worcestershire, in 1742 ? I 
should particularly like to know the reason of his 
bearing the curious Christian name of Lockey. 

A. F. H. 

should be much obliged for any information con- 
cerning him. E, G. CLAYTON, 


(8 th S. x. 515.) 

Leland's rendering is quite correct. "Nicol" 
(subject to variations of spelling) is the regular 
word for Lincoln in Anglo-Norman (see Blount's 
'Law Dictionary,' ed. 1691). The oldest examples 
with which I am acquainted are of twefth century 
date. Gaimar, in his * Lestorie des Engles, 
written before 1150 (Rolls edition, 1. 148), thus 
describes the eight counties subject to the see of 

Nichole e Haratone [Northampton], 

Hereford* e Huntedune, 

Leiceetre e Bedefurd, 

Bukinham e Oxneford. 

And in the French romance of ' Havelok ' ap- 
pended to Gaimar in the same volume (1. 196), a 
king named Alsi is said to rule 

Nicole et tote Lindeseie. 

On this, see Prof. Skeat ('Havelok,' E.E.T.S., 
pref. p. xxiv, notes). Our knowledge that Thomas 
Becket, when he fled from Northampton in con- 
sequence of the proceedings of the council, directed 
his course to Lincoln, we owe to Latin chronicles. 
But Gamier de Pont Sainte Maxence, in his 'Vie de 
Saint Thomas' (ed. Hippeau, pp. 72, 73), writes that 
on leaving Northampton Becket journeyed by by- 
ways, making first for "Nicole": 

Le sekunt jur, tut dreit est en Nioole entrea. 

After a brief lodging there, 

En un batel ainz jura,t saint Thomas s'en entra 

Dreit par de auz le puntj de Nikole passa, 
Et vers Sempigueham|| al Hermitoire alia, 

Another example, of later date, may be found 
in Ruffhead's ' Statutes at Large,' vol. i. pp. 171-2, 
ed. 1763. The famous statute of sheriffs, 9 
Edw. II. (1315-16), was made, in the words of 
the statute itself, " a son parlement a Nicole," and 
was submitted to the Sheriff of York with the 
following precept : 

"Rex vie' Ebor' salufcem. Mittimus tibi quoddam 

statutum in parliamento nostro apud Lincoln' editum 

precipientes quod statutum illud in omnibus articulis 

suis quantum ad te pertinet firmiter & inviolabiliter 
faciaa observari. T[este] Rege apud Lincoln' xx die 
Febr' anno &c. nono." 

In the Camden Society's French Chronicle of 
London 1 (p. 30) the names of the sheriffs for 
1304-5 appear as " Johan de Nicole et Roger de 

* Should be Hertford, cf. ' Robert of Gloucester ' 
(Rolls edition, 1. 104). 

t In a boat before daylight. 

j; Straight under the bridge. 

I Elsewhere written " Semepingham. 
needless to add that Sempringham, where the archbishop 
lay in hiding over a weefc, is in Lincolnshire, about thirty 
miles from Lincoln. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*8. xi. JAN. 16/97. 

Paris "; in Fabyan's ' Chronicle ' they are given as 
lohn Lyncoln and Rogier Parys. 

The words " la ville de Bytham en le counte de 
Nicol " occur in a manuscript of about 1400 in the 
Record Office ('Early Chancery Proceedings,' 
bundle 3, No. 46). 

There is no etymological reason for the Norman 
version of the name. Our conquerors found the 
pronunciation of the Saxon name inconvenient, 
with its strange mixture of liquids and guttural, 
so they eased it by suppressing the medial n and 
changing the initial I to n (compare niveau, 
formerly livel; nomble for lomble, from Latin 
lumbulus). F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

[Many replies to the same effect are acknowledged.] 

xi. 31). The. "elaborate pedigree" above men- 
tioned appears to give no particulars of Jemima, 
mother of Lieut. Guilford Killigrew. This lady 
was born 18 Aug., 1672, being daughter of Paul, 
and sister and heir of Guilford Bokenham, of 
Weston Market, co. Suffolk. Through her, doubt- 
less, the name of Guilford came into the Killigrew 
family. She was married, 21 May, 1687, at St. 
Olave's, Jewry, London, the marriage license 
(above mentioned) being dated two days previously: 
Her husband, Charles Killigrew, was buried 8 Jan., 
1724/5 in Savoy Chapel. She apparently never 
remarried, her will as "Jemima Killigrew, of 
Thornham Hall, co. Suffolk, widow," is dated 
19 Jan., 1727/8, and proved 14 July, 1731, and 
there is no mention therein of the name of De la 
Force. One of her infant sons, however, was buried 
at Hampstead 4 May, 1699, which shows some 
connexion with that place. The only children who 
survived her were Charles (born 26 April, and 
baptized 30 April, 1691, at the Savoy) and the 
said Guilford (born 29 March, and baptized 
31 March, 1701, at the Savoy), whose will, dated 
1 March, 1748/9, was (as stated above) proved 
23 July, 1751. Might not Thomas Guilford Killi- 
grew have been an illegitimate son of this Charles, 
who died unmarried 9 March, 1756 ? His age in 
1728, if conjectured rightly as "about fourteen," 
would not admit of his being a son of Guilford, 
who was born in 1701. G. E. C. 

"Goo SAVE THE KING " (8 th S. x. 234, 362, 
438, 478 ; xi. 10). I am sorry that MR. WALTER 
HAMILTON should be hurt by any " asperity " of 
tone in my reply ; but he must not be surprised 
if a little impatience be shown when a contributor 
reopens in 'N. & Q.' a question which has been 
thoroughly discussed elsewhere, and completely 
solved, so far as it can be solved. That is the case 
with this present question. Let him read the 
article in Grove's 'Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians ' and Mr, Cummings's " investigation " 

in the Musical Times, March to August, 1878, and 
he will there see all the facts clearly displayed, 
facts from which it is entirely impossible to deduce 
the conclusion which he maintains, that the 
melody was "essentially German," or that "God 
save the King " was " made in Germany." When 
a writer asserts that a melody, long believed of 
British origin, is "essentially German," I think 
that, in respect for those who hold the other view, 
he should state his reasons, should give examples, 
or otherwise attempt to prove his theory. 

With regard to my first reply, I beg to be 
allowed to add that I did not connect the word 
"fraud" with him in anyway; he has only to 
refer to my contribution to see that. I cer- 
tainly did, as I still do, call the mythical German 
origin of this tune a " fable," and I did com- 
pare it to that other constantly recurring fable 
of the " Harmonious Blacksmith," which, by a 
curious accident, did actually flare up once more, 
like an ignis fatuus, on p. 481 of the same number 
of ' N. & Q.,' only to be promptly snuffed out by 
our vigilant Editor. 

I am obliged to A. M. D. for the proffered loan 
of R. Clark's book ; but I already possess that work, 
and have had it for many years. Its author was 
the father also of the " Blacksmith" myth. 

MR. HAMILTON taxes me with having " mis- 
represented " him. This is a very serious charge. 
It is a most unusual accusation (especially in 
'N. & Q.'), and one which, if ever made, should 
have been supported by some evidence, or should 
be at once withdrawn. 

Finally, I protest against the abuse of space in 
these columns by the rediscussion of questions 
already thoroughly threshed out elsewhere by 
competent hands, and I confidently count on the 
support of the large majority of contributors in 
making that protest. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

This subject has again cropped up in ' N. & Q.'; 
and perhaps I may be allowed to suggest an altera- 
tion in the wretched rhyme of " laws " and " voice." 

(1) One verse is all-sufficient ; (2) each of the 
triplet lines must consist of two spondees and an 
iambus (note the first metre must not be a 
trochee) ; (3) the general subject of the established 
anthem must be preserved. 

I suggest the followingllines : 

May ehe our laws defend, 
Long reign the nation's friend, 
And make all discord end, 
God save the Queen. 


THE MAN OP GHENT (8 th S. x. 415, 499 ; xi. 
18). Was not Guizot styled by this name because 
he took refuge at Ghent with Louis XVIII. during 
the Hundred Days ? Its use would imply that his 
Liberalism was only skin-deep. 


8"> 8. XI. JAN. 16, '97.] 



JAMES BEEVERELL (8 th S. ix. 48, 397). Is it 
known where Vander Aa got the illustrations for 
' Les Devices de la Grand' Bretagne ' ? 

The number of maps and plates is very large ; 
and these, if produced expressly for the work, must 
have been very costly. I am told that some are 
probably reductions from earlier plates ; but my 
informant is unable to say when and where the 
originals were published. 

As a handy repository of historical evidence of 
architectural change in general and of alterations 
in particular buildings, * Les Devices ' would be of 
considerable use if we knew the exact dates of the 
plates. Can one of your readers put me in the 
way of ascertaining these ? 

It may be as well to note that in the British 
Museum copy of the first edition, the whole of the 
plates (which do not, so far as I saw, show page 
numbers to guide the binder) are collected in the 
fifth volume. Were they issued separately from 
the volumes to which they relate ? 

In the second edition, page numbers (not always 
correct) are engraved on the plates. Q. V. 

ARMS (8 th S. x. 296). Folkard, in his 'Plant- 
Lore,' says, under " Iris " (p. 388) : " After many 
changes of position, the fleur-de-lys finally dis- 
appeared from the English shield in the first year 
of the present century"; and under "Shamrock" 
(p. 545) : " Queen Victoria placed the trefoil in 
her royal diadem in lieu of the French fleur-de-lis." 
These statements are not quite on all-fours with 
Mr. Caparn's, but they may have the same origin. 

0. 0. B. 

The heraldic information given in the paper on 
' Iris " is evidently an error, as the proclamation 
issued in 1801 says the arms of the United King- 
dom shall be " Quarterly : first and fourth England, 
second Scotland, third Ireland, &c. There shall be 
borne therewith on an escutcheon of pretence the 
Arms of Our Dominions in Germany ensigned with 
the Electoral Bonnet." The badges settled at the 
Union are : A white rose within a red England. 
A thistle Scotland. A trefoil vert Ireland. 
Willemont's * Kegal Heraldry,' on plate 34, gives 
them conjoined. The writer of the paper would, 
think, be unable to give his authority for the 
statement. It may be that the wish was the father 
to the thought. JOHN KADCLIFPE. 

RICHARD TOPCLIFFE (8 th S. x. 133, 198). 
Many particulars are supplied in 'N. & Q.,' 5 th S. 
vii. 207, 270, 331, 357, 417. W. 0. B. 

I should be glad of any information as to the 
correctness of the statement in the Daily Graphic 
25 September with respect to the great 
Napoleon and " the display of the silver urn con- 
taining the ashes of La Tour d'Auvergne " (" urn " 

and " ashes " indicate that our hero "was cremated), 
famous as "One of the Best" of the soldiers 
of the Republic and the Consulate. I have 
always understood that he fought and met as he 
wished a soldier's death at Neuburgh, 27 June, 
1800 ; that he was buried on the field where 
he fell, and placed dead with his face to the 
enemy ; that at the roll call at every subsequent 
parade of the 45th of the line the name of the 
first man called was that of " La Tour d'Auvergne," 
as if he were alive and well, and a soldier then 
answered, " Mort sur le champ de bataille." " A 
general and a colonel," it is true, like brave men, 
have fallen in fight at the head of a brigade or a 
regiment ; but, however, it may be mentioned that 
La Tour d'Auvergne, descended from one of the 
most distinguished families in La Belle France, 
was only ambitious to serve his country by carry- 
ing a musket in the ranks. One of the first to 
volunteer for any post where the danger was 
greatest, he resolutely refused all offers of promotion, 
being desirous only of living among his comrades 
the simple life of a soldier, and he was therefore 
known by no other title than that of " Le Premier 
Grenadier de la France." 

Clapham, S.W. 

It has been asserted that the practice of using 
church towers as belfries is both modern and de- 
generate. A review of Weingartner's ' System des 
Christlichen Thurmbaues ' appears in the Saturday 
Review for 21 April, 1860, which says of church 
towers : 

"Their first origin, he maintains, was as a monument 
to those who were not worthy to be buried in a church, 
and afterwards they were joined to the church to mark 
and adorn the spot where the altar concealed the sacred 
relics. Their gradual application as belfries, and the 
oblivion of their pristine destination, were indicated aa 
centuries went on by their more and more westerly 

See'N. &Q.,'2 d S. ix. 342. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

A single negative proves very little ; but in 
reply to MR. MILLS I may say that the church 
tower of Heacham is supported by a massive 
buttress, erected about a century ago, and that 
there has never been a peal of bells in the church, 
The tower is probably at least five hundred years 

Heacham Hall, Norfolk. 

"A NOTT STAG" (8* S. x. 336, 381, 442, 
506). Dr. R. S. Charnock's 'Glossary of the 
Essex Dialect,' 1880, has: "Not, smooth, polled 
or shorn, as 'not sheep,' sheep without horns; 
also well tilled, as a 'not field." "Not cow" 
and "not sheep" are expressions used also in the 
Isle of Wight, Wright's ' Dictionary of Obsolete 


[8*8. XL JAN. 16, '97. 

and Provincial English ' has : u Imagining all the 
fat sheep he met, to be of kin to the coward 
Ulisses, because they ran away from him, he 
massacred a whole flocke of good nott ewes" 
(* Metamorph. of Ajax,' Prologue). Wright gives 
also not-wheat, a kind of wheat without beard. 
In Ash's 'Dictionary,' 1775, it is curiously sug- 
gested that nott is perhaps derived from not. 


"CoRDWAiNERs"= SHOEMAKERS (8 th S. x. 253, 
343). In Potter's Stamford District Directory,' 
1896, I find one T. Goodwin, of Collyweston, 
Northants, described as " cord wainer." 


DUKE OP OTRANTO (8 th S. x. 196, 222). 
Your correspondent will not have forgotten Man- 
fred, Prince of Otranto, in the celebrated Gothic 
story by Horace Wai pole. 


235, 341, 601). It is to be hoped that a stupid 
blunder in a bookseller's advertisement will not 
lead to the inclusion of a non-existent writer in 
some comprehensive bibliographical compilation of 
the future. In truth there never was a Roman 
Catholic author of the name of Gopher. The 
name is simply a misprint for Gother. The 
Uev. John Gother, or more correctly Goter, was 
a noted controversialist on the Catholic side at 
the close of the seventeenth century. Born of 
Presbyterian parents at Southampton, he was 
educated by them in sentiments of hostility to the 
Catholic faith, but he was converted to the Roman 
communion, and was sent by a relative to the 
English College at Lisbon, where he arrived on 
10 January, 1667/8. After being admitted to the 
priesthood he was sent on the mission to England 
in the year 1682, and in the violent controversy 
whioh was carried on during the reign of James II., 
be was the principal champion of the Catholic 
cause. In 1704 he sailed from this country for 
Lisbon, and died at sea on 13 October in that year. 
There is a full account of him and his works 
by Mr. Thompson Cooper in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography.' Among numerous authorities 
Mr. Cooper quotes ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. i. 510. 


S. x. 455). See 'N. & Q.,' 1" S. viii. 621 ; 2 nd 
S. viii. 227 ; ix. 74, 105 ; x. 289, 376 ; 3 rd S. vi. 
92 ; 4 th S. i. 459, 515; Lathbury'a 'History of 
Nonjurors'; 'Life and Writings of Charles Leslie, 
NoDJuror and Divine'; * William Law, Nonjuror 
and Mystic.' BAYARD 0. DIXON. 

20, Leigham Vale, Streatham. 

Your correspondent I. F. M. C. might examine 
a MS. at the Record Office, described as a " List 

of Papists and Nonjurors refusing to take the Oaths, 
1, 2, & 3 Geo. I., Various Counties." I fear, how- 
ever, he will be unable to distinguish the Non- 
jurors, properly so called, from the Catholic 
Recusants, who form the overwhelming majority 
of the persons named in the above document. I 
have a copy of the list for Herefordshire. 

Town Hall, Cardiff, 

For information respecting the Nonjurors in 
Manchester and the district around, see * Lanca- 
shire : its Puritanism and Nonconformity/ by 
Robert Halley, 1872; 'Lancashire Nonconformity,' 
by the Rev. B. Nightingale, 1893 ; ' Historical 
Sketches of Nonconformity in the County Palatine 
of Chester,' by W. Urwick, 1864. Canon Raines's 
MS. at the Chetham Library, Manchester, con- 
tains notes respecting the above. 


The correspondent who asked for information 
regarding the Nonjurors will find what he wants 
probably in the Rev. T. Lathbury's 'History of 
the Nonjurors ' (Lond., 1845). T. 

The man to answer this, if I. F. M. 0. will only 
apply to him direct, is the gentleman who has the 
honour, I believe, to be the oldest living con- 
tributor of 'N. & Q.,' that "grand old man" the 
REV. JOHN INGLE DREDGE, the veteran rector of 
Buckland Brewer, near Bideford. None knows 
the history of English theology at the end of 
the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth 
century as he does, and his courtesy and readiness 
to give information is an example, indeed, to us 
younger men. MR. DREDGE contributed to vol. ii. 
of the 'Palatine Note-Book' a most interesting 
list of the Nonjurors of Chester diocese, and his 
knowledge of the West Country will enable him to 
add much on that topic. 



'LAST SUPPER' (6 th S. ix. 507 ; x. 89 ; and 'The 
Last Supper,' x. 129, 197). The following is an 
extract from ' Christ in Art,' by Dean Farrar : 

" The arrangement follows to some extent the ancient 
tradition. Christ is seated in the midst of His Apostles 
at the further side of the table ; the other side is left 
unoccupied. The Apostles are divided into four groups 
of threes, into which they have been broken up by 
the electric shock of the words, ' Amen dico vobis quia 
unus vestrura me traditurua sit.' Christ Himself 
remains majestic in His isolation. Hia eyes are bent 
downwards ; His gesture shows how awfully He has felt 
His own words, but He is not watching the effect they 
have produced. At the right of the Saviour, Peter 
is leaning across the traitor Judas to whisper in the 
ear of the youthful and beautiful St. John that he 
should ask Christ whom He meant to indicate. Peter 
is ardent and excited ; John is sunk in sorrow. Judas 
is grasping the bag in his right hand, while his left, 
half-lifted from the table, shows that he, too, has been 

8 h S. XI, JAN. 16, '97. J 



alarmed; his face is powerful and bad, but not revolting. 
His arm has at least in Raphael Mengs' engraving 
with evil omen upset the saltcellar. St. James, at 
Christ's left, is shrinking back with a gesture of wild 
sorrow and astonishment, while one Apostle has started 
up and is laying his hand on his heart, and another 
leans across St. James to attract Christ's attention by 
his uplifted finger to the eager question, ' Lord, is it I ? ' 

In this great picture Leonardo broke with all past 

tradition, cast a spark of fire into the assembly, and 
boldly ventured to change the quiet familiar celebration of 
Christ's Last Supper into a scene of passionate dramatic 
action. And yet only such a master could maintain 
that noble moderation in the midst of this ferment of 
feeling, in which sadness, pain, uncertainty, anger, in 
dignation, and even horror, are combined.*" 


"IMPERIUM ET LIBERTAS" (8 th S. x. 453). 
"Imperium et libertas" appears to have become 
in the seventeenth century the common form of 
quotation. In Spencer's * Things New and Old,' 
with a preface by Fuller in 1657, section 124 
begins: "'Divus Nerva,' says Tacitus, 'duas res 
olim insatiabiles conjunxit, imperium et liber ta- 
tem.' " The not inappropriate variant will not fail 
of observation. A former contributor to'N. &Q.,' 
PROF. J. E. T. ROGERS, objected to the colloca- 
tion of the two substantives in Disraeli's speech. 
But I cannot remember where his remarks were 
seen. There was an edition of Spencer in 1867 ; 
the passage is in vol. i. p. 56. The Professor's 
objection was that libertas ought to come first, 
and must have been so in the quotation. The 
references to Cicero, 'Philipp.,' iv. 4, viii. 3, may 
serve to justify the objection. ED. MARSHALL.' 

It may assist to an elucidation of the origin of 
this phrase if it is noted that 10 Nov., 1879, was 
not the first occasion upon which Lord Beacons- 
field publicly used it. In the peroration of his 
speech of 11 Feb., 1851, in the House of Commons, 
on agricultural distress, the then Mr, Disraeli 
observed that "the land of England" was "that 

> Lubke, ' History of Art,' ii. 217. According to 
Stendhal, the exact explanation of the picture is as 
follows : Judas half turns to discover of whom St. Peter 
is speaking so passionately, and is preparing himself 
to deny everything. But he is already discovered. 
St. James the Leas, passing his arm over the shoulder 
of St. Andrew, touches St. Peter to tell him that the 
traitor is at his side. St. Andrew looks at Judas with 
horror, and St. Bartholomew at the end of the table has 
started up from his seat to regard him more intently. 
At the left of Christ St. James protests his innocence 
by a natural gesture, opening his arms to expose his 
defenceless breast. St. Thomas, pressing near to Christ, 
seems to ask, 'One of us? ' St. Philip, the youngest of 
the Apostles, places his hands on his heart and rises to 
protest his fidelity. St. Matthew repeats the terrible 
words to the indignant St. Simon, who refuses to believe 
them. St. Thaddeus, who has first told them to him, 
points to St. Matthew to confirm them. The dying 
rays of evening light add deeper sombreness to the sad 
face of the Christ. Stendhal, ' Hiatoire de la Peinture 
Italienne.' " 

land which has achieved the union of those two 
qualities for combining which a Roman emperor 
was deified, ' imperium et libertas." Who was 
that Roman emperor ? ALFRED F. ROBBINS. 

'THE MILL,' A POEM (8 th S. x. 51, 422). 
Does A. M. mean Tom Taylor's 'The Mill/ 
included in Birket Foster's 'Pictures of English 
Landscape,' p. 51 ? The date of publication, 1863, 
is considerably less than seventy years ago, but, 
as the querist is uncertain about the date, it may 
be the reference he requires. I quote the poem 
in full for identification, because it is short, and 
because it is a farther contribution to S. W.'s 
'Windmills' subject (8 th S. ix. 488) : 

The Mill. 

Black and weather-warped and old, 
Looking o'er the windy wold, 
Gaunt and grim and rearing high 
Its ragged sails against the sky, 
For many a year hath stood the mill j 
Hath heard the plover's eager cry, 
Hath seen the blue cloud-shadows fly 
Across the heath, athwart the hill.. 
Births and deaths, with lives between^ 
Of many a miller, it hath seen ; 
Many a pair of stones worn out, 
Many a set of gearing stout, 
But change of fashion, time and tide, 
The ancient mill hath still defied. 
In its place upon the hill 
Sweeping sails or standing still 
Emblem of enduring will. 
Serving with a constant mind, 
Though it serve the inconstant wind. 

The volume from which this poem is taken ia 
highly valued by art connoisseurs on account of its 
engravings. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

It is highly probable this Catholic prelate was a 
member of the good old Monmouthshire family, 
the Williamses of Monmouth, Usk, Llangibby, &c., 
which gave many ecclesiastics to the Church. A 
recently deceased member was the very Rev. 
Monsignor William Williams, Vicar General of 
the diocese of Newport and Menevia, and rector 
of St. David's, Cardiff, where he died 1895. la 
default of more precise information, this may 
perhaps help MR. BATSON to obtain the particulars 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

SIR HORACE ST. PAUL (8 th S. x. 356, 466, 500). 
Thanks to the communications of MESSRS. WEL- 
FORD and WALFORD, I have in a measure satisfied 
my curiosity as to the lineage of this now extinct 
name, though the accounts to which these gentle- 
men refer me do not impart facts bearing upon the 
rise of the house, i. e. y what particular early brain 
it was that laid the foundation of the patrimony 
which enabled its members to enjoy the revenues 
of a goodly Northumberland estate, and how and 
when this same family got into that county. Were 


[8xS.XI. JAN. 16, '97. r 

they of the Scotch Paula ? But my antiquarian 
curiosity touches mainly the first Sir Horace, 1775- 
1840, arising merely from a batch of old letters that 
have lately come into my possession, causing in me 
a desire to know what he stood distinguished for 
in the eyes of his contemporaries ; what stroke of 
fortune it was, political or otherwise, secured for 
him his title ; and whether any of the readers of 
* N. & Q,' could point out some account of him. 
In fact, I seek a general outline of his career. He 
is called a Count of the Holy Eoman Empire ! 
What had he to do with the fortunes of that lapsed 
empire ? Was he born at Wooler ; did he die 
there ; and what are the words to be found upon 
his tombstone ? Did he endow anything for the 
benefit of that ancient town ; and does his name 
appear in any of the county histories ? Who now 
owns Ewart Hall, House, or Park ? Whence came 
the Choi well name, which he bore ? I know of 
one, too, who bore it as a personal name. Sir 
Horace is mentioned in terms of considerable regard 
in these old epistles belonging to me, and I got the 
impression that he must have been a man of social 
brilliancy, highly endowed with characteristics 
which would have served well both the pen and 
the pencil of Thackeray. SBLPPUC. 

x. 415). Norman Kolls beginning with that for 
2 John are preserved in the Tower, a portion of 
which has been published. A catalogue was also 
published by Thomas Carte, in 2 vols. folio, 
London, 1743. The earliest begins, " Hie est 
rotulus Cartarum et Cyrographarum Normannise 

factus Anno 2 regni Regis Johannis " (Sims's 

'Manual'). ED. MARSHALL. 

LONGEVITY (8 th S. x. 516). I think PROF. 
SEBAT and the other lexicographers will be too wise 
to trouble themselves about such a word as MR. 
PALMER suggests. It will not be wanted. If the 
race is increasingly longsevous, it will only be, say, 
that where five lived to be a hundred, seven may 
do it. I entirely disbelieve 110 years ; and I 
should have thought any reader of Mr. Thoms's 
book would do so. I have seen in my life some 
four or five people turned of ninety years ; and 
when I remember the state of weakness they were 
in, I hardly know how to think it possible that 
they should live ten years longer, let alone twenty. 
Of course it is possible, because it has happened ; 
but it wants proof. I do not ask MR. PALMER to 
prove the age of his ancient friend, but he must 
not ask people to believe it without proof. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 
Longford, Coventry. 

It may be worth recording in your columns that 
there is living in this town a man, named Patrick 
Hayes, who was born in the County Cork more 
than a hundred years ago. He remembers the 

French landing in Bantry Bay in 1798, and be- 
lieves he was then at least five years old. He sings 
long-forgotten patriotic ditties about Nelson and 
"Old Boneyparty," can read and write without 
much difficulty, and has scarcely a grey hair in his 
thickly-covered head. I often talk Irish with him, 
and saw him at early Mass on Christmas Day. 
This wonderful old man walks out in the coldest 
weather without an overcoat, but pathetically 
laments that he is getting hard of hearing. He is 
a great-great-grandfather, and has a perfect regi- 
ment of descendants. Endeavours have been made 
to find the registration of his baptism, but it appears 
that in those troublous times the registers were not 
kept. I remember that some years ago medical men 
of eminence roundly denied the existence of centen- 
arians, but this sort of scepticism has not been 
advanced so freely of late. 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

The subject of longevity was so abundantly discussed 
in the time of Mr. Thorns, that the present Editor is, 
like his predecessor, solicitous to avoid it.] 

FEMALE NAMES : Avis AND JOYCE (8 th S. x. 
254). These names are by no means rare. Here 
is an extract from the marriages in the Daily News 
of 3 Oct., 1893 : 

" Power Weiss. 28th Sept., at St. Peter and St. 
Edward's Roman Catholic Church, Westminster, by the 
Rev. J. Butler, John O'Connor Power, formerly M.P. 
for the county of Mayo, and Avis, widow of the late 
Hubert Poveaux Weiss, Esq., P.R.C.S.Eng." 

In 1894 the Daily News chronicled the marriage 
of Avice Laura Puddy on 27 Jan., and death of 
Avice Hope Kydon on 29 Aug., both at Brighton. 

The name Avice is, I suppose, the same as 
Hawise, Hadewisa, &c. 

Old John Lightfoot, a rather notable divine of 
the seventeenth century, married Joyce Compton. 
On 17 Nov., 1893, the Daily News had a notice 
of the strange death of Joyce Jones ; and from the 
Suffolk Times and Mercury of 25 Sept., 1896, I 
append the following : 

"Cullum. On the 14th September, at Shotley, 
Richard, husband of Joyce Maria Cullum, aged 59 years." 

As these are mere casual gleanings, it will be 
obvious that these pretty names may almost be 
called common. JAMES HOOPER. 


Miss Yonge, in her 'History of Christian Names/ 
1863, refers (vol. ii. p. 212) to Haduwig, " which 
the old German name-writer, Luther, makes war 
refuge,'' as the source of the English names 
Havoise, Hawoyse, Havoisia, Avice, Avicia, Avis. 
Mr. Robert Ferguson, in his 'Teutonic Name- 
System/ 1864, thinks that from the stem av t Goth. 
avo= ancestor (?), extended to cwn'a, come Eng. 
Avis, Aviz (p. 290). 

Both Auiza and Avicia are found in the ' Liber 
Vitse Ecclesise Dunelmensis ' (Surtees Society). 

S. XI. JAN. 16, '97.] 



occurs on p. 53, and is referred to about 
the beginning of the thirteenth century. 

Canon Bardsley says that "Joyce," sometimes 
the result of a mere nickname, is nothing more than 
" Jocosa." It is difficult to see how it can be so 
derived.' Does it not rather come from Fr. joyeuse ? 


Before 1600 one constantly meets with these two 
names, both in English and under the Latin 
forms, as cited by MR. PICKFORD, but I have never 
had the good fortune to meet with any one in the 
flesh bearing either, or those two other female 
names, in their day equally common, Effane and 
Gilian. Nicholas Corsellis had daughters baptized 
at the Dutch Church, London : Josine in 1592, 
Jossynken in 1596, Josyntken in 1602. Their 
mother was nee Joyce Vannaker. I suppose Josine 
is the Dutch form, and that Jossynken = Little 

Eden Bridge. 

Miss "Avis" Webster, sister of Sir Richard 
Webster, M. P., lives, and is I trust in good health. 
"Joyce" Stewart, net Green, was nurse in my 
family for many years, but recently died. 


[Very many replies to the same effect are acknow- 

ST. SAMPSON (8 tb S. viii. 427 ; ix. 16 ; x. 79, 
199, 324). The notion of Ross as to Cricklade, 
i. q., with Grsecolade or Greekolade, has been 
shown to be a myth. See J. Parker's * Early 
History of Oxford,' 1885, pp. 1-16, 26-32. Had- 
dan and Stubbs (Bishop), in their ' Councils and 
Ecclesiastical Documents of Great Britain and Ire- 
land,' vol. i. p. 159, state of Bishop Sampson : 

"Hia fictitious Archiepiacopates at York and at St. 
David's appear first in the pages respectively of Geoffrey 
of Monmouth and of GiraMus Cambrensis, the fiction 
about his pall being due to the latter." 


' HARDYKNUTE ' (8 th S. x. 476). The history 
of this ballad was summed up by Mr. Robert 
Chambers, in his pamphlet on 'The Romantic 
Scottish Ballads : their Epoch and Authorship,' 
1859, in the following words : 

" In 1719 there appeared, in a folio sheet, at Edinburgh, 
a heroic poem styled ' Hardyknute,' written in affectedly 
old spelling, as if it had been a contemporary descrip- 
tion of events connected with the invasion of Scotland 
by Haco, King of Norway, in 1263. A corrected copy 
was soon after presented in the * Evergreen ' of Allan 
Ramsay, a collection professedly of poems written before 
1600, but into which we know the editor admitted a piece 
written by himself. ' Hardyknute ' was afterwards re- 
printed in Percy's 'Reliques,' still as an ancient com- 
position; yet it was soon after declared to be the 
production of a Lady Wardlaw, of Pitreavie, who died 
so lately as 1727. Although, to modern taste, a stiff and 
poor composition, there is a nationality of feeling about 
it, and a touch of chivalric spirit, that has maintained 
for it a certain degree of popularity. Sir Walter Scott 

tells us it was the first poem he ever learned by heart, 
and he believed it would be the last he should forget." 

The object of Mr. Chambers in writing this 
essay was to show that not only ' Hardyknute,' 
but * Sir Patrick Spens ' and many more of the 
Scottish romantic ballads, were due to the pen of 
Lady Wardlaw ; but this position was vigorously 
and in the opinion of the best authorities success- 
fully, assailed by an esteemed correspondent of 
' N. & Q.,' the late MR. NORVAL CLYNB, of Aber- 
deen, in a pamphlet entitled ' The Romantic 
Scottish Ballads and the Lady Wardlaw Heresy/ 
MR. CLTNB, however, while manfully defending 
the claims of * Sir Patrick Spens,' * Gil Morrice,' 
' Gilderoy,' and many others, " as genuine relics of 
the old minstrelsy of Scotland," was forced to admit 
that Lady Wardlaw wrote the ballad of ' Hardy- 
knute.' This lady was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Charles Halket, of Pitfirran, and was born in 1677. 
She was the wife of Sir Henry Wardlaw, of Pit- 
reavie, and died in 1727. She was described by 
her relations as " a woman of elegant accomplish- 
ments, who wrote other poems, and practised 
drawing, and cutting paper with her scissors, and 
who had much wit and humour, with great sweet- 
ness of temper." That she was the author of 
'Hardyknute' was stated by members of her 
family after her death, and was more than half 
acknowledged by herself, and, notwithstanding 
the usual attempts at mystification in such cases, 
there appears to be no reason for doubting the 
statement of the Edinburgh reviewer. If MR. 
BATNB does not know the pamphlets I have cited, 
I can promise him a very pleasant afternoon's 
reading at any time when they may come in his 
way. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

MAINWARING DEED (8 th S. x. 175, 221). The 
Chartularium at Peover Hall, Cheshire, is pro- 
bably the one referred to. A precis of it, so far as 
the various spellings (" Diversifyings ") of the sur- 
name 394 in all are concerned, will be found 
in H. Green's * Knutsford ' (1859), pp. 46-7. 


Salterton, Devon. 

SAUNDERSON FAMILY (8* 11 S. ix. 429 ; x. 35). 
"The Genealogist's Guide to Printed Pedigrees 

by George W. Marshall, LL.D. London: 

Bell & Sons, 1879," gives the following : 

11 Saunderson. Burke's * Landed Gentry,' 2, and 
supp. 3, 4, 5 ; ' History of Blyth,' by Rev. John Raine, 
75 ; Hunter's ' History of the Parish of Sheffield,' 398 ; 
Hunter's Deanery of Doncaster,' i. 274 ; Thoroton'a 
'Nottinghamshire,' iii. 427." 


St. Austin's, Warrington. 

LEATHER CHALICE CASES (8 th S. x, 453). Such 
a case was described a few years ago in a paper 
read before the Cumberland and Westmoreland 



S. XI. JAN. 16, '97. 

Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. I believe 
the paper is printed in vol. viii. of the Society's 
Transactions. Q. V. 

This lady was daughter of George (Carpenter), first 
Earl of Tyrconnel ; she died in 1809. Sir Joshua 
Reynolds painted her portrait in 1768-9 ; it was 
engraved by J. R. Smith, Watson, and S. W. 
Reynolds. The picture was sold in Sir R. Price's 
sale (1854) for 250?. G. W. TOMLINSON. 


She was eldest daughter of George, first Earl of 
Tyrconnel (which title became extinct in 1853), 
and died unmarried 5 Oct., 1809. Her connexion 
with the Packes I do not find. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

Longford, Coventry. 

Lady Almeria Carpenter was the eldest daughter 
of George, first Earl of Tyrconnel. She was pro- 
bably connected with the Packes through her 
mother, Frances, the only daughter of Sir Robert 
Clifton. Lady Almeria died, according to Burke's 
'Extinct Peerage,' on 5 Oct., 1809. 

(jr. F. R. B. 

A SQUIB WANTED (8 th S. x. 435 ; xi. 12). I 
am thankful to R. R. for his vigorous defence of 
Gavazzi's person and eloquence, and I can fully 
bear out his testimony to both. Shortly before his 
death I had the privilege of both hearing and 
speaking to him, and found him all that R. R. says 
of him. Though a foreigner, he spoke and wrote 
English en maitre, as his sermons and works testified. 
The only volume of his that I possess is entitled 
' My Recollections of the last Four Popes/ pub- 
lished in 1858, a splendid specimen of his mastery 
of English and of his dialectic skill. In person, 
too, he was the very reverse of despicable a man 
of commanding presence and wonderful power of 
eye and gesture. R. R.'s note is nothing but sheer 
justice to a man who bore enough obloquy in his 
life to deserve not to be traduced after his death. 

J. B. S. 

JOHN ANDR (8 tb S. xi. 8). For Major Andres 
ancestry, consult Chester's * Westminster Abbey 
Registers,' and for the inscriptions on the Andre* 
vaults refer to Robinson's ' History of Hackney,' 
vol. ii. p. 47. Col. Chester says that " the precise 
time and place of his [Andrews] birth or baptism 
have not been ascertained. It is very probable 
that he was born at Paris, where his mother's 
father lived and died." Robinson does not give 
the date of Andre's birth, but he distinctly mentions 
where it took place. " Major Andre" was born at 
Clapton, in one of the three houses situated im- 
mediately at the back of the pond " (vol. i. p. 295). 
This was written in 1842. 


34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

(8 th S. xi. 5). The terrible story from Russia, 
contributed by H. E. M., recalls in some respects 
an incident related by Scott, in his ' Tales of a 
Grandfather,' to illustrate the ferocity of the High- 
landers during the reign of James I. of Scotland. 
One of the MacDonalds had shoes nailed to the feet 
of a poor widow whom he had robbed. When her 
wounds were healed, she travelled on foot from 
Ross-shire to Edinburgh, and complained to the 
king. James caused MacDonald and twelve 
followers to be seized, shod in the same manner, 
publicly exhibited thus for three days, and then 
executed. E. G. CLAYTON. 


226, 256, 357, 437 ; x. 439). The word gannef 
(also spelt ganf, but always pronounced as two 
syllables, with the accent on the first) is used in 
Dutch in the sense of thief, rogue, and is often 
playfully applied to a boy that has cleverly appro- 
priated a thing of little value. According to Van 
Dale's ' Woordenboek ' it is a corruption of Hebr. 
ganndb. E. 


HILL, SCOTTISH ARTIST (8 th S. xi. 8). The 
note by the Editor of ' N. & Q.' is taken from my 
first edition. In the second edition, Mrs. A. R. 
Hill is included in Mrs. D. 0. Hill, her Christian 
name being Amelia R.; she was a sculptress. 


ATTERBURY (8 th S. ix. 249). In answer to 
ATTERBURY'S query, I can say that the Rev. Lewis 
Atterbury, LL.D., had three sons and a daughter. 
The last married George Sweetapple, of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, brewer. Their daughter, 
Penelope Sweetapple, was living in 1811 (vide 
Lysons's ' Environs,' vol. ii. p. 435). Bedingfield's 
two brothers died young. He, himself, died soon 
after he bad entered holy orders. His mother 
was Penelope, daughter of John Bedingfield, Esq. 
The Rev. Lewis Atterbury, rector of Sywell, co. 
Northampton (also thirty-six years preacher of 
Highgate Chapel ; twenty-four years, 1707-31, 
rector of Shepperton, co. Middlesex ; and eleven 
years rector of Hornsey), died at Bath, 20 Oct., 
1731, aged seventy-six. He is buried in Hornsey 
Chapel (M.I.). If ATTERBURY will write to me, 
I shall be happy to send him a few notes I have 
on the Atterbury family. CHAS. A. BBRNAU. 

Clare House, Lee, Kent. 

xi. 7). I possess a list of nearly three hundred 
parish registers which have been printed for sale 
either by subscription or privately, about two dozen 
in books or periodicals, and one hundred and forty 
which have been copied, the transcripts of many 
of them being either in the British Museum or the 

8> h S. XI. JAN. 16, '97.] 



College of Arms. I have no account of the printing 
of the Petworth registers, which contain baptisms, 
marriages, and burials from 1559 to 1812. One of 
an earlier date appears to be missing. By 52 
George III. c. 146, the new register commenced in 
1813. See also ' N. & Q.,' 1S. iii. 449, 485, 510; 

71, Brecknock Road. 

JUDGE GUEST (8 th S. x. 517). It is probable 
that John Guest, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, 
was identical with John Guest, son of Eichard 
Guest, of Stafford, pleb. He matriculated from 
Pembroke College, Oxford, 10 May, 1667, then 
aged seventeen, and was admitted to Lincoln's Inn 
in 1670 (Foster's ' Alumni Oxonienses,' 1500-1714, 
ii. 617). DANIEL HIPWBLL. 

MOLLY LEPEL (8* S. x. 516). The ballad of 
which an extract is given by Mr. Austin Dobson 
in his charming essay on Lady Hervey is said to 
have been the joint composition of the celebrated 
Earls of Chesterfield and Bath. It will be found 
in Jesse's * George Selwyn and his Contemporaries,' 
i. 214. 

The lines were written in imitation of the well- 
known ballad of 'Molly Mog,' which was first 
published in Mist's Weekly Journal, No. 70, 
27 Aug., 1726, a parody on it having been printed 
in the previous number. In the number for 
10 Sept., 1726, Mr. Mist printed a number of 
additional verses, which had been furnished by the 
" wits in town." The ballad was reprinted, with 
a "burlesque" on it, in the Weekly Journal of 
1 Oct., 1726. It then reappeared in Pope and 
Swift's ' Miscellanies,' 1727; but is not to be 
found in any edition of Gay's works printed 
before 1773. 

The ballad 

on Molly Lepel must have been 
written almost immediately after the appearance 
of E Molly Mog in Mist's Weekly Journal, as 
Arbuthnot writes to Swift, under date 8 Nov., 
1726, that Lady Hervey was 

' in a little sort of a miff about a ballad, that was wrote 

on her, to the tune of ' Molly Mog,' and sent to her, in 

e name of a begging poet. She was bit, and wrote a 

to the begging poet, and desired him to change 

o double entendres; which the author?, Mr. Pulteney 

and Lord Chesterfield, changed to single entendres. I 

was against that, though I had a hand in the first. She 

is not displeased, I believe, with the ballad, but only with 

being bit." 

Mary, or Molly, Mog was the daughter of John 
Mog, who kept the " Rose Inn " at Oakingham, or 
Wokmgham, in Berkshire. He died in 1736. His 
daughter, who never married, survived him thirty 
years, and died on 7 March, 1766, in her sixty- 
seventh year. She was thus the same age as Lady 
dervey, who died on 2 Sept., 1768, leaving behind 
r an unrivalled reputation for charm, for beauty, 
and a daintiness of taste which ensured the friend- 
ship of Horace Walpole, and enhanced the com- 

forts of feminine life by the introduction into 
England of bouquet-holders from her much-loved 
Paris.* W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

The ballad to which your correspondent refers 
appears in * The New Foundling Hospital for Wit/ 
pt. v. pp. 45-7, 1772. It is entitled " A Ballad, 
by the Earls of Chesterfield and Bath " (see Swift's 
1 Works,' vol. xviii. p. 324). The first two verses 

are : 

The Muses, quite jaded with rhyming, 

To Molly Mogg bid a farewel, 
But renew their sweet melody chyming, 
To the name of dear Molly Lapel. 

Bright Venus yet never saw bedded, 

So perfect a beau and a belle, 
As when Hervey the handsome was wedded 

To the beautiful Molly La 1. 

The ballad contains sixteen verses. 


These are the concluding lines of an epigram of 
which the full text is : 

For Venus sure never saw bedded 

So comely a beau and a belle, 
As when Hervey the handsome was wedded 

To the beautiful Molly Lepel. 

It is quoted in G. E. 0. 's new peerage ; but not 
having the book by me, I cannot remember if the 
author is there given. H. J. B. CLEMENTS. 

These lines are from " the most modest couplet 
which can be gleaned from the parody of ' Molly 
Mogg ' by Chesterfield and Pulteney " (Edin. 
Rev., October, 1848, p. 430). 



" DEAR KNOWS n (8 th S. xi. 6). This expression 
is frequently in the mouths of ladies and other of 
the old school in Durham. I used to think it was 

" I) id knows " that they said. 

J. T. F. 

DUKE OF GLOUCESTER (8 th S. x. 515 ; xi. 18). 
Prince William (Henry ?) commonly called, but 
never actually created, Duke of Gloucester, the 
only surviving son and heir apparent of Princess 
(afterwards Queen) Anne, died 30 July, 1700, not 
29. He was born 24 July, 1689, as MR. W. H. 
CUMMINGS correctly states, and had, therefore, just 
entered his twelfth year when he died. In 1696 
he was only seven, instead of sixteen. C. H. 

BULL AND BOAR (8 th S. x. 355, 477). Is it not 
recorded of the township of Troutbeck, in the 
parish of Applethwaite, Westmorland, that they 
used to have three hundred bulls, three hundred 
boars, and three hundred constables? The ex- 
planation of this apparently abnormal state of 

* See 'Walpole Correspondence,' ed. Cunningham, 
ii. 405. Walpole, in writing to Geo. Montague, 16 Nov., 
1754, describes this bouquet-holder as a tin funnel 
covered with green ribbon, which held water. 



S. XI. JAN. 16, '97. 

affairs lies in the fact that the township is divided 
into three hundreds, each of which had its own 
special bull, boar, and constable. Q. V. 

SIR JOHN JERVIS (7 th S. ix. 48 ; 8 th S. xi. 17). 
Sir John Jervis was the last holder of the office 
of Chief Justice of Chester, and when it was 
abolished in 1830 received as compensation an 
annuity of 1,015?. 12s. See the recently issued 
' History of the Ancient City of Chester,' by 
George Lee Fenwick. He was member for the 
city from 1835 to 1852. He was originally in the 
army. In 1846 he was Attorney General, and 
succeeded Lord Truro as Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas. He died suddenly at 47, Eaton 
Square, on 1 November, 1856. 


This celebrated lawyer was a cousin of Lord St. 
Vincent, being the second son of Mr. Thos. Jervia, 
Q.C., sometime Counsel to the Admiralty and Chief 
Justice of Chester. He was born in 1802, and 
was for some years in the army before he was 
called to the bar. He went the Oxford and Chester 
circuits. He was M.P. for Chester 1832-50, and 
became Attorney General in 1846. He married, 
in 1824, Catherine, daughter of Mr. A. Mundell, 
of Westminster. In 1850 he succeeded Lord 
Truro as Chief Justice, and died in Eaton Square 
1 Nov., 1856. For a full account of him see Dod's 
'Parliamentary Companion,' 1850, and Hardwicke's 
'Annual Biography and Obituary for 1857.' 


An excellent portrait of this judge may be seen 
at Soughton Hall, near Northop, Flintshire, the 
residence of John Eldon Bankes, Esq., his grand- 
son on the mother's side. 


The portrait of this judge was painted by Henry 
Weigall, and was published in ] 857. 




The lines, " Oh gentle spirit know from hence," &c., 
are from ' Sensibility, an Epistle to the Honourable Mrs. 
Boscawen,' by Hannah More, 11. 293 to 306. The full 
context is : 

Since trifles make the sum of human thing?, 

And half our misery from our foibles springs; 

Since life's best joys consist in peace and ease; 

And though but few can serve, yet all may please ; 

let th' ungentle spirit learn from hence, 

A small unkindness is a great offence. 

To spread large bounties, though we wish in vain, 

Yet all may shun [not share] the guilt of giving pain : 

To bless mankind with tides of flowing wealth, 

With rank to grace them, or to crown with health, 

Our little lot denies ; yet lib'ral still, 

Heaven gives its counterpoise to every ill j 

Nor let us murmur at our stinted powers, 

When kindness, love, and concord may be ours. 



Records and Record Searching. By Walter Rye. Second 

Edition. (G. Allen.) 
THE prophecy made, 7 th S. vi. 99, that the genealogist 
and the topographer, for whom Mr. Walter Rye specially 
writes, would not have long to wait for a second edition 
of his ' Records and Record Searching ' has been ful- 
filled, and an enlarged edition now sees the light. The 
additions to the index are of special importance, aug- 
menting by one-half that most useful and most im- 
portant feature. Of his second, as of his first attempt 
to aid the explorer in the British Museum and in the 
Record Office, Mr. Rye speaks in terms of becoming 
modesty, styling it an " omnium gatherum of references 
and cross references, not only to the book itself, but of 
entries contained in various other works on the Records, 
&c." Such as it is, it has been a boon to very many 
readers, and is, in its line, the simplest and most intel- 
ligible guide in existence. A knowledge where to find 
documents of certain classes is confined to the very few ; 
and a man seeking to write the history of a family or a 
parish is likely, besides wasting his own time by futile 
inquiries in the wrong quarter?, to make himself a 
nuisance to his better-informed friends. The recent 
labours of Mr. Phillimore and Mr. Scargill-Bird have 
done much to save labour and facilitate research. On 
the whole, though it is not, and cannot be, complete, 
Mr. Rye's volume is, in regard to its declared purpose, 
the handiest and most serviceable we possess. Ita 
scheme is less ambitious than that of Mr. Scargill-Bird'a 
guide official, in a sense ' The Principal Classes of 
Documents in the Public Record Office.' As a guide, 
however, to the topographer and the genealogist it is not 
less indispensable. Numerous correspondents, who in- 
undate us with queries on these subjects, may be coun- 
selled to furnish themselves with this reimpression of an 
important work, which of late years has been not too 

The Oxford English Dictionary. Edited by Dr. Jamea 
A. H. Murray. Disobst Distrustful. (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press.) 

MANY words, the history of which, now first given, is of 
highest interest are contained in the new part of ' The 
Oxford English Dictionary.' Before glancing at one or 
two of these it is worth while to state that the rate of 
progress, with some difficulty attained, and that of effi- 
ciency, observable from the first, are alike preserved. 
The number of words recorded is almost double that in 
the most ambitious of competitors, and the number of 
illustrative quotations is 7,316, against 1,179 in the ' Cen- 
tury Dictionary,' which in this regard runs it most 
closely. The present part may claim to possess, in dis- 
proportionableness, the longest word, according to the 
number of letters, in the English language. Dispensation, 
in theological use, indicating a religious order or system, 
conceived as a stage in a progressive revelation, expressly 
adapted to the needs of a particular nation or period of 
time, takes its rise in the seventeenth century, about the 
middle of which it appears. On the word there is a 
note to the effect that it is " an extension of the patristic 
use of the word as applied to the evangelical system 

based on the Incarnation the patriarchial and Mosaic 

' dispensations ' being conceived as prophetic of the 
Christian, all being one in substance though differing in 
form." The origin of this sense of the word is found 
in the use in the New Testament and by patristic 
writers of the Latin dispensatio in the sense of the 

8' S. XI. JAN. 18, '97.] 



Greek oiKovopia. In connexion with this word one will 
naturally consider the verb dispense. The history of 
this sense of the word, like that of distribution of the 
predicate, is now first given. The application of dis- 
position to a natural tendency or bent of the mind, espe- 
cially in regard to moral or social qualities as a man 
of a good or cheerful disposition is held to be possibly of 
astrological origin, as we say of temperament that it is 
jovial, mercurial, or saturnine. The ugly and caco- 
phonous word disprobabilize is found thrice in Bentham, 
but in no other writer. The first quotation for disseat 
unseat, from 'Macbeth,' "This push will cheere me 
ever or diseate me now," is held, justly, to be doubtful ; 
the opposition to "cheer "seems to require "disease," 
which is the reading of folios 2, 3, and 4. Much valu- 
able information is supplied on disseisin, the privative 
of seisin. The use of Latin dissaisina goes back to 1167. 
Dissent, with a religious application or connexion, occurs 
about 1535 ; the word dissenter, used to indicate one who 
dissents in matters of religious belief, is nearly a century 
later ; dissenter=non conformist, as a matter of reproach, 
is heard of about 1680. Dissimulate, a solitary instance 
of the use of which by Lord Bernera, in 1533, is given, is 
rare before the end of the eighteenth century, and is not 
in Johqson. Webster gives no instance before 1828. 
Dissipated, in the sense of dissolute, occurs so early as 
1744 ; dissipation, in a similar sense, is first encountered 
in Cowper's ' Task,' 1784 ; the intransitive verb is not met 
with in that sense until half a century later. In distaff, 
the one old English word in " Dis " in the part, dis is 
said to be apparently identical with the Low German 
diasse, a bunch of flax on a distaff. Very curious is the 
growth of distance, in its various significations, from th.e 
Old French destance=<Hecor<l, quarrel. Another word 
the history of which is interesting and curious is dis- 
temper. For nonsense words, Gayton's * Festivous Notes 
to " Don Quixote" ' seems principally responsible. No 
instance earlier than Swift or Defoe is found of the use 
of distinction as indicative of social rank. The valuable 
essay on distribution, in regard to logic, is too long to be 
dealt with in our columns, but will be studied with great 
advantage. The next part will carry the letter D to 
" Doom." The whole of D is far advanced. 

The English Dialect Dictionary. Edited by Joseph 
Wright, M.A., Ph.D. Part II. Ballow Blare. 

Pari passu with * The Oxford English Dictionary ' 
proceeds 'The English Dialect Dictionary,' a work of 
scarcely less value and importance to philologists. In 
one sense the completion of the task which began the 
later will contribute more directly to the convenience 
of scholars than that of 'The Oxford Dictionary,' 
English dictionaries which, if not complete and final, 
are at least modern and of great utility, are at hand 
and easily accessible. To [get at the sense of a dialect 
word one has to turn to a dozen glossaries, with no 
certainty of finding it after all. When found, even, 
the use in one place may be different from that in 
another. The progress of the present work is, accord- 
ingly, contemplated with pleasure proportionate to the 
magnitude of the task attempted. To take a few of the 
words or phrases of which full explanations are given, 
we find barley-break, allusions to which occur often in 
Tudor literature. The illustrations to this are varied, 
and the account how the game is played is not less 
valuable for being already accessible (see " Barlebreak ") 
in Nares. Elaborate illustration is supplied of the appli- 
cation of the word beast throughout the United King- 
dom to an animal of the ox kind, as opposed to sheep or 
horses. Of the procesp, now obsolete, but surviving 
within living memory, called barring -out a full account 

is given. Much of the information is derived from 
Brand; but nowhere else can it be so conveniently 
studied. With regard to the word banshee, to which 
attention is specially directed, it may be noted here, 
though it is too late for mention in the ' Dictionary,' 
that on the occasion of the late fatal slip of an Irish bog, 
the wail of this Irish bogle, or fairy's wife, is supposed to* 
have been heard. Bantling is said to be properly applied 
to a child " begotten on a bench, and not in the marriage 
bed." A capital history of barghest is given. Familiar 
as we are with the use of the word, we have not heard 
it used as a term of rebuke. The note is much longer 
than that in * The Oxford English Dictionary.' Ghest ig, 
of course, plain enough; the meaning of bar is left 
conjectural. We shall be glad, when the ' Dictionary ' 
is more advanced, of the opportunity of comparing the 
word with boggart and boggie-bo (Halliwell), more fre- 
quently boggie-baw, both used in the same sense. Boggie- 
law is said to a child who does or exhibits anything 
disgusting. The editor draws attention to the great 
disparity between A and B in dialect speech as compared 
with that in literary English. Owing to the large 
number of words beginning with A which contain Latin 
or Greek prefixes, the difference in written English 
between the two letters is not great. Words in A are, 
indeed, in some dictionaries, more numerous than those 
in B. In Webster's ' Dictionary ' A occupies 99 pages 
and B 81. In ' The Oxford English Dictionary ' A takes 
1,809 columns, and B 1,911. In ' The Dialect Dictionary,' 
on the other hand, while A takes up 106 pages, B, so far 
only as the word blare, extends to 182. Apart from the 
question of the importance of the work being executed 
for the first time, the ' Dictionary ' may be commended 
as a source of entertainment. We have glanced through 
its pages again and again, and find the book difficult to 

English Minstrelsie. A National Monument of English 
Song. By S. Baring-Gould. Vol. VI. (Edinburgh, 

Two more volumes are all that remain to complete this 
popular, handsome, and acceptable collection. The 
songs given in the present volume include, among others 
1 Begone dull Care,' The Banks of Allan Water,' ' Gather 
ye Rosebuds while ye may,' 'Hope told a flattering 
Tale,' 'Long, long Ago,' and some spirited folk-songs. 
Much very agreeable gossip is supplied concerning the 
author and composer of the song first named and of its 
fortunes. Not quite free from errors are the notes, but 
they are more accurate than in previous volumes ;' and 
surely Mr. Baring -Gould should scold somebody for 
passing such a name as Persopolis. Portraits are given 
of Dr. Samuel Arnold, Dr. Boyce, Thomas Haynes Bayly, 
and Henry Purcell ; there is a facsimile of a signature 
of Dr. Arne, a good sample of Purcell's musical nota- 
tion, together with a shield of his arms, impaling those 
of Petre of Torbrian, together with a picture of his 
monument in Westminster Abbey, conveying the well- 
known sentence that he " left this life, and is gone to 
that blessed Place where only his Harmony can be 
excelled." A mass of very curious and readable infor- 
mation is supplied in Mr. Baring-Gould's introduction 
and notes, and his work is sure to be popular. The airs, 
in both notations, are still arranged by Mr. Fleetwood 
Sheppard, Mr. F. W. Russell, and Mr, W. H. Hopkins. 

Transcendental Magic. By Eliphas Levi. Translated 

by Arthur Edward Waite. (Redway.) 
THE followers of transcendental magic are a class to 
themselves, concerning which the uninitiated know little 
and let it be said without malice or irreverence care 
less. We are ourselves of the uninitiate, ai.d wholly 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s a xi. j. i 6> w . 

unfit to deal with "the sublime notion and high mys- 
tery " with which this volume is concerned. Our duty 
is fulfilled, accordingly, in announcing its appearance. 
A few particulars communicated by Mr. Waite may, 
however, be of some interest. Elipbas Levi Z*hed is a 
pseudonym for Alphonse Louis Constant, of whose 
* Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magic ' the volume before 
us is a rendering. Born in 1810 in bumble circum- 
stances, the son of a shoemaker, Constant was educated 
for the Cburcb, became a deacon, taking the vows of 
celibacy, and was expelled from St. Sulpice for teaching 
doctrines contrary to the Catholic Cburch. Becoming 
acquainted with Alphonse Esquires, who is not quite 
forgotten, though Mr. Waite supposes him to be so, he 
was introduced by him to Ganneau, a distracted preacher 
ofilluminism. Constant wrote, under Ganneau's influence, 
1 The Gospel of Liberty,' for which he got six months' 
imprisonment. He tben, in spite of his vows, married a 
girl of sixteen, by whom he had two children, and who 
subsequently deserted him. His enemies say that under 
a new name he imposed on the Bishop of Eveux (should 
doubtless be Evreux), preached, and administered the 
sacraments which in a deacon was illegal until he 
was unmasked. He issued a 'Dictionary of Christian 
Literature ' and other works. In 1856, with ' Le Dogme 
de la Haute Magie,' he began the series of books which 
have rendered him a chief magi, until he has become, as 
Mr. Waite says, "actually the spirit of modern thought, 
forcing an answer for the times from the old oracles." 
The oracles it seems, then, are not dumb. With all its 
quaint and curious illustrations, his chief work ia now 
translated, and there is, in addition, a portrait of the 
author in his magician's robe. Concerning subjects such 
as charms, the evil eye, and other matters the folk-lorist 
may find some information. To grasp the full significance 
of the teaching and the full glory of the secret imparted 
requires the inner sense of the illuminati. 

A Dictionary of Birds. By Alfred Newton, assisted by 

Hans Gadow. Part IV. (Black.) 
ORNITHOLOGISTS and students of natural history will be 
glad to hail the completion of this valuable and important 
work, the best in its class that has yet seen the light. 
With the concluding part is issued the introduction and 
the index, the latter, fortunately, ample. The aim of 
the book, to compress into the smallest space all know- 
ledge indispensable to the student of ornithology, is 
accomplished. Apart from the information, exhaustive 
in some respects, that is supplied by the work, which 
extends to 1,200 pages, the introduction supplies a guide 
to the voluminous literature of the subject. During the 
last century an advanced school of ornithologists has 
arisen, and the present position of the taxonomy of birds 
is satisfactory. In influencing the conclusions the close 
study of the South American fossils in the British Museum 
and elsewhere has had an all-important influence. We 
cannot, however, deal with matters purely scientific, and 
can but announce the completion of a work with which, 
during its rather slow progress, students have been 

The Romance of a King's Life, By J. J. Jusaerand. 

(Fisher Unwin.) 

ONK of the most earnest and erudite students of our 
language, customs, and literature, M. Jusserand has 
supplied noble books concerning * English Wayfaring 
Life,' ' The English Novel in the Time of Shakespeare,' 
&c., which are already regarded as standard. To these 
one more is added in his romantic life of James I., which 
has been translated from tiie French by M. li. and 
enlarged by the author. That life, one of the most 
brilliant and tragic in history, is well told and is illus- 

trated by designs from early paintings and MSS. The 
courtship and espousal of Jane Beaufort and the' whole 
picturesque, romantic, and tragic story is admirably 
told. When Shakspeare talked of "sad stories of the 
death of kings," that of James I. must have been in his 
mind. M. Jusserand, as many of our readers know dis- 
putes Mr. Brown's theories as to the authorship of 'The 
Kingia Quair.' In an appendix is much historical matter 
of highest interest. 

Raleghana. By T. N. Brushfield, M.D. (Privatelv 

Devonshire Briefs. Part II. Same author. (Privately 

DR. BRUSHFIELD has reprinted from the Transactions of 
the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of 
Science, Literature, and Art two of his valuable contri- 
butions. Indefatigable in his pursuit and collection of 
Devonshire antiquities, he has, in his ' Raleghana,' brought 
together much matter not previously known concern- 
ing the great Devonshire hero. This has been laid at 
the service of the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' and, to some extent, 
used in that work. The manner, however, in which 
Dr. Brushfield exposes the Collier forgeries is masterly 
and deserves to be studied at leisure. In his admirable 
collection of ' Devonshire Briefs' Dr. Brushfield reprints 
in facsimile the brief of William and Mary for the relief 
of the inhabitants of East and West Teignmouth after 
the descent of the French. Much other matter of 
highest interest is also included. 

THE REV. 0. W. TANCOCK has reprinted from the 
Essex Review a few copies of his excellent paper on the 
Old Parish Register Books of the Deanery of Chelmsford. 
This will have the more interest to antiquaries, since it 
gives a sort of specimen report of the work which the 
Diocesan Committee, of which Mr. Tancock is the con- 
vener, is doing. The importance of the task which Mr. 
Tancock is undertaking is conceded, and we commend 
his labours to the attention and imitation of our readers. 

THE new number of the Journal of the Ex-Lilris 
Society reproduces the book-plate of William, Duke of 
Devonshire, and also the very quaint Oriental plate of 
Sir Mountstuart E. Grant Duff, Governor of Madras in 
1886. The latter is lent by Sir Arthur Vicars (Ulster) 
and was executed at the School of Art in Madras. Mr. 
W. Bolton writes on ' The Solace of the Book-plate.' 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the' 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

INQUIRER. A full account is given in the ' Diet. Nat 

Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

S. XI. JAN. 23, '97. ] 




CONTENT S. N 265. 

NOTES: Home Tooke's Diary, 61 British, 62 Ghost- 
names, 64 Aqueous Titles Women as Churchwardens- 
George Bickham Nell Gwyn's Plate Marlowe's 'Ed- 
ward II.' A Primitive Parish Earls of Halifax, 65 
Pur-blind Burns's Friend Nicol, 66. 

QUERIES : " Bowpifc "Clementina J. Sobiesky Douglass, 
66 Robert Daborn Cave Underbill Raleigh=Greene 
"Abraham's Bosom" Relics, 67 Beaujoie The Royal 
Colleges W. Butler Pye Col. Henry Martin Scottish 
Craftsmen Serving Food to Weapons, 68 Carved Adders 
on Pulpits, 69. 

REPLIES : Prime Minister, 69 The Grosvenor, East India- 
man Ysonde Wedding Ceremony J. Jones, 73" Dis- 
annul "Duke of Gloucester Thomas Bolas The Will of 
King Henry VI. George Morland, 74 Edward II. Gos- 
forth, 75 Church or Chapel Politician Chinese Playing- 
Cards Nelson, 76 Wave Names East India Company- 
London Directories, 77 An Anomalous Parish Christmas 
Day The Black Prince's Sword, 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Moore's ' Studies in Dante ' Bewes's 
' Church Briefs ' Axon's ' Bygone Sussex 'Wood's ' Quo- 
tations ' Lane's ' Cairo ' ' Cathedral Churches of Canter- 
bury and Salisbury' Cassie's Kielland's 'Norse Tales' 
Quaritch's ' Contributions,' Part VIII. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(Continued from p. 22.) 

Wednesday, June 4, 1794. The Bells are ringing for 
the King's birthday. I get in this place between 7 & 
8 hours reading & writing each day ; so that I do not 
get any advantage in that respect by my confinement. 
A Lock with great formality put on outer door. 

Thursday, June 5. A man with a Pea-cart stands this 
moment under my window drawn by an Ass : the Ass 
began to bray : the master seized him by the snout & 
began to belabour him unmercifully to stop his braying, 
to the scandal of the private soldiers, who interfered 
humanely with the man, to suffer his Ass to bray without 
molestation & cruelty. These soldiers have one (as 
patient and as industrious as the ass) in custody for 
braying. A corporal and a Serjeant come into my room, 
two of them every two hours and sometimes each hour, 
besides two Warders in my room, a centinel at the door, 
and another on the Staircase : if they kept out of room 
& kept a thousand round it it would be less unpleasant: 
for they chuae often to rush suddenly into my room; 
which the other Warders, Burford, & Blower & Bouguet 
& Pearson, used to prevent. 

Friday, June 6. Kinghorn brought my keys, & some 
brown paper from Privy Council; & told me that Mr. 
Vaughan had been examined by Privy Council, & was 
forbid to visit me any more till further orders; he said 
Mr. Hayne was also forbid to visit Mr. Bonney [I did 
not before know that Hayne did visit him]. Privy Council, 
he said, permitted me newspapers and to walk upon the 
Leads (2 Warders & a Centinel, bayonet fixed, &c.). 
Phis day I had for the 1 st time Chronicle, Post, Gazetteer, 
World, Herald, Oracle, Times, True Briton, & two eve g 
papers Courier, Star. I sent them to Warder, Bouguet, 
for use of such prisoners as were allowed to read them, 

Saturday, June 7, 1794. Corresponding Society's Ad " 
vertisement in the Morning Post. The visiting officer of 
the Guards asked me very politely if I had in my apart- 
ments every thing I wanted ? Yes, sir, all & more than I 
want by two Warders, two Centinels, and all the Bolts and 
Bars. Two o'clock. Ross the Messenger tells me he, with 
Higgins, has just brought Kyd to the Tower, Kyd is at 
the Warder Lockit's. Sharp is still in custody at his 
own house. Frost is on honour to return to the Privy 
Council on Monday. Hull has given security to appear 
the first day of term. Privy Council are to make a general 
arrangement for all the Prisoners, that their friends may 
have access to them, &c. Kyd agrees with Lockit aa 
Joyce with Dixon eighteen pence for Dinner : they find 
everything else for themselves. 

Sunday, June 8, 1794. In last night's Courier is the 
Act of ParU " To empower his Majesty (i. e., the Minis- 
ter) to secure & detain (i.e., to rob, ruin & murder*) 
such persons as his Majesty (/. e., the Minister) shall 
suspect (i. e. y pretend to suspect) are conspiring against 
bis person & Government " (i. e., who are displeased with 
the minister's measures, or to whom the minister is for 
any reason, or misinformation, or mistake or caprice, 

Monday, June 9. I saw Joyce upon top of a distant 
house leads. We bowed to each other. I saw Kyd upon 
the leads, we bowed to each other. N.B. I understand 
(by an accident) that Vaughan was prohibited from seeing 
me any more, because he excused himself (as Counsel for 
four of the prisoners) from being examined by Privy 
Council. A basket from Wimbledon from my Gardener. 
It must not be opened till Kinghorn comes, who will read 
my girl's letter; & then, if he approves the contents, will 
graciously communicate them to me : after which he will 
perhaps permit me to send some strawberries to Mr. 
Bonney. At nine o'clock this morning, two new Warders 
came, Bateman & Jackson. I understand their Cha- 
racters & Disposition ; & am not at all pleased to be 
in their hands. Pazianza 1 My custody cannot easily 
be closer though it may be made more disagreeable by 
their presence & conduct. 

I wrote to Mr. Fawkener, Clerk of Privy Council. 

Receive permission for Dr. Pearson, my physician, & 
Mr. Clive my surgeon to attend me. 

N.B. Privy Council wanted Vaughan to prove my 
handwriting (or what they supposed so) in some altera- 
tions or amendments in some resolutions of Constit. 
Society. He refused to be examined on the subject. 
They told him that as he was my intimate friend he was 
wrong to refuse ; it might cause me to be confined the 

The first letter to Fawkener was to request per- 
mission for the writer's physician and surgeon to 
see him. He asks that their attendance " may be 
made convenient to themselves ; because neither 
counsel, nor physicians, nor surgeons have ever 
taken fees from me." 

Tuesday, June 10, 1794. I read in the Times " the 
second report of the Secret Committee of the House of 
Lords." i immediately wrote the following letter to Mr. 
Fawkener & sent it off before Dinner, though the news- 
paper did not come to me this day till eleven o'clock ; 
and the Times was the 8 th paper I read. 

* I call, it murder, because indefinite and arbitrary im- 
prisonment, Close Custody (such as I experience) with 
all its circumstances of time & place & manner at the will 
of a malicious minister, may be certain death by the slow 
torture of disease. 



[8 8. XL JAN. 23, '97. 

Then follows a copy of the letter, wherein Tooke 
states that he had only just learnt from the re- 
port what sort of a picture their lordships had 
drawn of him in their imagination and exhibited 
of him to the world ; that such suspicions were 
too horrid for him to remain under a moment in 
voluntary silence ; and that he was now willing and 
anxious to be examined. 

Friday, June 13, 1794. I understand that Mr. John 
Williams (thro' the interest of Gen 1 or Col. Archer, his 
wife's father or brother) has been admitted to bail 500. 
The difficulty about him arose from his refusing to swear 
that some paper which they showed him was the hand- 
writing of J. Home Tooke. They asked, " Had he ever 
seen me write. He had. Was this of my handwriting. 
He could not say it was." I understand also that Mar- 
tin's clerk after repeated examinations is expected to 
be committed to Newgate this day because he persisted 
in declaring "that he knows nothing of his master's 
affairs or actions, but his business as an Attorney, his 
master having never employed him nor discoursed with 
him about anything else." N.B. About 7 o'clock in the 
evening, the Warder Dixon and Mr. Kyd were walking 
upon the Leads (about the size of my room) under my 
window. I was standing at the. open window (for it was 
very hot) taking snuff. The warder asked me for some 
snuff. I put a little in a piece of coarse paper and threw 
it to him. He thanked me, and said, he hoped he 
should one day drink a glass of wine with me, when I 
was out of the Tower. I answered that I should drink 
it with him with pleasure : for I supposed he was a man 
about my own age. He said, no. He was ten years 
younger. How sol said I. Why, what age are you? 
He said this day was his Birthday and he was this day 
exactly fifty. Oh ! answered I, if this is your birthday, 
I will certainly drink a glass of wine to your health. I 
opened a bottle, filled the glass, showed it at the window, 
and drank to his health. I then said, tho' we are at a 
distance from each other, we may still drink together ; 
for if I might I could let down the bottle with a string. 
He said, Aye, do so. I tied a string to the neck of 
the bottle, and let it down. He got a glass, filled it, and 
drank to my health. I drew the bottle back. But I 
never exchanged a single word with Mr. Eyd. This was 
done openly, in sight of the opposite centinel. A great 
piece of work has been made of this. " Seldom that the 
steel'd Jayler is the Friend of Man." All the way 
through well exemplified in the Tower. 

Saturday, June 14. At three o'clock Einghorn came to 
me on the Leads, called the Warder, Jackson, and 
blamed him for suffering me to talk to Mr. Kyd : he said 
the Adjutant Brice, had made a Report to the Governour. 
I told Kinghorn the fact as it passed. N.B, This Ad- 
jutant Brice, I am told, went a day or two ago to Mr. 
Joyce's room and insulted him and abused Lord Stanhope 
to him. This is the son of Mr. Brice in Newman Street, 

who married lately Miss , and whom I have seen at 

Mr. Gahagan's, and with whose sisters my girls were 
intimate. N.B. Jackson proposed that I should not go 
near my window. Bateman on this hot day, shut the 
window; but I denied his authority & opened it. 

Sunday, June 15. I received this morning by the 
Gaoler the following note, OPEN (all the other notes 
from Mr. Fawkener were sealed). 

Council Office, Whitehall, 

14 June, 1794. 

SIR, I duly received your letter dated Tower June 10, 
1794, and having taken the earliest opportunity of laying 
the same before the Lords of his Majesty's most honour- 
able Privy Council, I am to acquaint you that I have 

nothing in command from their Lordships on the subject 

I am, Sir, your most obedient humble Servant, 

Mr. John Home Tooke, Clerk. 

G. J. W. 

(To le continued.} 

(Concluded from p. 5.) 

We frequently use the word English in the most 
extended meaning. Thus Mr. F. Boase has called 
his dictionary of persons who have died since 1850 
' Modern English Biography/ though he includes 
not only English in fact, they would only give a 
portion of the names but Scots, Irish, and every 
other nationality if identified with the British 
Empire thus using the word in a much larger 
sense than ever British has been used. 

Another person who uses the word English is 
the editor of one of our most popular journals, To- 
Day. In the issue of 19 Sept., 1896, p. 211, 
the author of ' Three Men in a Boat ; is apparently 
answering some one who has been taking him to 
task for using the word English, and with a meek- 
ness which even Montmorency would never have 
shown, and most unusual in an editor, instead of 
holding out and showing that he was right, he gives 
his case away without the least reflection. He 
says to his correspondent, " You are quite right," 
and apologetically adds, " When I think of it I 
say British in preference to the word English. 
But journalism is generally written red-hot, and 
the latter word to an Englishman generally comes 
more pat to the tongue." 

I should have answered, " You are quite wrong. 
English is by far the better word. According to 
all the authorities, British only includes England, 
Scotland, and Wales. Why should the Irish be 
left out? They speak the English, and not the 
British language ; they fight in the British army ; 
they go to the English bar ; and they distinguish 
themselves in the Parliament held in England, 
and thus do honour to the English nation. I here 
use English as including the whole peoples under 
the sovereignty of Queen Victoria." 

It would seem that some of our writers have not 
given much heed to this question. For example, 
when Mr. W. Prideaux Courtney, a couple of 
years ago, published his delightful volume entitled 
' English Whist/ it never occurred to him that he 
ought to cater for Scotch readers in his title as 
well as in the book, or no doubt he would have 
called it * British Whist.' Many Scotsmen are 
mentioned in it, though the book requires to be 
read through to find out where, as there is only an 
index of proper names.* If Mr. Courtney wanted 

* I consider the omission of subjects most unfortunate. 
An Irishman or an American, after looking at the index, 
would throw the book on one Bide as containing nothing 

XI, JAN. 23, '97.J 



to be quite certain of including Irish, he must have 
called it * British and Irish Whist.' Should not 
our English dictionaries be renamed to include all 
three countries ? 

The curious thing is that, when we do come 
across a book with British in the title, it is, from 
the view I am taking, quite wrong for example, 
' The British Citizen,' published in London by Mr. 
J. E. Thorold Rogers, M.P., 1885. For the in- 
formation of readers abroad, I may say that Mr. 
Rogers is not a Scotsman, as his title would lead 
one to suppose. He tells us that he was " a youth 
in a Hampshire village sixty years ago " (p. 139). 
His title, however, is almost a fraud, quite 
innocently and unintentionally, of course, but it 
might induce a Scotsman to buy it, thinking that 
in it he would read a good deal about his own 

When I say that the pride of race runs so high 
in Scotland that our politicians or visitors are 
immediately corrected if they talk about the 
English (they must always say British), the dis- 
gust of a Scotsman on reading 'The British Citizen' 
can be imagined on finding that it is all about the 

Mr. Rogers begins by saying, " It is my purpose 
to point out how it has been that the modern 
Englishman has," &c., and so he goes on. It is 
all England and the English ; there is nothing to 
justify British in the title, for it would be absurd 
to say that it is justified by the information (p. 136) 
that Adam Smith was a Scotchman (sic), who was 
educated for nearly seven years at Balliol College, 
Oxford, or by chapter xxiii. on the higher educa- 
tion in England, where occurs one short paragraph 
as to education in Scotland. 

Probably Mr. Rogers originally called it ' The 
English Citizen/ and then found that there was 
already an " English Citizen Series," so in a weak 
moment he adopted British. If so, the altered 
title does not suit the text. 

The above allusions are all I can discover in a 
cursory perusal ; for, though issued by the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, ' The British 
Citizen ' has no index, and is stuck together with 
wire, which has rusted and spoiled the pages where 
the abomination is placed.* 

This " remarkably clever " book was reviewed in 
the Athenceum of 21 Nov. , 1885, p. 667, without 

about their countrymen. They would be wrong; 
numerous are the allusions to and anecdotes of all three. 
Mem. Never buy books without indexes and stuck 
together with wire. This reflection reminds me of 
another, which may be useful to careful readers. I saw 
it in an American periodical called Puck, whose office is 
close to that of N. & Q.,' and I quote it, knowing that 
neighbours like to be friendly to one another ; at the same 
time I fear it will be no use for Puck to try to borrow 
a volume of ' N. & Q.' of his neighbour. It is : " Never 
make lead-pencil comments in a borrowed book, the owner 
may rub them out use ink. " 

the reviewer detecting the deceit ; but the indexer 
was alert ; he declined to index it under " British," 
though it is apparent that he has no particular 
spite against that name, as he indexes " British 

There was probably at some period in English 
history a doubt whether men belonging to various 
counties were Englishmen ; at least, the doubt is 
suggested by the following incident, the relation of 
which was overheard, some thirty years ago, at a 
Cornish inn. A young man who had just returned 
from the remote districts of America was telling 
a small crowd of admiring listeners the incidents of 
an encounter which he and his comrades of all 
nationalities had with the police. After a severe 
struggle they were all captured except one little 
man. He was a " wrastler," as they say in the 
West of England, and each policeman as he 
approached the little fellow was thrown over his 
back. "They could not take him anyhow," said 
the narrator, and " he was an Englishman " ! But 
at that moment, as the thought struck him, he had 
doubts on that point, and added, " Leastways, he 
was a Cornishman." 

It will be recollected that Cornwall was in- 
stanced to show the gross want of fairness of the 
Union of 1707, as that one county " sent up as 
many members, one excepted, as the number 
allotted for the whole of Scotland" (Knight's 
4 Pictorial History of England,' vol. iv. p. 188). 

If we give up the delightful word "English," 
I fancy the Americans will not be long appro- 
priating it. Lately at an hotel I heard an Ame- 
rican lady telling an English lady that she (the 
American) was English, and that the English lady 
was really British ; but the English lady would 
not have it, she stuck to her colours like a man 
(what an example for the editor of To-Day), and 
said that she was a native of England and was 
English, and that nobody who was not born in 
the dominions of Queen Victoria could be 

Now, then, at last, we have got to a week-day, 
and can see what our great authorities say on this 
subject. First, let us take the latest and greatest 
of all, the ' Oxford English Dictionary,' a master- 
piece it is difficult even to think of without a 
feeling of pride, and which, though, like a little 
dog looking up at the monster St. Bernard, I occa- 
sionally try to bark at, I nevertheless regard with 
awe, remembering, as the Editor of ' N. & Q. 1 
pictorially puts it, " that not much information ia 
to be gleaned when the harvest waggons of the 
' Dictionary ' have carried off their golden load " 
(8 S. x. 327) : 

"British, of or belonging to Great Britain or its 
inhabitants. From the time of Henry VIII. frequently 
used to include English and Scotch, in general use in 
this sense from the acession of James I. and in seven- 
teenth century, often opposed to Irish : legally adopted 
at the Union in 1707." 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8s.xi. JAN. 23/97. 

Then we have all sorts of most useful instances 
in which British is used ; that popular article of 
commerce "British gum" is cut very short, it is 
"a commercial name of dextrin." 

Poor old Ireland is left out in the cold, although 
her population is larger than that of Scotland, 
and in proportion she is more largely represented 
in the House of Commons than England, Wales, 
or Scotland, or, to put it differently, than any of 
the countries forming that part of the empire we 
call British. 

Dr. Murray thinks Britisher originated with 
Americans in their War of Independence. 

The * Century Dictionary ' appears to me to have 
copied Webster ; but in the latter " British gum " 
is more, in fact most fully described. By this 
word British, printed in the * Century * with a 
capital B, an ignorant person or a foreigner is 
enabled at once to see if a small letter or capital 
must be used. All words not requiring capitals 
are printed without, thus avoiding useless and 
confusing capitals. I should have thought, how- 
ever, that " british gum " might be printed without 
a capital B it would be in French and German. 
The ' Century ' says : 

"British^ of or pertaining to Great Britain, or, in the 
widest sense, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland or its inhabitants." 

"Britisher, a British subject or citizen in any part of 
the world, but more particularly a native or inhabitant 
of Great Britain, especially of England ; now chiefly 
colloquial or humorous." 

There can be little doubt that this definition of 
British is in accordance with the popular idea. 
' The Financial Reform Almanack,' 1896, in- 
cludes not only Ireland, but Guernsey, Jersey, 
and Alderney in the term British, without the 
slightest suspicion. But I feel that I have only 
touched the fringe of this subject. Every new 
book and new place suggests something more. 
For example, I have just been reading Steedman's 
'Swimming,' published at Melbourne in 1867. 
He writes all the way through his book of the 
' English "that is, I presume, Australians (?) who 
are English as well as Australians ; but if some 
people had their way, Steedman should have 
written using the inferior term British, as no 
doubt the population is made up of all English- 
speaking peoples. 

Again, I go to the Portsmouth Museum ; the 

first object that attracts my attention is one of 

those exquisite ship models on loan from the South 

Kensington Museum. The label is "English 

ine-of-battle ship, 1780-1790.* This ship is, or 

was, no doubt, more truly English than she would 
be in the present day, as she was built, in all 
probability, entirely at home, most likely at Dept- 

I have tried my hand at a definition for the 
future dictionary maker : 

British, a native of England, Scotland, or 
Wales, but not of Ireland until the end of the 
nineteenth century, when, according to an Ame- 
rican dictionary, the word began to have a more 
extended meaning, and included the Irish, though 
formerly used as opposed to them. 

Thus British became applicable in the eyes of 
foreigners to all these countries, but without any 
lawful or legal authority of the British themselves. 

Britisher, a word at one time used in ridicule, 
but finally adopted as a convenient designation by 
the British themselves. 

Let me say I make no scientific pretensions. 
My simple contention is that, as an ordinary 
inquirer, I think I have a right to expect an exact 
definition of a word in the books of reference 
without having recourse to a great library ; but I 
think I show that in this case both resources fail. 

Clifford's Inn. 

GHOST-NAMES. Those accustomed to scrutinize 
the inscriptions on tombstones not infrequently 
meet with Christian names misspelt, and some- 
times with names which appear to have been 
invented by the sepulchral masons. Recently I 
made a note of the name Utakeah Smith, in the 
churchyard of Mundham, near Loddon, in Norfolk. 
This lady died in July, 1890, and I was moved to 
ask the vicar for the history of her strange name. 
The vicar, the Rev. C. H. Hicks, kindly wrote as 
follows : 

"The Christian name has never been properly ac- 
counted for, except that ' it goes in the family.' When, 
some years ago, I baptized a granddaughter of the said 
Mrs. Smith, the nearest approach to the feminine of 
ESrv^of seemed to be the idea, spelt EutyJcia, with 
stress on the letter i. Whence the wonderful ' Utakeah ' 
I know not, unless from the stonemason." 

Does not this case tend to show that some of 
the oddities of nomenclature we come across now 
and then are inventions or perversions of illiterate 
masons ? I often see the name Georgiana spelt 
in abnormal fashions on gravestones, Georgeanner, 
Georgeanna, &c. JAMES HOOPER. 


' This model is only labelled as a representative one ; 
but she seems to me to be clearly identifiable if, indeed' 
the South Kensington Museum experts do not know her 
name from the carefully executed figure-head of a 
Roman (1) warrior with drawn sword. As I find no 
number (except 09 on the case), for the sake of identifi- 
cation, 1 may say that the port anchor is on deck, but 

[In the case of Migs Bellamy, Georgiana was converted 
into George Anne, the name by which she was always 

the two starboard anchors are over the bow. The model 
is painted brown, the colour that prevailed before Lord 
Nelson introduced the ugly style of black with white 
lines. The ships of the present day take the last, the 
Powerful are even more hideous, being painted all 
black, like hearses. 

8 th S. Xl. JAN. 23, '97.] 



AQUEOUS TITLES. Most of the existing and 
extinct titles in the English, Scotch, and Irish peer- 
ages in that of Great Britain are very naturally 
territorial, but a few are taken from rivers. Such 
are those of Douro, Clyde, Boyne, Waveney, 
Derwent, Derwentwater, Medway. It may be 
added that the first title conferred on Lord Nelson 
was that of Baron Nelson of the Nile. 



Church, Devon, an old series of parish accounts is 
extant, which may be worth a closer examination 
than I have been able to give them. A curious 
item (1558) is " payd for rnakyng of inviatory of 
the church goodes, 3s. 4d.," succeeded by another, 
"payd for carry eng of the inviatory to Exetore." 
I was surprised by the frequency with which one 
of the holders of the " wardenshyp " is a female. 
In 1560, we have Joane Banke ; 1569, Elizabeth 
Grendfeld ; 1570, Elizabeth Norrys ; 1574, Bryget 
Dare ; 1578, Agnes Dunynges ; 1581, Frances 

MASTER AND ENGRAVER. An entry in the Lon- 
don Chronicle, 4-6 July, 1771, p. 19, records the 
death, 3 July, 1771, at his house in Kew Lane, of 
Mr. George Bickham, engraver, thus differencing 
the statement appearing in 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' 
vol. v. p. 8, that he died in 1769. 


NELL GWYN'S PLATE. The fondness of Nell 
Gwyn for silver plate is well known, and at p. 167 
of Cunningham and Wheatley's 'Story of Nell 
Gwyn ' will be found the copy of a silversmith's 
bill, containing the specification of a silver bed- 
stead, which in magnificence must have rivalled 
those that I have seen in the palaces of Indian 
Maharajas, and charges for making various articles 
of silver, amounting in the aggregate to 1,135Z. 3s. Id. 
As ' N. & Q.' has always been the principal reposi- 
tory for facts connected with the fair Nelly, I 
venture to transcribe the following advertisement, 
which has been copied into an interesting paper in 
the current number of Middlesex and Hertfordshire 
Notes and Queries, by Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, 
Dir.S.A., on 'The Signs of the Old Houses in the 
Strand in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen- 
turies ' : 

'The following notice appeared in the London Gazette, 
3 Jan., 1677/8 : ' All goldsmiths and others to whom our 
silver plate may be sold, marked with the cipher E.G., 
flourished, weighing about 18 ounces, are desired to 
apprehend the bearer thereof, till they give notice to 
Mr. Robert Johnson in Heathcock Alley, Strand, over 
against Durham Yard, or to Mrs. Gwin's porter in the 
Pell Mell, by whom they shall be rewarded.' " 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 


MARLOWE'S ' EDWARD II. ' In the handy little 
edition of this play recently published in the 
" Temple Dramatists " series, the editor, Mr. 
A. W. Verity, says : " Of the copy of the quarto 
of 1594 in the royal library at Cassel no collation 
(I believe) has been published." It may be worth 
while to point out (as Mr. Bullen does not mention 
it) that in the NewShakspere Society's Transactions 
for 1875-6, pt. ii. (Appendix vi.), there is given a 
collation by Dr. Rudolph Gene"e of this unique copy 
of the 1594 quarto with Dyce'a text of 1850. As Dr. 
Furnivall remarks in a foot-note, most of the differ- 
ences are of no importance whatever. A. G. C. 

A PRIMITIVE PARISH. The cutting accompany- 
ing this may be worth a corner in * N. & Q.' It 
is from the Daily Telegraph of 31 Nov., 1896 : 

"At a Local Government inquiry, yesterday, at Heath 
Charnock, Lancashire, into a proposal to borrow 600. 
to build a parish hall, it was stated that, although there 
was a population of 1,100 and a rateable value of 8.000Z., 
there was neither church, chapel, nor school in the 
parish, the only public 'edifice' being a pillar letter-box. 
The inspector said it was the funniest thing he had ever 
heard of." 

B. H. L. 

EARLS OF HALIFAX. It is noteworthy the 
confusion which sometimes results when two partly 
contemporary notabilities are given at different 
times the same title. Thus, in the new (1895) 
edition of Dr. Cobham Brewer's 'Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable,' we are told, under " Trimmer," 
that " Charles Montagu, Earl of Halifax, adopted 
the term in the reign of Charles II. to signify that 
he was neither an extreme Whig nor an extreme 
Tory." The Halifax who accepted and adopted 
the epithet " trimmer " was not Charles Montague 
(as his name is more frequently, though perhaps 
less correctly, spelt), but George Savile, who was 
created Earl of Halifax in 1679, and Marquis in 
1682. He died in 1695, and the title became 
extinct on the death of his son in 1700. The same 
year Charles Montague was raised to the peerage 
as Baron Halifax, and be was created Earl of 
Halifax on the accession of George I. in 1714, but 
held that title for less than a year, as he died 
early in 1715. It is somewhat remarkable that 
there is no account of him in the ' Penny Cyclo- 
paedia,' though it gives a short biography of Sir 
George Savile, afterwards Earl and then Marquis 
of Halifax. In the eleventh volume (recently 
published) of the English Historical Review there 
is an interesting article, by Mr. Foxcroft, on ' The 
Works of George Savile, first Marquis of Halifax,' 
in which it is maintained that the celebrated 
pamphlet Character of a Trimmer' (which was 
first printed in 1688, under the name of Sir William 
Coventry) was written in 1684, and primarily in- 
tended for the eye of the king (Charles II.), its 
object being defeated by the death of that monarch 
in the following year. The word " trimmer " had 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [*> a XI.JA*. 23, w. 

been used in an opprobrious sense for a political 
timeserver ; but by an ingenious use of its etymo- 
logical signification, Halifax turned it into a badge 
of distinction ; for the original sense of to trim, 
as in "trimming a boat," is " to make firm or 


W. T. LYNN. 

PUR-BLIND. Kluge, generally so cautious an 
etymologizer, has an extraordinary note on this 
word, under the article " Star," in his Etymo- 
logical Dictionary.' He asserts that it is the 
A. -Sax. pur-blind, and that the first component is 
A.-Sax. pur, a bittern. He then compares Gr. 
y \a-6i<wfJLOi, from y\av , an owl. From all which 
he infers that Ger. star, cataract of the eye, may 
be connected with star, the starling ! On this I 
remark that neither pur nor pur-blind is to be 
found in Ettmuller or Bosworth ; that "blind as 
a bittern, ' ; would not in any case give a proper 
sense, that bird not being proverbially defective in 
eight; and that yAavKw/^a means "greyishness" 
of the diseased eye, and not " owlishness." " Pur- 
blind," formerly written pore-blinde, poor-blinde, 
pure-blynde (Wyclif), seems to have originally been 
pure blind ( = Lat. pure ccecus), absolutely blind, 
from which the modern signification has drifted 

South Woodford. 

BURNS'S FRIEND NICOL. It is singular that 
R. L. Stevenson, whose elaborate precision is so 
much emphasized, should write of Burns's friend 
and boon companion as "Willie Nichol " 
(' Familiar Studies of Men and Books/ second 
ed., p. 73). No doubt Willie's surname, which is 
Nicol, is not so familiar to his successors as it 
would be to many of his contemporaries, but that 
is no reason why its proper form should not be 
given when occasion calls for it. Whatever may 
be the fate of this personage as Nicol a teacher 
in Edinburgh and one of the preceptors of Sir 
Walter Scott he will live on to all time as 
'Willie," for it was he that brewed the most 
famous "peck o' maut" of which the world has 
ever heard, and it was under the auspices of his 
household gods away in a country retreat, afar 
from pedagogic cares that "Rob and Allan cam 
to see." The " maut " of inspiring quality was 
Nicol's, and, writes Burns, "the air is Masterton's 
[Allan Masterton's, to wit], the song mine/' When 
the tourist, going on from Moflat to the hostel of 
Tibbie Shiels on St. Mary's Loch, is told that at 
one point on the way he passes " Willie's Mill," it 
may be worth his while to note that this was the 
residence of the friend whom Burns calls "Mr. 
William Nicol, of the High School, Edinburgh." 
At this dwelling, in the poet's words, there was 
"such a joyous meeting that Masterton and I 
agreed, each in our own way, that we should cele- 
brate the business." THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

"BowPiT." It is said that the phrase "the 
rain is bowpit " is in colloquial use in Berkshire* 
The rain is so characterized when the wind comes 
from the north-east, portending a continuance of 
wet weather for twenty-four hours* I have only 
one piece of evidence for the phrase. Can any of 
your readers supply corroborative testimony ? 


Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

Can any of your numerous correspondents inter- 
ested in the history of Prince Charles Edward 
Stewart, the Young Pretender, throw any light on 
the following somewhat curious little history ? In 
a very remote valley at the foot of Lake Winder- 
mere lies a little village called Finsthwaite, and in its 
church register of burials there occurs the following 
entry : " Buried Clementina Johannes Sobiesky 
Douglass, of Waterside, spinster, May the 16th 
day, 1771." Now Clementina Sobiesky was, as 
every one knows, the name of the first Pretender's 
wife, and Prince Charlie's mother. Douglas was 
the name he himself always adopted when travel- 
ling incognito. Who, then, was this mysterious 
lady, with at least two strange coincidences in 
her name ? The rest of her story is traditional, 
except in one point. The proverbial oldest in- 
habitants remember their fore-elders always speak- 
ing of her as " the Princess," and that she as a 
young woman came, somewhere about 1745, with 
two servants, and resided in extreme privacy as a 
sort of lodger at this lonely Waterside farm, which 
has, however, in former days boasted more im- 
portance as a residence than it possesses at present. 
In 1771 she apparently died, and then comes 
another curious little incident, half tradition and 
half fact, for it is said shortly after her death a 
stranger came and planted on her grave a soli- 
tary Scotch thistle. The tale is traditional, but 
the fact remains that Finsthwaite Churchyard 
bristles with Scotch thistles, and the particular 
sort of thistle does not grow in the neighbourhood. 
Prince Charlie was in Kendal, some nine miles from 
Finsthwaite, on 22 Nov., 1745, and stayed over 
Sunday the 24th, accompanied by three ladies, one 
of whom was " the Lady Ogylvie." Could the 
mysterious lady of Finsthwaite have been one of 
them ? Was she his sister (though I never knew that 
he had one)? One other tiny link exists in the 
neighbourhood, in the shape of a medal with a head 
of James, the old Pretender, on it. It is believed 
to have been given by Clementina Jobanne 

8". 8. XI. JAN. 23, '97.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Sobiesky to the fore-elders of the family who now 
possess it. I shall be very glad if any light can 
be thrown on the story by means of your excellent 
columns. At least it is a collection of curious coin- 
cidences ; at most it may refer to a forgotten piece 
of Stewart history. Nothing in the way of romance 
could surprise one in connexion with that romantic 
name. A. M. WAKBFIBLD. 

Nutwood, Grange-overrSands. 

ROBERT DABORN. I shall be obliged to any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' who can give me particulars 
concerning R. Daborn. I am acquainted with 
what is contained about him in the ' Memoirs of 
Alleyn.' Has his play ' The Poor Man's Comfort ' 
(1655) ever been reissued in the course of the 
present century ? To be of use replies should be 
early. A. E. H. SWABN. 


[See Mr. Bullen's memoir in f Diet, Nat. Biog.' 

CAVE UNDERBILL. (See 7 tb S. x. 206, 276.) 
At the earlier reference MR. D. HIPWELL gives 
the date of the actor's birth as 17 March, 1633. 
Can he or any other inform me if that date is 
according to the legal year 1633/4, which would 
make it 1634? URBAN. 

RALEIGH =; GREENE. According to the 'Visita- 
tion of Warwickshire' (Harl. xii. 77), William 
Raleigh, son of Johanne, of Thornborow (Farn- 
borough), married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Green. When and where was she born, 
when and where married, and who were her 
parents? Baker's ' Hist, and Antiq. of Northamp- 
tonshire ' (vol. i. p. 32) shows a Sir Thomas Greene, 
cut. eighteen 5 Henry V., died 36 Henry VI, of 
Boughton and Greene's Norton, who had wife 
Philippa Ferrers, but only their oldest son is given. 
Were Sir Thomas and Philippa the parents of the 
said Elizabeth Greene ? B. COWELL. 

Peoria, Ilia., U.S. 

'ABRAHAM'S BOSOM." Whence came the idea 
(evidently existing in the days of Christ) that 
faithful Jews at death were received into the 
boaom of Abraham? Was it derived from the 
Talmud or from Midrash ? R. E. C. 


RELICS. The other day I came across a small 
hoard of relicp, consisting of a pincushion, a pair 
of baby's mittens, a book-plate, and a small hand- 
painted portrait. These had been treasured by 
a local family and handed down from one to 
another since the time of the early Georges. 
Nobody knew exactly to whom they belonged 
originally, but they carried with them evidences 
of some historic worth, and that is why I make 
'note of them. 

1. The pincushion had attached to it a sus- 
pender, by which it must have been hung to a 

lady's girdle and so worn like a chatelaine. The 
suspender and pincushion were covered with a 
pattern and device woven not worked in silk, 
evidently on a striped-tape warp of double linen 
yarn, warp and weft being of five colours red, 
yellow, green, blue, and grey ; the pattern, in 
addition to the stripe, being a small plaid, remind- 
ing one of a Scotch plaid. The device reads as 
follows : " God bless P.O. and down with the 
rump." The style of the letters would indicate 
the period of the Scotch rebellion, 1745, and sup- 
posing "P.C." to mean Prince Charlie, we have 
here a treasonable relic of that important crisip, 
worn by some Manchester or Oldham lady who 
was a Jacobite. It is well known to this day 
how popular " the yellow-haired laddie" was with 
the Lancashire ladies; but this is the first specimen 
I have seen of the above sentiment being sported 
as an article of personal attire, and I should like 
to know something more of its origin and history. 
If the date be right (1745) the texture could not 
have been woven on a Jacquard loom. It must 
have been done on one of the old u draw-boy 
looms," so called because a boy was engaged by 
the side of the loom to draw the cords which 
worked the heddles ; if so, not only was the weav- 
ing done on a hand loom worked by two persons, 
but the whole of the material must have been 
spun by hand. It would be interesting to know 
where such an industry flourished at that time. 
I question whether it would have been in Eng- 
land. Such a production from English looms 
would surely have been looked on as evidence of 
rank treason; besides, the Jacobite organization 
could hardly have been strong enough in England 
to have commanded commercial or industrial con- 
fidence sufficient to produce it as an article of 
commerce. Had it been worked with the needle 
the case would have been altogether different. My 
theory is that it was produced in France and 
found its way into Scotland, hence the plaid 
pattern, and thence was brought to Manchester as 
a present to some friendly lady Jacobite. 

2. The baby's mittens, made of fine muslin 
with a leno thread and pattern worked by hand 
in the muslin, must have been hand spun and 
hand woven. The count of the muslin is twenty- 
one square, and both warp and weft are very level. 
The Swiss and also the Dutch are said to have 
been very clever at this kind of work, and pos- 
sibly these mittens found their way here from some 
continental source. 

3. The book-plate is of no particular signi- 

4. The portrait of a gentleman m full-bottomed 
wig, judging from its style, is said to be of the 
period of George II., which is probably the period 
of the pincushion and mittens. 

Could you throw any light on the origin of the 
pincushion? Judging from R. L. Stevenson a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. XL JAN. 23, w. 

* Catriona,' there was a colony of French weavers 
in Scotland at the period named (pp. 27, 28), as 
will appear from the following : 

" My way lay over Mouter's Hill and through an end 
of a clachan on the braeside among fields. There was a 
whirr of looms in it went from house to house, bees 
hummed in the garden, the neighbours that I saw at the 
doorsteps talked in a strange tongue, and I found out 
later that this was Picardy, a village where the French 
weavers wrought for the Linen Company." 

Would these French weavers be likely to have 
made the pincushion ? SAM. ANDIIEW. 

Hey Lees, Oldham. 

BEAUJOIE FAMILY. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me if the above name is borne 
by any member of the French aristocracy, and what 
title? F. CARR. 

THE ROYAL COLLEGES. At the annual West- 
minster School Election dinner one of the toasts 
is " The Three Royal Colleges." Which be they ? 
Some say Westminster, Christ Church, Trinity 
an arrangement which suits this particular occa- 
sion very well. But others suggest Winchester, 
Eton, Westminster ; while others, again, find a 
place for King's College, Cambridge. Can any of 
your readers cite an authority which shall determine 
the question ? ARTHUR GAYE, 

View Point, Baling Common, W. 

VIII. Can any reader furnish me with in- 
formation regarding William Boteler, Buttler, or 
Butler, Serjeant-at-Arms to Henry VIII. ; also, 
as to his wife Elizabeth ? They resided at a 
house in Church Row, Fulham. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

PrE FAMILY OP KILPECK. What is known as 
to any descendants of the Pye who went to France 
with King James II., and was by him created 
Baron Kilpeck, of Kilpeck Castle, in the county of 
Hereford ? His daughter Mary Pye was a nun in 
a convent at Paris in the last century. Had he 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

COL. HENRY MARTIN.- A portrait of Henry 
Martin, the regicide, bareheaded, in full armour, 
green scarf round waist, in right hand a large 
pistol, left hand resting on sword-hilt. Can any 
one tell me where this picture is, and whether it 
can be seen ? Twenty years ago it was, I think, 
in the possession of the Lewis family. Are there 
other authentic portraits or miniatures of Henry 
Martin? JERMYN. 

SCOTTISH CRAFTSMEN. In one of James Grant's 
novels, ' The Captain of the Guard,' the craftsmen 
of Edinburgh are described in the language of the 
time ? the fifteenth century, as the " feonest meji of 

Edinburgh," and the author goes on to explain 
that it was the common designation of the period 
for a respectable tradesman or artisan, and had not 
the reference to moral character which it now 
bears. I observed recently on some tombstones 
in the north-east of Perthshire inscriptions such 
as this : " Heir lyes ane honest man, Johne 
Blak." Names of various members of the family 
would follow, and arranged in a sort of sym- 
metrical order, mixed with the usual emblems of 
mortality, appeared the familiar implements of 
the deceased man's trade perhaps the tools of a 
smith or wright, or, if a miller, parts of a meal mill. 
Very few of the stones were older than the seven- 
teenth century. These inscriptions help to con- 
firm Grant's assertion. Is he to be depended on 
in such a matter ? Many of the stones are finely 
carved, and on not a few there are shields sur- 
rounded by graceful scroll-work and surmounted 
by a closed helmet and wreath. In no instance is 
there a crest, nor on the shield any tincture or 
charge simply the initials of the heads of the 
family and a date, none that could be read later 
than 1747. Besides tradesmen these slabs marked 
the resting-place of farmers. Have the shields and 
helmets any heraldic significance ; or are they the 
mere fancy of a country mason % Neray, Meigle, 
Blairgowrie, Kinloch, and Clunie furnish examples. 

W. B. T. 

authority for the following statement ? I extract 
the paragraph from ' Four Welsh Counties,' 1891, 
by E. A. Kilner : 

" A Welsh knight, Sir Howel-y-Pwyall, or Sir Howel 
of the battle-axe, was made governor of Criccieth Castle 
by the Black Prince, for his bravery at the battle of 
Poictiers. With his axe he cut down the enemy, took 
the French king prisoner, cut off the head of his horse, 
and performed many other deeds of prowess. In 
addition to his governorship, he was knighted, and 
allowed to bear the arms of France, with ' a battle-axe 
in bend sinister.' Further, it was ordained that this 
famous blade should be hung up in the Tower of London, 
and that every day ' a messe of meat ' should be served 
before it at the expense of the Crown. The ' messe ' was 
afterwards taken out and distributed amongst the 
beggars at the gate. After Sir Howel's death the 
custom still continued, with the addition that the 
beggars were enjoined to pray for the soul of the gallant 
knight. Eight yeomen, called yeomen of the Crown, 
received eightpence a day to perform this duty, which 
was uninterruptedly carried on until the time of Queen 

This curious custom seems to be connected with 
the idea of the spirit of an inanimate object being 
able to consume non-material sustenance drawn 
from the food offered to it. Were our ancestors of 
the fifteenth century so near to the animistic 
savage as to believe that the sword could benefit 
by the repast ; or were they merely keeping up an 
old traditionary form without attaching any par- 
ticular meaning to it ? FLORENCE PEACOCK;. 
Punstan House, Kirtonrin-^indsev, 

8 th S. XL JAN. 23, '97.] 



church of St. Beuno, at Clynnog in Carnarvonshire 
(formerly the collegiate church of the illustrious 
Welsh saint), there are two pulpits ; each has two 
rows of large adders carved round. Why adders ] 


Camden Lawn, Birkenhead. 

(8 th S. x. 357, 438.) 

Although it is technically correct that there is 
not in law either such an officer of state as a 
Prime Minister or such a body as the Cabinet, 
of which he is the head it would be worse than 
pedantic at this stage of our constitutional 
development to ignore either the one or the 
other ; and it seems of importance to attempt 
more systematically to trace the origin of the 
Premiership than has hitherto been done. 

The idea of one of the official servants of the 
Crown being superior in position to all the rest is 
old enough ; and it has been recognized not only 
in our history but our literature, from Marlowe 
even to Tennyson. It is plainly evident in 
Marlowe's ' Edward II.', where the King exclaims 
to Gaveston, 

I here create thee Lord High Chamberlain, 
Chief Secretary to the state and me. 

Act I. so. i.; 

and precisely the same idea is in the pseudo- 
Shaksperian 'Life and Death of Thomas Lord 
Cromwell,' the Duke of Norfolk saying, 

Cromwell, the gracious majesty of England, 
For the good liking he conceives of thee, 
Makes thee the master of the jewel-house, 
Chief secretary to himself, and withal, 
Creat8 thee one of his highness' privy-council. 

Act IV. sc. i. 

In Shakspere we have not only the thing but an 
early indication of the name, Henry VIII. asking 

Have I not made you 
The prime man of the state? Act III. sc. ii. 

Andrew Marvel! brought the name a long step 
nearer to the usage of to-day in the line in ' The 
King's Vows,' which cannot be of later date than 

A pimp shall be my minister premier ; 

and it was to 1679 that Lord Haversham, in a 
historic debate in the House of Lords on 13 Feb., 
1741, hereafter to be dealt with, attributed a 
declaration of Charles II. that he would never 
be governed by a single minister any more (' Par- 
liamentary History,' vol. xi. f. 1062 n.). 

It is to the politicians of the reign of Charles II., 
indeed, that we must look for the earliest plain 
indication of the now familiar phrase, for Roger 
JTorth wrote concerning onp qf the Cabal ; 

"The Duke of Bucks was a strange Instance of a 

Bizzarr Courtier [who] had the unaccountable Chance 

to be, for some Time, little less than primier Minister 
to direct all the King's Affairs."' Examen,' p. 453. 

And though he referred (ibid., p. 44) to Shaftes- 
bury, another of the Cabal, as one who, as some 
thought, "aimed at making the Monarchy abso- 
lute, and himself to be the chief Minister," the state- 
ment is indexed (in the edition of 1740) as a wish 
to be " premier Minister." The idea of a recog- 
nized chief of Administration, indeed, was then in 
the air, for Bishop Burnet, in his reference to Laud, 
written before 1705, said : 

" A chief minister, and one in high favour, determines 
the rest so much, that they are generally 1 ittle better 
than machines acted by him." 'History of His Own 
Time,' book i. sec. 50. 

This is before the time of Walpole, with whom 
both the position and the name of Prime Minister 
are commonly held to have originated ; but the term 
was first directly applied to Robert Harley, for 
Swift, in his ' Atlas ; or, the Minister of State,' 
addressed to the Lord Treasurer Oxford, wrote in 


Atlas is a politician, 

A premier minister of state. 

What Swift intended as a compliment to a 
patron, did not appeal in the same fashion to 
Barley's enemies. It was charged against the ex- 
Lord Treasurer in the 15th of the Articles of 
Impeachment levelled against him in July, 1715, 
by the House of Lords, that, throughout the 
negotiations which preceded the Peace of Utrecht, 
he took on himself " a most arbitrary and unwar- 
rantable authority, and the chief direction and 
influence in her majesty's Councils"; while the 
Commons, in the fifth of their separate Articles, 
alleged that he had "assumed to himself the 
supreme direction in her majesty's Councils" 
( Lords' Journals,' vol. xx. pp. 109, 140). These 
charges the accused statesman specifically denied : 
he never " took upon himself any arbitrary or un- 
warrantable authority, much less the chief direction 
and influence in her majesty's Councils," and he 
never *' assumed the supreme direction" therein 
(ibid., pp. 211, 217). But a score of years later 
his jealous colleague and rival, Bolingbroke, ex- 
plained in his own fashion what these charges 
meant, for " Caleb D'anvers," in the Craftsman of 
18 Jan., 1735, sought to dispose of a Walpolian 
pamphlet accusing Bolingbroke of having been 
" the Author of all the publick Measures and Pro- 
ceedings, during the four last Years of Q. Anne," 
by saying: 

"The late Earl of Oxford stands charged, in the Im- 
peachment against him, with being the Prime, if not 
the sole Minister, and engrossing to himself the absolute 
Management and Direction of all Affairs." 

Bolingbroke, indeed, may be given the credit of 
fastening the phrase upon Walpole, the Craftsman 
and $<?g's Journal, both devoted to his interest) 



[8 th S. XI. JAN. 23, '97. 

using it again and again as a term of reproach 
before it was regularly accepted by politicians. It 
was, however, common form on the part of the 
Opposition, for years before his fall from office, 
to compare Walpole with Richelieu and other 
ministers of autocratic monarohs, who had con- 
trived to absorb most of their masters' power ; 
and a striking example of this kind of attack is 
to be found in Fog's Journal for 28 April, 1733. 
The article therein on ' Court Minions, Oppressors 
of the People/ exhibits the fashion in which the 
term was at once made current and odious, for 
it remarked : 

" The chief Business of a Court Minion, or prime 

Minister, is to enrich himself and his Family Mr. 

Gordon, in a Discourse prefixed to the Translation of 
Tacitus dedicated to Sir Rob. Walpole, says : ' Was it 
any wonder the People of France gasped under Oppres- 
sion and Taxes, when the Government was sway'd by 
such a Woman (the Queen Regent), herself governed by 
Cardinal Mazarine, a publick Thief, one convicted of 
having stolen from the Finances 9 Millions in a few 
Years; and one, who in the highest Post of first 
Minister, could never help showing the base Spirit of a 
Little Sharper ' ? In Countries where Royal Prerogative 
is limited by Laws, the Name of prime Minister has 
been always odious. For, if he fills the Great Offices of 
State, with Men of Honour and Abilities, they will never 
submit to his Direction ; if with his own base Creatures, 
they will bring his Administration into Contempt and 
if he should strive to maintain his Power by an Invasion 
of the People's Liberties, and his Constituents should be 
weak enough to support him in it, they will probably be 
involved in one common Ruin. For Men who are born 
Free, will not be aw'd by any Human Titles, or frighten'd 
into Slavery by a Q Wig, a Red Coat, and a pair of Jack 

Not only in the press was Walpole held up to 
public execration as Prime Minister, for the 
Prompter (quoted in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for January, 1735) describes a bill as having been 
given away at a masquerade, part of which read 
as follows : 

"On Thursday next, by the Norfolk Company of arti- 
ficial Comedians, at Robin's Great Theatrical Booth in 
Palace-yard, will be presented a comical and diverting 
Play of Seven Acts, call'd 'Court and Country,' in 
which will be revived, the entertaining Scene of the 
* Two Blundering Brothers,' with the Cheats of Rabbi 
Robin, Prime-Minister of King Solomon." 

Year after year, this kind of attack in varied ways 
went on, but the first formal suggestion of the term 
in Parliament would seem to have been in a protest 
made in the House of Lords on 28 Jan., 1741, after 
the and- Walpole Opposition had been defeated in 
attempting to appoint a secret committee to inquire 
into the conduct of the war, the second head of this 
pronouncement declaring that 

"the BO often urged argument of secrecy may not 

only prove the security, but the cause of a sole Minister, 
secrecy being undoubtedly best observed by one; and 
such a sole Minister may, by the same reasoning, as well 
refuse the communication of measures to the rest of his 
Majesty's Council, and thereby engross a power incon- 

sistent with, and fatal to, this Constitution." 'Lords' 
Journals,' vol. xxv. p. 578. 

Within another three weeks it came to the fore 
with a rush, for the accusation that Walpole had 
made himself a Sole or Prime Minister was one of 
the main charges levelled against him in the famous 
simultaneous debate in the Houses of Lords and 
Commons on 13 Feb., 1741, upon a motion for 
addressing George II. to dismiss Walpole from his 
presence and councils for ever. In the course of 
the debate in the Lords, Carteret, the mover of the 
resolution, observed : 

" A sole prime minister may be able to prevent the 
truth's reaching the ears of his master, by means of any 
of those he suffers to have free access to hia person " ; 

while Argyll, another of the Opposition, declared : 

u If my father or brother took upon him the office of a 
sole minister, I would oppose it as inconsistent with the 
constitution, as a high crime and misdemeanour." 

To these peers Lord Chancellor Hardwicke 
replied : 

" A sole minister is so illegal an office, that it is none. 
Yet a noble lord [Carteret] says, Superior respondeat, 
which is laying down a rule for a prime minister, 
whereas the noble duke [Argyll] was against any. In fact, 
there hath, always been some person in peculiar confi- 
dence with the King, and there is nothing in this 
against the constitution." 

But he went on : 

" To imagine or suppose that any one Minister solely 
engrosses the ear of his sovereign, and usurps the sole 
disposal of all the favours of the crown, is, I am sure, 

no compliment to the King upon the throne The 

Minister whose conduct and character is now under our 
consideration, has certainly a great share of his majesty's 
confidence; but this does not proceed from any blind 
attachment to him, but from the experience his majesty 
has had of his fidelity and wisdom." 

When the motion had been rejected in the 
Lords, a protest was recorded, which declared 

"we are persuaded that a sole, or even a First, 
Minister, is an officer unknown to the law of Britain, 
inconsistent with the Constitution of this country, and 
destructive of liberty in any Government whatsoever; and 
it plainly appearing to us that Sir Robert Walpole has, 
for many years, acted as such, by taking upon himself 
the chief, if not the sole, direction of affairs, in the dif- 
ferent branches of the Administration, we could not but 
esteem it to be our indispensable duty to offer our most 
humble advice to his Majesty, for the removal of a 
Minister so dangerous to the King and the Kingdom." 
' Lords' Journals,' vol. xxv. p. 596. 

In the Commons on that same night Sandys, 
the member for Worcester, who moved the 
address, averred : 

" According to our constitution, we can have no sole 
and prime minister : we ought always to have several 
prime ministers or officers of state : every such officer 
has his own proper department ; and no officer ought to 
meddle in the affairs belonging to the department of 
another. But it is publicly known that this Minister, 
having obtained a sole influence over all our public 
counsels, has not only assumed the sole direction of all 
public affairs, but has got every officer of state removed 

XI. JAN. 23, '97.] 



that would not follow his direction, even in the affairs 
belonging to his own proper department." 

Walpole, who keenly felt the attack underlying 
the epithet, replied to the Opposition : 

" Having first invested me with a kind of mock dignity 
and styled me a Prime Minister, they impute to me an 
unpardonable abuse of that chimerical authority which 
they only created and conferred." 
And in the same speech he observed : 

" I am called, repeatedly and insidiously, Prime and 

Sole Minister But, while I unequivocally deny that I 

am Sole and Prime Minister, and that to my influence 
and direction all the measures of Government must 
be attributed, yet I will not shrink from the responsi- 
bility which attaches to the post [First Lord of the 
Treasury] I have the honour to hold. 

Though victorious on that occasion, Walpole 
soon afterwards fell, and the popular distaste for 
the title of " Prime Minister," which had been 
sedulously fostered as an engine against him, may 
be held to account for the more general use through- 
out the remainder of the eighteenth century of 
"The Minister" for the chief member of the 
Cabinet. Yet, by the irony of fate, it was to 
Carteret himself that the term he had considered 
so odious was next popularly applied, for in certain 
lines "on the Johns" John Duke of Argyll, 
John Earl of Stair, and John Lord Carteret 
published in some of the newspapers of 1743, there 
is the reference : 

By the Patriots' vagary 

He was made Secretary] ; 
By himself he 's P[rime] M[inister made. 

It was just at this period that the word " Premier" 
as an alternative for " Prime Minister" came into 
use ; and Mr. John Morley has written : 

" The earliest instance in which I have found the head 
of the Government designated as the Premier is in a 
letter to the Duke of Newcastle from the Duke of Cum- 
berland in 1746, though in Johnson's ' Dictionary,' pub- 
lished nine years later, premier still only figures as an 
adjective. The king wished Pitt, then just made Pay- 
master, to move the parliamentary grant to the victor of 
Culloden. ' I should be much better pleased,' writes the 
Duke of Cumberland, ' if the Premier moved it, both as 
a friend and on account of his weight. I am fully con- 
vinced of the Premier's goodwill to me.' [Coxe's ' Pel- 
ham Administration,' i. 486. The Duchess of Marl- 
borough, in her 'Correspondence,' frequently speaks of 
"the Premier Minister," but never of the Premier 
vol. ii. 152, 181, &c. Mr. Morley's note.] On the other 
hand, in a debate so late as 1761, George Grenville de- 
clared that Prime Minister is an odious title, and he was 
sorry that it was now deemed an essential part of the 
constitution." Mr. John Morley's ' Walpole,' pp. 161-2. 

I have not traced the speech of George Gren- 
ville to which Mr. Morley refers ; but in that 
which that statesman delivered on 3 Feb., 1769, 
against the motion for the expulsion of Wilkes 
from the House of Commons, he referred to " Mr. 
Walpole, who was afterwards first minister to 
King George the 1st and King George the 2nd" 
( 4 Parliamentary History,' vol. xvi. f. 562). 

Lord North, Mr, Morley adds, is said never to 

have" allowed himself in his own family to'be called 
Prime Minister ; but that term, as well as Premier, 
was too convenient to be lost sight of, and Burns, m 
his ' Earnest Cry and Prayer to the Right Honour- 
able the Scotch Representatives in the House of 
Commons/ employed " Premier " in the lines 

Stand forth, an' tell yon Premier Youth [Pitt] 

The honest, open, naked truth ; 
while in his * Address of Beelzebub to the Pre-. 
sident of the Highland Society' he used it as a 
verb in saying 

Nae sage North, now, nor sager Sackville 

To watch and premier o'er the pack vile ; 
and that "Premier" is preferable to 'Prime 
Minister" as a term for poetic use is 
attested by Praed's selection of it in his 
tions, a Remonstrance of the Ventilator,' written 
in 1831, where, with reference to Lord l*rey, i 
is observed : 

The Premier has been kind, I own, 

To most of his connections. 

Neither "Premier" nor "Prime Minister" 
came into daily use until the nineteenth century 
had well advanced, "First Minister " being often 
employed and especially by the late Lord Beacons, 
field, who, however, used " Minister," < First 
Minister" and "Prime Minister" in turn. In 
< Popanilla,' published in 1828, the hero upon one 
occasion "shrugged his shoulders and looked as 
pitiable as a prime minister with a rebellious 
cabinet" (chap. vi.). In the preface to 
Letters of Runny mede,' dated 27 July, 1836, 
Disraeli remarked that Melbourne, 
" with a degree of modest frankness and constitutional 
propriety equally admirable, pledges himself before his 
country that, as long as he is supported by a majority of 
the House of Commons, he will remain Minister. 
But in an attack upon Peel on 22 January, 1846, 
during the debate on the Address, Disraeli ob- 
served, with a curious distortion of what Walpole 
really had said : 

" It is all very well for the right honourable gentleman 
to say 'I am the First Minister 'and, by the by, ] 
think the right honourable gentleman might as well 
adopt the phraseology of Walpole,>nd call himself the 
sole minister, for his speech was rich in egoistic 
rhetoric it is all very well for him to speak of himself 
as the sole minister, for, as all his cabinet voted against 
him, he is quite right not to notice them." 

In two other debates during the same session 
Disraeli barbed his assaults upon Peel by empha- 
sizing his position as "First Minister," a term he 
applied also to Russell in a discussion upon the 
state of the nation on 6 July, 1849 ; but in one 
upon agricultural distress on 11 February, 1851, 
he referred to " the fashion now amongst Prime 
Ministers" (indicating Russell also, however, as 
"the Minister"). But "First Minister" was 
still his favourite term, for it is to be found in a 
speech of 18 February, 1853, upon our relations 
with France, and in one of 24 May, 1855, upon 



[8* S. XI JAN. 23, '97. 

the prosecution of the Crimean War, with the 
variant in the latter of u Chief Minister to the 
Crown." At the historic Slough banquet of 
26 May, 1858, however, he twice named Lord 
Derby as " Prime Minister of England "; and in 
his last famous speech of all that in the House 
of Lords on 3 August, 1880, on the Compensation 
for Disturbance Bill he referred to Mr. Glad- 
stone as "the Prime Minister," the designation 
by which the office is now always known. 

In using the alternatives, Lord Beaconsfield was 
following the example of his father, for Isaac 
D'Israeli, in 'The Curiosities of Literature/ has 
two essays, one on c The Minister The Car- 
dinal Duke of Kichelieu,' and the other on 'The 
Minister Duke of Buckingham, Lord Admiral, 
Lord General, &c.' This latter was the Bucking- 
ham of Charles I., and not the Buckingham of 
Charles II., whom Roger North designated a 
"primier Minister"; and how Isaac D'Israeli 
understood the term "Minister" is obvious from 
his note to the Buckingham essay, '* The misery of 
Prime Ministers and favourites is a portion of their 
fate, which has not always been noticed by their 
biographers," as also in his reference to " the 
romantic journey to Madrid, where the Prime 
Minister and the heir-apparent, in disguise, con- 
fided their safety in the hands of our national 
enemies"; and, before the essay ends, there is 
given " a curious instance of those heaped-up 
calumnies, which are often so heavily laid on the 
head of a Prime Minister, no favourite with the 

The term " Prime Minister " may fairly now be 
regarded as permanently embodied in the British 
political vocabulary, though, even as lately as 
6 Jan., 1897, the Bishop of Stepney, in a letter to 
the Times, on 'Conge" d'Elire and Confirmation,' 
observed that " the nation speaks through its 
representative, the first Minister." 

So much for the name, but for the most authori- 
tative account of the place the Prime Minister holds 
in the Government of this country one must turn to 
Mr. Gladstone, who has the unique record of having 
been called to that position four times. In his criti- 
cism in the Church of England Quarterly Review 
for January, 1877, upon the second volume of Sir 
Theodore Martin's ' Life of the Prinoe Consort,' he 
wrote : 

"It ia a curious, but little observed, fact of our 
history, that the office of First Minister only seems to 
have obtained regular recognition as the idea of personal 
government by the King faded and became invisible. So 
late as the final attacks upon Sir Robert Walpole it was 
one of the charges against him that he had assumed the 
functions of First Minister." 

In his article * Kin beyond Sea,' which appeared 
in the North American Review for September, 
1878, Mr. Gladstone dealt more in detail with 
the position : 

" It [the Cabinet] was for a long time without a 
Ministerial head ; the King was the head. While this 
arrangement subsisted Constitutional government could 

be but half established So late as the impeachment 

of Sir Robert Walpole his friends thought it expedient 
to urge on his behalf, in the House of Lords, that he had 
never presumed to constitute himself a Prime Minister. 
The breaking down of the great offices of State by 
throwing them into commission, and last among them 
of the Lord High Treasurership after the time of Harley, 
Earl of Oxford, tended, and may probably have been 
meant, to prevent or retard the formation of a recog- 
nized Chiefship in the Ministry, which even now we 
have not learned to designate by a true English word, 
though the use of the imported phrase f Premier ' is at 
least as old as the poetry of Burns. Nor can anything 
be more curiously characteristic of the political genius 
of the people than the present position of this most 
important official personage. Departmentally, he is 
no more than the first named of five persons, by 
whom jointly the powers of the Lord Treasurership 
are taken to be exercised; he is not their master, or, 
otherwise than by mere priority, their head ; and he has 
no special function or prerogative under the formal con- 
stitution of the office. He has no official rank, except 
that of Privy Councillor. Eight members of the 
Cabinet, including five Secretaries of State, and several 
other members of the Government, take official pre- 
cedence of him. His rights and duties as head of the 
Administration are nowhere recorded. He is almost, if 

not altogether, unknown to the Statute Law The 

head of the British Government ia not a Grand Vizier. 
He has no powers, properly so called, over his col- 
leagues : on the rare occasions when a Cabinet determines 
its course by the votes of its members his vote counts as only 
one of theirs. But they are appointed and dismissed by 

the Sovereign on his advice In a perfectly organized 

administration, such for example as was that of Sir 
Robert Peel in 1841-6, nothing of great importance is 
matured, or would even be projected, in any department 
without his personal cognizance ; and any weighty busi- 
ness would commonly go to him before being submitted 
to the Cabinet. He reports to the Sovereign its pro- 
ceedings, and he also has many audiences of the august 
occupant of the Throne. He is bound, in these reports 
and audiences, not to counterwork the Cabinet ; not to 
divide it ; not to undermine the position of any of 

his colleagues in the Royal favour The Prime 

Minister has no title to override any one of 
his colleagues in any one of the departments. 
So far as he governs them, unless it is done by 
trick, which is not to be supposed, he governs them 
by influence only. But upon the whole, nowhere in 
the wide world does so great a substance cast so small 
a shadow ; nowhere is there a man who has so much 
power, with so little to show for it in the way of formal 
title or prerogative." 

It will thus be seen that Mr. Gladstone who, 
more than any man, can appreciate the observation 
in the conclusion of Tennyson's ' The Princess ' 

a shout 

More joyful than the city-roar that hails 
Premier or King ! 

adopts the very idea of the powers of a Prime 
Minister over his colleagues which the Opposition 
of 1741 declared to be monstrous and even 
treasonable. This of itself is a striking illustra- 
tion of how the English Constitution developes a 
development which would have been far more difK- 

S. XI. JAN. 23, J 97.] 



cult, and perhaps dangerous, if we had possessed 
the "written constitution" to which GENERAL 
MAXWELL twice refers, but which would be some- 
what difficult to produce. 



515). It is impossible to tell from the query 

whether the question is an idler's or that of a 

student. Of course I admit that in either case it is 

entitled to a reply; but in the first case any 

will do. If that of a student who has taken the 

trouble to look up every source he can think of 

and failed, I should not venture to reply with 

such elementary information as the following. 

There has been published this account : " Affecting 

Narrative of the Loss of the Grosvenor Indiaman, 

Captain Coxson, August 4, 1782. London." 

This book has no date; the cataloguer of the 

British Museum suggests 1802. If H. T. is an 

idler, he will get much more amusement from 

' The Wreck of the Grosvenor, an Account of the 

Mutiny of the Crew and the Loss of the Ship 

when trying to make the Bermudas, 3 vols., 1877," 

which the same authority informs us is a novel 

by W. Clark Russell, a name which publishers 

consider will float anything, and therefore his 

Grosvenor ought never to have sunk. And in 

Watt's ' Bibliotheca Britannica ' will be found the 

titles of several accounts and a " Journal, &c., of, 

&c., in search of the Wreck, &c.. by Captain Riou, 


Your querist will do all bibliographers a service 
if he will look the whole question up thoroughly, 
and let us know who the authors were of the books 
on this ship that are anonymous. Six hours a day 
for a week ought to do it, and will be a sufficient 
reason why I do not give more information. 


P.S. On thinking this over, I don't think I 
have allowed enough time ; for, besides consulting 
every catalogue that can be found, and every dic- 
tionary of dates, and reading all the books carefully, 
it would be necessary to try Lloyd's. The registers 
of the old East India Company might contain some 
information, and the library of the India House, 
in Parliament Street, is rich in such on all sub- 
jects relating to India. Your correspondent MR. 
CHARLES MASON occasionally gives us some excel- 
lent notes from this source; and this is a question 
he would handle in fine form. 

A long and detailed account is given in ' Ship- 
wrecks and Disasters ab Sea,' vol. ii., by Cyrus 
Redding (London, Whitfcaker, Treacher & Co., 
3), which book forms vol. Ixxix. of " Constable's 
Miscellany." The Grosvenor's captain appears to 
have been named Coxen ; chief mate, Logie ; 
second mate, Shaw ; third mate, Beale ; fourth, 
Trotter; fifth, Harris; Hay, purser^ and also 

Capt. Talbot (qy., had she two commanders ?). The 
passengers were Mrs. Logie (chief mate's wife), Mr. 
Newman, Messrs. Taylor, d'Espinette, Williams, 
and Oliver, Col. and Mrs. James, Mr. and Mrs, 
Hosea, Mr. Nixon, and a " Master Law," a child, 
who died. F. L. MAWDESLEY. 

Delwood Croft, York. 

The required particulars are contained in the 
" Narrative of the Loss of the Grosvenor East 
Indiaman, [Capt. Coxon] which was Wrecked 
upon the Coast of Caffraria, somewhere between 
the 27th and 32nd degree of Southern Latitude, on 
the 4th of August, 1782. Compiled from the 
Examination of John Hynes, one of the unfor- 
tunate survivors, by Mr. George Carter, historical 
portrait painter, upon his passage outward bound 
to India, 8vo. Lond., 1791. A copy of the said work 
is preserved in the British Museum Library (press- 
mark G 15,731). DANIEL HIPWELL. 

See ' Authentic Account of the Loss of the 
Grosvenor East Indiaman ; with the Events which 
befel the Crew, as given by Robert Price, Thomas 
Lewis, John Warmington, and Barney Larey,' 
reviewed in Gent. Mag. for 1783, pt. ii. pp. 789- 
792. G. F. R. B. 

YSONDE, A GHOST-NAME (8 th S. x. 413, 503). 
This name appears in Miss Yonge's ' History of 
Christian Names,' 1863, ii. 145 : " Esylt was the 
French Yseulte, or Ysonde, the Italian Isolte, and 
English Ysolt, Isolda, or Izolta, and in all these 
shapes was frequent in the families of the Middle 
Ages." It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to remark 
that Tennyson uses not Ysonde, but Isolt, cf. * The 
Last Tournament.' F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

WEDDING CEREMONY (8 th S. ix. 406, 475 ; x. 
59, 98, 126, 182). In a recent paper, entitled 
* The Law of Dakheil and other Curious Customs 
of the Bedowin,' by Mr. Sydney Klein, F.L.S., 
F. R.A.S., read before a private literary society, he 
thus refers to the above ceremony of hand-tying : 

" It ia also the form used when the moat solemn of all 
earthly pledges and vows are exchanged between man 
and wife, namely by joining of hands. Thia was the 
' dextrarum junctio ' of the Romans, but it was used long 
before their time in the ancient Hindoo ceremony of 

So it is clearly evident from where the modern 
system is derived. T. F. 

JOHN JONES, M.P. (8 th S. x. 416). While I 
cannot tell who this person was, MR. W. D. PINK 
may perhaps be interested to be referred to a 
memorable speech made by Jones in the Commons 
" die Martis Ap. 4, 1671," on a Bill introduced into 
the House to obtain powers for the building of a 
bridge from Fulham to Putney. Jones vigorously 
denounced the threatened project, which he declared 
would not only jeopardize the commerce of the 
great city which he bud the honour to, represent. 



[8"> S. XI. JAN. 23, '97. 

but actually annihilate it altogether ! My refer- 
ence is to Gray's 'Debates in the House of 
Commons,' 1769. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington. 

"DISANNUL " (8* S. x. 414, 483). I agree with 
your correspondent at the second reference in his 
remarks upon this word ; for if we are to give up 
using " disannul/' we ought also to give up using 
"dissever," if we wish to be consistent, as its 
formation resembles that of " disannul," a word 
which seems to me to have been formed because, 
for some reason or other, it was felt that " annul " 
was not strong enough to convey the meaning 
which it was intended to express by using " dis- 
annul." Of. the use of disperdo in Latin with that 
of per do. In dialect "disannul" has curiously 
come to mean dispossess as, "Pray Ma'm, don't let 
me disannul you of your seat." Of. Miss Baker's 
1 Northamptonshire Glossary.' 


May I direct attention to the paragraph num- 
bered 5 in division i. of the article on the prefix 
dit- in the 'New English Dictionary,' which gives 
several instances of Latin words similarly formed. 


DUKE OP GLOUCESTER (8 th S. x. 515 ; xi. 18, 
57). He was born at Hampton Court, and at his 
baptism, when three days old, by the Bishop of 
London, the king declared his pleasure that the 
prince should be known as the Duke of Gloucester. 
At the funeral of the prince in Henry VII.'s 
Chapel, Westminster Abbey, the Garter King of 
Arms proclaimed him " the most illustrious Prince, 
William, Duke of Gloucester, Knight of the Most 
noble order of the Garter," and the gilt plate on 
the coffin has the following inscription : 

Illustrissimi Principis, 
Gulieltni Ducis Gloceatriae 
Nobilissimi Ordinis Aurese 

Periscelidis Equitis, 

Filii Unici Celsissimaa Principissaj 

Annas, Per Inclytissimum Principem 

Georgium Daniae, Hasreditarium ; 

Ohiit in Castro Regali Apud 

Windesor, xxx Die Julii, M.DOO 

Anno ^Etatis xn Ineunte. 


THOMAS BOLAS (8 th S. xi. 27). He was the 
author of " The English Merchant : or the Fatal 

Effects of Speculation in the Funds : A Novel 

In Two Volumes. London : Printed for William 
Lane, at the Minerva Press, Leadenhall-street, 
M.DCC.XCV," 8vo. Some former owner has written, 
under the author's name, on the title which I have, 
"East Lane Wai worth." This was, very likely, 
the author's address. JULIAN MARSHALL. 

ROPED " (8 th S. x, 253, 401). The remarks of your 
correspondents not having elicited any further ex 

planation of " chare rofed," I beg to offer one. Since 
my father compiled his glossary, three-quarters of a 

entury have added greatly to our knowledge of old 
English. Jamieson's ( Scottish Dictionary ' may be 

ited as affording valuable assistance. There can 
now be little, if any, doubt that the correct render- 
ing of the words in the will of King Henry VI. is 
"vaulted and lead-roofed." The word char, or 
chare, means a cart, a cartload, the load carried 
e. g. } lead and, further, a stated weight of lead, a 
ton, more or less. The word fodder, or j 'other, 
with the same meaning, is more common in Eng- 
land, and it occurs in accounts of the spoil of the 
monasteries. T. J. WILLSON. 

Reform Club. 

GEORGE MORLAND, SENIOR (8 th S. xi. 8). The 
query really refers to a pair of females painted by 
Henry Robert Morland, father of G. Morland, 
jun. Henry was born in 1730, and the Miss 
Gunnings were both ladies of title in 1752, there- 
fore it is most unlikely that so young an artist 
would paint them as " Mies Gunnings "; and if 
done after their marriages the titles would have 
added value to the works. The lady washing was 
said to be Mrs. or Miss Dawe. Will A. C. H. say 
if in the oil painting of the lady washing she 
wears a pink dress ; and is the frame a deep Flo- 
rentine with star-shaped flowers on the corners ? 
If so, I have the fellow oil painting to it, the lady 
ironing. And I also have photographs of both 
pictures in the same frames. Will A. C. H. kindly 
give me name and address of the party who has 
the oil painting if it answers my description ? I 
would send photograph for comparison. If it be 
the picture I inquire for, its history is singular in 
the extreme. HILDA GAMLIN. 

Camden Lawn, Olaughton Road, Birkenbead. 

George Morland painted " a lady ironing " as a 
companion picture to the "lady washing," and 
these pictures have been said to be portraits of 
the two celebrated Miss Gunnings, but authority 
is in favour of their being the portraits of the 
painter's daughters. Certainly the lady ironing 
has not the faintest resemblance to either of the 
Gunnings, though the other has a slight resem- 
blance to Lady Coventry. I believe that Lord 
Mansfield has the originals. I should very much 
like to know the name of the engraver of the 
" print " seen by A. C. H. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

What reason is there to suppose that there is 
one portrait of Miss Gunning " washing lace in 
a basin" by George Morland, sen., or any Mor- 
land, or any one whatever? Henry Morland 
painted two fancy portraits of laundry-maids, 
perhaps his daughters, which were sold to Lord 
Mansfield at the Stowe sale under the name of 
the two Miss Guunipgs, and exhibited as such 

8 th S. XI. JAN. 23, '97.] 



in the National Portrait Exhibition of 1867. 
But they are not so described at the National 
Gallery, where they are at present to be seen. 


The father of George Morland and the painter 
of Miss Gunning washing was Henry Robert Mor- 
land. He painted a companion picture of Miss 
Gunning ironing. These two pictures belong to 
the Earl of Mansfield, at Caen wood. Redgrave 
mentions a George Henry Morland, the grand- 
father of George Morland, but he does not seem to 
have exhibited. ALGERNON GRAVES. 

EDWARD II. (8 th S. xi. 7). A full and interest- 
ing account of the battle of Boroughbridge and the 
events which occurred before and after the fight, 
also the works consulted on the subject, with a list 
of the knights and nobles who fought against the 
king, will be found in the Yorkshire Archaeological 
and Topographical Journal, vol. vii. pp. 330-60. 


GOSFORTH (8 th S. x. 172, 224, 264, 300, 405, 
441). My attention has just been called to the 
correspondence which has appeared in your columns, 
mainly between ME. RICHARD WELFORD and 
PROF. SEE AT, on the subject of the derivation of 
the place-names of Gosforth and Jesmond, borne 
by two suburbs of Newcastle- upon -Tyne. The 
Professor, it seems, pronounced ex cathedra that 
Gosforth was nothing more than Goose-ford, where- 
upon MR. WELFORD, who happens to dwell there, 
quoted the Rev. John Hodgson as his authority 
for the creed that Gosforth means Ouse-ford, a ford 
over the Ouse-burn, and that Jesmond, anciently 
Gesemouthe, which the stream passes a little lower 
down on its course towards the Tyne, means use- 

It was perfectly easy for PROF. SKEAT in reply 
to show that the etymologies of place-names in 
Hodgson's ' History of Northumberland ' were for 
the most part arrant balderdash, and that one of 
your other correspondents who wished to make out 
that Gosforth was the Icelandic Gas-forath, or 
Goose-marsh, might for the matter of that as well 
have explained it in High Dutch as a Gas-store 
(Gas- Vorrath), i. e., a colliery. But these side issues 
trailed across the scent do not, in my opinion, sub- 
stantiate in the least the enunciation with which 
PROF. SKEAT started the controversy. Hodgson 
did much good, we should remember, in showing 
that Jesmond did not signify Jesus-Mount, as was 
then popularly supposed, but was formerly known 
as Gesemuthe, its ancient chapel being dedicated 
to Our Lady, and not to the Holy Name. Neither 
he nor MR. WELFORD, however, has explained 
why, if Jesmond be really Ouse-mouth, it should 
be situated nearly two miles from the mouth of the 
Ouse-burn, with several other places between. 
PROF. SKEAT deserves to be thanked for pointing 

out the initial impossibility of Gosforth being a 
corruption of Ouse-ford or Jesmond of Ouse-mouth ; 
but if Gosforth must be Goose-ford, and Jesmond 
(Gesemuthe), by parity of reasoning, Geese-mud, 
then the derivations of Hengrave and Ducklington 
are equally obvious. Is not PROF. SKEAT thinking 
of the spirited stanza in the (spurious) ballad of 
4 The Black Sow of Rimside ' referring to four 
villages belonging to the monks of Lindisfarne : 

From Goswick we 've geese, and from Cheswick we 've 

From Buckton we 've ven'son in store, 
From Swinhoe we 've bacon, but the Scota have it taken, 

And the Prior is longing for more ? 

It does seem extraordinary that, instead of being 
content to search out the earliest forms in which 
place-names present themselves, and then, if these 
disclose nothing as to their origin, confessing our 
ignorance, we should, at this hour of the day, aim 
at reinstating the bear and the goat in their ancient 
possession of Berwick and Gateshead. " Gose- 
ford," "Gesemuthe" sat sapientibus. Beyond 
this we have no evidence, no clue the goose of 
Gosforth may have hatched the geese of Jesmond, 
or there may have been here a Gosfrith and a Gisa 
with a good neighbourly blood- feud, if only we knew 
about it ; but we do not. PROF. SKEAT assures us, 
" we are no longer babes"; let us try not to be 

Langley Castle, Northumberland. 

One of your correspondents (8 t!l S. x. 405) appears 
to raise an objection to the meaning expounded by 
PROF. SKEAT on the ground that geese do not 
want fords. Very likely ; but is it not possible 
that we have here to do with an instance of that 
quaint humorous imagery in which people in 
olden times delighted ? We have all of us heard 
of raw recruits practising the goose-step. Foreign 
analogies are often helpful. In Russia, a line of 
carts, tumbrels, or sledges, following one another 
in a beaten track, or horses harnessed tandem 
instead of abreast, are said to move gnsem or 
guskom (i. e., goosewise). Equally so, a string of 
ladies, daintily crossing a muddy road, each step- 
ping in her predecessor's dear little foot-marks, or, 
to come to the point, a file of peasants fording a 
river. I have more than once witnessed, in this 
neighbourhood, a scene of the latter description, 
the men with boots or bass shoes and breeks slung 
at their shoulders or hoisted above their heads, the 
women well, mutatis mutandis, wading across a 
swollen stream in each other's wake. A Russian 
proverb says, in effect : 

If the ford you don't know, 
Let the skilled foremost go. 

Applicable, by the way, not only to rivers, but to 
A.-S. etymologies, with which I do not meddle, my 
aim being merely to illustrate the mention of goose 
in connexion with ford. H. E. MORGAN. 

St. Petersburg. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* a. xi. JAN. 23, w. 

CHURCH OR CHAPEL (8 tb S. x. 473). The use 
of the term " chapel" by old-fashioned Catholics, 
to designate one of their places of worship, pro- 
bably arose from the fact that, in their view, their 
forefathers had been wrongfully ousted from the 
possession of the ancient parish churches. By the 
way, I have evidence that, in some places, the pro- 
scribed Catholics were accustomed, when circum- 
stances permitted, to assemble secretly and hear 
Mass in the ancient and abandoned chapels which 
have existed in every part of the country, and 
which are often older than the parish church. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

The distinction to which MR. ANGUS calls 
attention is not peculiar to Irish men and 
women, but is common in England. In the 
Midland Counties I do not remember to have heard 
a Catholic (i. e. Roman) place of worship called by 
any other name than "chapel." C. C. B. 

The history of the word " chapel" quite apart 
from the etymology is interesting. It is many 
years now since the Protestant Dissenters aban- 
doned the use of the word " meeting-house "; then 
they spoke of their "chapels"; but this, too, is 
getting obsolete, and " churches " is now the 
term. Roman Catholics have always used the 
word " chapel," but "church" is employed also, 
and I am often asked by strangers here the way 
to what they are pleased to call "the Catholic 
church." Among English Church people, "chapel," 
as meaning a subsidiary place of worship to the 
parish church, was common enough once, but is 
little used now. Who talks in these days of 
' ' Margaret Chapel " or " Oxford Chapel " ? But, 
on the other hand, we do not speak of " proprietary 
churches" or "churches of ease," this latter not 
now a commonly used name. The size has not 
much to do with it. If " church " means the parish 
church only, " chapel " means all other places of 
worship, irrespective of denomination. 



POLITICIAN (8 th S. x. 333, 444, 617). Before 
this heading is closed I hope one of your con- 
tributors will give us the famous passage from 
Laurence Oliphant's * Piccadilly ' in which Mr. 
Wog's indignation boils over at the mere mention 
of the word. I am sorry distance from a library 
deprives me of the pleasure of quoting it. 

Q. V. 

CHINESE PLAYING-CARDS (8 th S. viii. 467). I 
have not yet met with the monograph on this sub- 
ject to which I previously alluded ; but it has 
occurred to me that the readers of ' N. & Q. 7 
might be interested in a short description of the 
half dozen varieties of Chinese cards which I have 
collected and classified up to date. Nothing 

appears to be known of them here in London, 
even at the British Museum, where the few they 
have are catalogued in a most imperfect manner. 
I have had to acquire information first-hand from 
Chinese, relying only in some cases upon a short 
article in Dutch which was printed in the Taal, 
Land, en Volkenkunde, Batavia, 1886. The in- 
terest of the Chinese cards consists in their im- 
mense variety and the way they imitate such 
other games as dominoes and chess. 

1. Chinese dominoes contain twenty-one pieces, 
that being the number of throws that can be made 
with a pair of dice. The domino cards are marked 
in exactly the same way, and, like dominoes, are 
divided into two suits, eleven cards being called 
civil and ten military. The latter are the 1-2, 
1-4, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, 2-6, 3-4, 3-5, 3-6, 4-5. 

2. Chinese chess contains sixteen pieces. They 
use the lines instead of the spaces, which gives 
them nine rows in place of eight. Then there is 
a pair of cannons, occupying an intermediate 
position between the first nine and the pawns. 
Lastly, there are five pawns. I have two entirely 
different kinds of chess carde. I will describe 
first the so-called "red cards." These consist of 
the same number of pieces as the game of chess 
which I have just spoken of, including the five 
pawns. There is a red set and a black set. Now 
for the other kind of cards called "four colours." 
This comprises only one of each class, general, 
scholar, elephant, carriage, horse, cannon, pawn, 
and, as the name "four colours " implies, there are 
four of these sets of seven, each in a different shade, 
yellow, red, green, and white. 

3. The " ten letter cards " are divided into four 
suits, and take their name from the fact that in 
each suit the values are indicated by the cha- 
racters standing for the Chinese numerals from 
two to ten. There are thirty-eight cards in a 
pack, namely, four court cards, the ace of kwon, 
the ace of sok, and nine numbered cards of each 
of the four suits sjip, kwon, sok, tshien. 

4. The two kinds I possess of the so-called 
" white cards " differ so slightly that they may be 
considered one set. The pack consists of only 
thirty different cards, divided into three suits, to 
each of which there are plain cards and a court 
card. The lowest suit is generally known among 
Europeans as the suit of strings, and its tenth 
card is called the "white flower." The next suit 
in order is that of cakes, with its court card the 
" red flower." Lastly comes the suit of myriads, 
with its court card the " old thousand." 


NELSON (8 tb S. xi. 27). The arms of Admiral 
Nelson, prior to his peerage and the augmenta- 
tions granted to him, were, Or, a cross flory sable, 
over all a bendlet gules. These were borne by 
his father, the Rev. Edmund Nelson, rector of 
Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, and appear on a 

8'l> S. XI. JAN. 23, '97.] 



gravestone in the chancel of that church, impaled 
with those of Suckling, in memory of Catharine, 
daughter of Maurice Suckling, D.D., his wife, the 
mother of Lord Nelson. She died 26 Dec., 1767. 
There is also a tablet in the same chancel to the 
above Edmund Nelson, with the augmented arms 
as now borne by the family, but apparently omit- 
ting the fess wavy over all, with the word " Tra- 
falgar" in gold. He died 26 April, 1802. See 
Farrer's 'Church Heraldry of Norfolk,' ii. 333-4. 

0. R. M. 

Burke deduces the lineage of Earl Nelson from 

the Nelsons of Mawdesley ; apparently, to some 

extent, on the strength of the great admiral's 

father having borne their arms: "The arms of 

Nelson of Mawdesley were borne by the Norfolk 

Nelsons, as may be seen in old books and papers 

formerly belonging to the Rev. Edmund Nelson 

of Burnham Thorpe." Now Gwillim gives " Nel- 

ston of Mawdisley " (a palpable misspelling for 

Nelson of Mawdesley), Or, a cross flory sa. , over 

all a bendlet gules ; and Burke's * General 

Armory' has "Nelson (Mawdesley and Fairhurst, 

] 664), Argent, a cross flory sable, over all a bend 

gules," which is, I suppose, what Miss THOYTS 


The arms first granted to Lord Nelson (when he 
got his peerage) were Or, a cross flory sa., a bend 
gules, surmounted by another engrailed of the field, 
charged with three bombs fired ppr. 

Delwood Croft, York. 

WAVE NAMES (8 th S. x. 432; xi. 32). MR. 
APPERSON is not, I hope, inclined to vent his 
wrath on my humble self for an evident case of 
plagiarism. Plagiarism there has been un- 
doubtedly, but I hope I am free from any such 
suspicion. The notes were, as I stated, taken 
from an issue of the Family Herald, the date of 
which, I am very sorry to say, was, through care- 
lessness on my part, never noted. A short time 
previous to my sending the notes I found them 
among a number of papers and things of mine, 
and, having in mind the contributions from several 
readers on f White Horses,' thought they would 
form a welcome addition to the latter. It was 
with some reluctance I sent them without an exact 
reference as to the date, for I know how important 
it is to name this ; but I left the matter in the 
hands of the Editor, knowing he would use his 
discretion in the matter. I only approximated the 
date, and may have been (as MR. APPERSON 
shows) wrong. If MR. APPERSON so much desires 
to know the date, he might learn it on inquiry of 
the editor of the Family Herald. Did the " turn- 
over " to which he refers as having appeared in 
the Globe bear his name and the authorities which 
he quotes ? If not, how can he be surprised that 
the paper I name has not given proper acknow- 

ledgment ? In all probability the " turnover " was 
the source of the Family Herald's paragraph ; the 
editor of the latter periodical having appropriated 
it, considering such unsigned matter public pro- 
perty. If, however, it was a signed article, then 
the matter has a different complexion altogether, 
and the wielder of the scissors is surely in the 
wrong. As far as I am concerned in the matter, 
I claim exoneration. All the particulars I pos- 
sessed were given. No one could do more. Still, 
if my note has unwittingly given MR. APPERSON 
cause for umbrage, then I trust he will accept my 
apology. 0. P. HALE. 

I should be greatly obliged if MR. 0. P. HALE 
would give some further information as to the 
terms " slog," for a heavy surf, and "home,'* for 
a windless swell of the sea. Neither word occurs 
in Mr. Eye's ' Glossary of Words used in East 
Anglia,' and during considerable wayfaring in both 
Norfolk and Suffolk I have heard neither. 


" Rollers " is used by Kingsley, 'Westward Ho/ 
chap, xxxii. : "From their feet stretched away 
to the westward the sapphire rollers of the vast 
Atlantic, crowned with a thousand crests of flying 

S. x. 436, 502). The replies of MR. E. H. COLE- 
MAN and MR. F. L. MAWDESLEY do not supply what 
I want. Of course I know that "the South Sea 
bubble exploded in 1720" who does not? but 
the South Sea Company existed till at least the 
end of the first half of the nineteenth century. It 
is, I think, pretty generally known that Charles 
Lamb and his brother John held clerkships in the 
South Sea Company. I want to know at what 
date the company ceased to exist, and to get an 
accurate succession of governors, sub-governors, 
and deputy-governors. I think the sovereigns 
from George I. to William IV. were governors ; 
amongst the sub-governors were Peter Burrell, 
Thomas Coventry, and Charles Bosanquet (of 
whom the last named died in 1850) ; and among 
the deputy-governors Lewis Way, Samuel Salt, 
Sir Robert Baker, and the Hon. Philip Bouverie. 


LONDON DIRECTORIES (8 th S. xi. 9). A list of 
the principal inhabitants in the City of London 
was, we believe, first published in 1640, and a copy 
may be seen in the Guildhall Library, together 
with a reprint, done in 1886. 

A list of merchants in the City of London was 
published in 1677, and a copy is to be seen at the 
Guildhall Library. This was also reprinted in 
1883, but we believe both these lists were only 
issued for one year. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [s s. xi. J AH. 23, -a. 

The first directory of London, properly speaking, 
was that of H. Kent, published in 1736. 

R. Baldwin also began a London directory in 
1740. Both these were continued after 1800. 

In 1761 Payne, we believe, began a London 
directory, which was continued in 1782 by and 
" printed for T. Lowndes, No. 77, in Fleet Street, 
price one shilling and sixpence." 

Of this work we have only the twenty-second 
edition, which contained about 7,000 

"names and places of abode of the merchants and 
principal traders of the Cities of London and West- 
minster, the Borough of Southwark, and their Environs 
with the Number affixed to each house. Also separate 
lists of the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, Bank, 
South Sea, East India, Royal Exchange Assurance, Sun' 
Union, Hand-in-Hand, and London Assurance Directors'; 
to which are added, a correct list of all the Bankers of 
London, and a particular account of the public stocks." 

The first edition of the * Post-Office London 
Directory' was issued in 1798. The earlier editions 
contained about 12,000 names of the professional 
and trading classes, but half the book was taken 
up with information of a general character, a long 
list of places in the delivery of the twopenny post, 
and a part, containing over 100 pages, was entitled 
11 New Guide to Stage Coaches, Waggons, Carts, 
Vessels, &c." 

The first part was sold for 3s. 6d, or the two 
parts together for 4s. 6d. 

One list in the old directory is curious in its 
fulness, that of the army agents. The 1806 edition 
contained no fewer than 130 names, whereas the list 

in the 'Post-Office London Directory/ 1897, contains 
but twelve. 

We believe there is no complete set of directories 
of London to be found. Our own set is not at all 
perfect, for between 1783 and 1809 we have but 
seven volumes ; after that, however, it is fairly com- 
plete. The British Museum has a far more perfect 
collection, but that in the Guildhall Library is, so 
far as we are aware, the best and most continuous 
at present existing. 

The Poll-Books for the City of London would, 
of course, furnish a very large number of house- 
holders within the limits of the City for many 
years back. KELLY & Co. ' 

AN ANOMALOUS PARISH (8 th S. xi. 25). Stotes- 
bury is not a unique instance of a parish without 
either village or church. West Dowlish, near 
Ilminster, Somerset, is another. There is a church- 
yard, and the foundations of the church which 
once existed can be traced. For many years the 
parishes of East and West Dowlish have been held 
together. But the incumbent of East Dowlish (or 
Dowlish Wake) has, after being inducted to the 
latter living, to, what was called, " read himself in " 
in West Dowlish Churchyard. Of course the bell 
could not be rung, for the good and sufficient 
reason that there was none to ring. If I remember 

rightly a memory which carries me back nearly 
fifty years there was the bowl of a font there also. 
In Orockford's ' Clerical Directory ' they are put 
down as distinct rectories, though held by the same 

Chart Sutton. 

In Crockford's 'Clerical Directory,' 1896, the 
parish of Bayfield, in the diocese of Norwich, is 
described as possessing no church and thirty-nine 
people. The income of the benefice is llll, but 
there is no vicarage house. On the east coast some 
parishes have partly their ancient churches 
wholly gone into the sea. There are well-known 
instances at Owthorne and Kilnsea, in Holderness. 

W. 0. B. 

CHRISTMAS DAT (8 th S. x. 515). Until 1751, 
when the New Style was adopted in England, the 
calendars of the Anglican and Galilean peoples 
were diverse. Perhaps the Quatrodeciman con- 
troversy was in Chillingworth's mind when he 


THE BLACK PRINCE'S SWORD (8 th S. xi. 49). 
Particulars and references have been given in 
' N. & Q,,' 4* S. iv. 363, 490. W. 0. B. 


Studies in Dante. By Edward Moore, D.D. (Oxford, 

Clarendon Press.) 

THREE years ago (8 th S. vi. 479) we mentioned with com- 
mendation the handsome, convenient, and scholarly 
edition of Dante issued from the Clarendon Press 
under the care of Dr. Edward Moore, the lecturer on 
Dante at the Taylor Institution, Oxford, the Barlow 
lecturer on Dante at University College, London, 
and the author of many books on the 'Divina 
Commedia.' The present volume constitutes the first 
series of studies in Dante dealing with the poet's use of 
Scripture and classical authors. It is avowedly intended 
for serious students, and is to be followed by a second 
series, calculated, it is hoped, to make a more general 
appeal. Many years of labour have been occupied in 
its preparation ; it is carefully and systematically done, 
and i* accompanied by elaborate indexes, which add 
enormously to its utility. One of the numerous objects 
of Dr. Moore is to illustrate the encyclopaedic cha- 
racter of Dante's learning and studies an attribute he 
shares with the great writers of mediaeval times and of 
the Renaissance a possession possible only when books 
were by comparison few, and when the range of know- 
ledge was, in a sense, limited. Its extent becomes in 
the case of Dante more remarkable when we think of 
the difficulty of access to manuscripts rare and precious, 
and in some cases all but unattainable. This difficulty 
had been diminished by the time of Erasmus and 
Rabelais, when printing had brought within reach 
most of the classics, and had practically disappeared in 
that of Montaigne. In dealing with the sources of 
Dante's erudition, Dr. Moore occupies himself with 
Scripture, St. Augustine and Orosius, and the Greek and 
Latin authors from Aristotle to Seneca, together with 
Albertus Magnus and the Arabian astronomers. To 

8 th g. xi. JAN, 23, '97.] 



have included St. Thomas Aquinas and other mediaeval 
and scholastic writers would have all but doubled the 
task. From the sources utilized more than ],500 direct 
citations, obvious references, and allusions and reminis- 
cences have been traced. The chief source is the 
Vulgate, which supplies more than 500 instances, 
Aristotle furnishes 300, Virgil 200, Ovid 100, Cicero and 
Lucan about 50 each, Statius and Boethius about 40, and 
Horace and Livy only 10 to 20. Dante's entire system 
of physic, physiology, and meteorology comes from 
Aristotle, much of what may be called the machinery, as 
is known, is derived from the JSneid, the mythology is 
largely taken from Ovid and Statius. Lucan, Livy, and 
Orosius are employed for historical allusions, while 
Cicero supplies him with " one of the most fundamental 
principles of his classification of sins in the ' Inferno.' ' 
Some of Dante's quotations are doubtless derived at 
second hand from* Florilegia, 1 'Dicta Philosophorum,'aud 
the like, and the poet is even charged with " what we 
should now call ' plagiarism ' ' without acknowledg- 
ment. It almost appears as if Dante attaches an equal 
value to Scriptural and profane writers. He at least, 
as is pointed out, takes his instances of vice or virtue 
alternately from sacred and profane sources, associating 
Nimrod with Briareus, Jephthah with Agamemnon, 
Goliath with Antaeus. Dr. Moore is disposed to believe 
that Dante knew Horace only as a satirist, and was 
unacquainted with the ' Odes,' and furnishes interesting 
proof of the general ignorance concerning Horace that 
prevailed in the Middle Ages. We have furnished one 
or two glimpses into the scheme as self-expounded of 
Dr. Moore. Further we may not go. The task of eluci- 
dating his method and gauging its results must be left 
to the student, to whom we commend the volume as one 
of the most important and estimable of recent times. 

Church Briefs, or Royal Warrants for Collections for 
Charitable Object*. By Wyndham Anstis Bewes, 
LL.B.Lond. (Black.) 

SHORT, comparatively speaking, as is the time during 
which, so far as practice is concerned, the Church brief 
hag been obsolete, it is already an antiquity a thing 
which to the vast majority of living Englishmen is a 
name and no more. Readers of ' N. & Q.' are in a 
different category, and to them the significance of the 
words stands in no need of explanation. The task of 
collecting church briefs is, we are glad to see, beginning 
to occupy seriously the attention of antiquaries. But 
few days have elapsed since we drew attention to the 
second part of ' Devonshire Briefs,' collected with equal 
diligence and zeal by Dr. T. N. Bruehfield, one of the 
most assiduous and erudite of Devon archaeologists. We 
now find church briefs historically treated by a com- 
petent scholar, and see the general public in a position 
to estimate their nature, value, and significance. A full 
explanation of the word " brief " in this connexion is 
given in the ' New English Dictionary,' and may there 
be consulted. The Papal brief, from which the church 
brief takes its rise, is an authoritative letter of the Pope, 
differing in many respects from a bull, of less authority, 
and signed not by the Pontiff himself, but by the Segre- 
tario dei Brevi, an officer of the Papal Chancery, 
Further particulars concerning it may be sought in 
Hook's ' Church Dictionary ' and in Mr. Bewes's volume. 
As the latter is practically occupied with briefs sub- 
sequent to the Reformation, t'-ere is no need to concern 
ourselves with anything previous to that period. Be- 
sides Papal briefs, for which the ' Glossary of Low 
Latin ' ot Ducange may be consulted, briefs authorizing 
collections in churches were issued in their respective 
provinces and dioceses by archbishops and bishops, the 
practice of so issuing them continuing so late as 16S3. 

The Royal Letters authorizing collections for stated 
purposes issued under the Great Seal were continued 
until 1828, and there may be here or there one of our 
readers who has heard them read in churches. A bishop's 
brief, Mr. Bewes tells us, is still preserved among the 
collections of broadsides in the possession of the Society 
of Antiquaries. Letters Patent by the Crown were first 
printed 25 Henry VIII. c. 21. Separate chapters in Mr. 
Bewes's book are dedicated to church briefs in the reign 
of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, under James I. and 
Charles 1., during the Commonwealth, and in the period 
from the Restoration to 1828. Very various are the 
subjects in behalf of which church briefs were issued. 
At a time when fire insurance was unknown, a brief was* 
a common way of furnishing relief to those who had 
experienced losses by fire. Briefs were also granted for 
the repair of havens, cathedrals, and churches, and for 
the support of hospitals. Specially interesting from 
the historical standpoint are those for the relief of 
refugees or for the support of Protestants undergoing 
various forms of persecution. The Domestic State 
Papers constitute a mine, practically unworked, of 
briefs of the time of the Commonwealth. With the 
great collection for the Vaudois Protestants Mr. Bewes 
is specially concerned, and he prides himself upon 
having disproved the charge frequently brought against 
Charles II. of having at the Restoration appropriated 
to hie own use the balance of about 16,0002. of this noble 
contribution then unspent. An animated account is 
given (pp. 147-167) of the persecutions to which the 
Vaudois were subject, familiar to Englishmen, if no- 
where else, in the noble sonnet of Milton. By the 
special command of Cromwell house-to-house collec- 
tions were made. With these victims of fanaticism 
were associated the distressed Protestants of Poland, 
on whose behalf " exiles for the cause of Christ " 
made appeal as delegates. To the joint fund Cromwell 
himself as "a free gift" contributed 2,000^., a large 
sum in those days. The total receipts were over 
38,OOOJ. On Richard Cromwell is laid the responsi- 
bility of ordering the payment out of the balance of 
over 16,OOOJ. for "the expenses of the troops in Dun- 
kirk, &c., and for the Council's contingencies." These 
matters, the historical interest of which is very great, 
must be studied in the volume. Another subject that 
crops up frequently is the relief of captives taken by the 
Salle and other corsairs of the African coast. Briefs 
were issued also for distressed seamen or fishers, for 
sufferers by the plague, and innumerable others, in- 
cluding the wounded and the families of the killed at 
Waterloo. Readers of Pepys are familiar with his 
complaint, June 30, 1661 (Lord's Day), concerning the 
multiplicity of briefs. The diarist notep, " To church, 
where we observe the trade of briefs is come now up to 
so constant a course every Sunday, that we resolve to 
give no more to them." Cowper's allusions to briefs are 
also familiar. Two facsimiles of briefs are given, one 
of Queen Elizabeth dated 1560, by permission of the 
Trustees of the British Museum, for the hospitals of 
Bethlehem, Holywell, Woodstock, and Windsor; and one 
dated 1703, from a printed copy in the City of London 
Library, for the persecuted Protestants of the princi- 
pality of Orange. We have left ourselves no space in 
which to speak of the manner in which Mr. Bewes's 
task has been carried out. In a first effort so important 
and novel as this perfection is not to be expected, and the 
author modestly appeals to his readers for additional in- 
formation and the correction of errors. It is, however, 
so far as we are aware, the most comprehensive list that 
has seen the light. The arrangement is commendable, 
and the work is a piece of sound, diligent, and intelli- 
gent research. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [88.xLJii..2s,w. 

Bygone Sussex. By William B. A. Axon. (Andrews 


To the rapidly augmenting " Bygone Series " of Messrs. 
Andrews & Co., which will shortly embrace half our 
English counties, Mr. Axon has contributed an appro- 
priately breezy account of bygone Sussex. Few English 
counties are richer in historical associations than Sussex, 
and few present spots more interesting and picturesque. 
Enamoured of what he calls " the charm of the sea- 
board and the down," Mr. Axon, a painstaking and trust- 
worthy antiquary, has made large collections concerning 
its history, associations, scenery, folk-lore, and literature. 
Out of these he has selected the materials for his bright 
and interesting volume, which will be read with pleasure 
by the antiquary, and may well serve a more popular 
purpose. He deals largely, as is but natural, with Rye 
and Winchelsea, and furnishes many illustrations of 
Thackeray's 'Denis Duval.' He collects the poetical 
tributes which the beauties of Fairlight and other spots 
have extorted ; gives tributes to faithful servants, with 
which Mr. A. J. Munby will be gratified ; narrates the 
doings of smugglers and highwaymen, including the 
Westons; quotes legends, such as 'The Drummer of 
Hurstmonceaux '; gives from the ' Polyolbion ' Dray- 
ton's description of the county; deals with Pardon 
brasses; and depicts all sorts of natural or artificial 
curiosities and beauties. A few well-chosen illustrations 
add to the attractions of the volume. So conscientious 
a workman is Mr. Axon that we inquire without hesita- 
tion who is responsible for slips such as " Shorham " for 
Shoreham; five archbishops, on p. 4, when but four are 
named; "Biddeford" for Bideford', and "Herstmori- 
ceux " for Hursimonceaux. 

Quotations for Occasions. Compiled by Katharine R. 

Wood. (New York, Century Co.) 

THIS is a clever and ingenious work, for which we have 
no welcome. There is, says the preface, no such com- 
pilation in existence. It is an attempt to lessen the 
labour of search, and enable the reader to use appro- 
priate quotations for menus, cards, invitations, &c. Now 
the whole merit of these things consists in finding them 
out for oneself, and simply to extract them from a work 
such as this is as humiliating an occupation as coining 
impromptus. We possess some admirable Shakspearean 
menus by great American scholars. These show the 
character, the modes of thought, and the quality of the 
compiler. To take them at second-hand we regard as 
completely unworthy; and the cleverer and more in- 
genious this work is and it is both clever and ingenious 
the less we like it. 

Cairo Fifty Years Ago. By Edward William Lane, 

Edited by Stanley Lane-Poole. (Murray.) 
THIS work, which now for the first time sees the light, 
is by the eminent author of ' The Modern Egyptians,' 
and seems to have been at one time intended for inser- 
tion in that work. It is now printed with a plan of 
mediaeval Cairo, based upon Lane's original draft, 
and is intended for the use of " the ever-increasing num- 
ber of visitors to Cairo who are also students of its 
history and antiquities." It has special interest as 
depicting " with Lane's uncompromising accuracy the 
characteristics and chief features of buildings of Cairo at 
a time when Western innovations were almost unknown," 
and may safely be commended to those for whom it is 
specially intended. 

The Cathedral Church of Canterbury. (Bell & Sons.) 
The Cathedral Church of Salisbury. (Same publishers.) 
WE have here the two opening volumes of a series of 
books on our great English cathedrals, edited by Mr. 
Gleeson White, and known as " Bell's Cathedral Series." 

They are intended to be popular, and are handsomely 
illustrated. For the purpose at which they aim they are 
admirably done, and there are few visitants to any of 
our noble shrines who will not enjoy their visit the 
better for being furnished with one of these delightful 
books, which can be slipped into the pocket and carried 
with ease, and is yet distinct and legible. With many 
people, ourselves included, visiting cathedrals is a pas- 
sion, and there is not one edifice of the kind in England 
to which we have not made a pious pilgrimage. A 
volume such as that on Canterbury is exactly what we 
want, and on our next visit hope to have it with us. It 
is thoroughly helpful, and the views of the fair city and 
its noble cathedral are beautiful. Both volumes, more- 
over, will serve more than a temporary purpose, and are 
trustworthy as well as delightful. 

Norse Tales and Sketches. By Alexander L. Kielland. 

Translated by R. L. Cassie. (Stock.) 
THIS volume will serve to introduce to English readers 
yet one more Norse writer, a theorist like most of the 
hyperboreans, but also a humourist of the first water. 
We chuckle over the description of the German doctor, 
"with an overgrown light red beard, and that Sedan 
smile which invariably accompanies the Germain in 
Paris." We can pay these sketches some of them 
strange enough no higher compliment than in saying 
we are reminded at times of Heine. 

PART VIII. of Mr. Quaritch's Contributions towards a 
Dictionary of English Book-Collectors deals with the 
libraries of James Lenox, Edward Fitzgerald, John 
Percy, and Robert S. Turner, the last-named the finest 
collection of books in its way that we have seen. A 
sale of Turner's of 774 volumes brought over 161. each. 
That collection we did not know, though with that in 
the Albany, where poor Turner assembled the best- 
known .bibliophiles, we were very familiar. Turner's 
books Mr. Quaritch estimates cost him 20,000/., and 
were sold for 30,00(M. A long letter of Mr. Gladstone's 
to Mr. Quaritch is reprinted in facsimile. Dr. Percy, 
whose library we also knew well, was more a collector of 
prints than of books. 

Miss JESSIE MIDDLETON promises, at an early date, 
an edition of the poetical works of James Clarence 

Stotos to C0ms0ntaK 

We mutt call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

CARI-OX ("Brick"). Consult N. E. D.' Some con- 
tributors seem unaware of the progress that has been 
made with that national work. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8 .h S .xi.jAN.3o,'97.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES :-Heraldic Supporters of English Sovereigns, 81- 
Secretarv Thurloe ' Dictionary of National Biography, 
83-Iir Franc van Halen, 84-Holy Water-Rev. J. Tun- 
stall DD Circumlocution Provincial Pronunciation, 
l 5 _.6amble"=="Bet"-Poem by Mary Stuart-Pie 
Corner Relics of Montrose Slang Phrase James I., 86. 

QUERIES " Free Lance" Sharp's ' Bishoprick Garland' 
County Families Arms Leech Beaumont College 
du Chesne-Motto-Emerald Star-Sir H. Cal- 


verlev Burke, 87-Early Steam Navigation Shakspeanan 
Interrogative Knights of St. Lazarus' Vicar of Wake- 
field 'Pope Joan Chamberlayne Inscription " The 
Justice," 88 Arabic Star Names John Woolward ' For- 
tune-teller ' Waldershare Authors Wanted, 89. 

REPLIES : Eagles Captured at Waterloo, 89 Shelta, 90 
" Coronation Memorial Mugs Misquotations ' The Sailor's 
Grave 'Col. Stuart J. Gr. Whittier, 91 Proclamation of 
Lancaster Fair" Parson's nose" Browning as a Preacher, 
92 Portrait of Earl of Oxford Westchester " With" 
" Gurges" " Parliament," 93 Hertford Street, Mayfair 
Jewish Medals Rachel de la Pole Comb in Church 
Ceremonies" Jenky and Jenny "Shrine of St. Cuthbert, 
94 Religious Dancing "Hear, hear !" Dulany Church- 
wardens, 95 " Cocktail " Mont-de-pi6t6 Landguard 
Fort, 96 Church of Scotland Funeral Customs, 97 
Authors Wanted, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Gibbon's 'Autobiographies' and 
Private Letters ' Rosen's 'Napoleon's Opera Glass' 
Lang's ' Pickle the Spy 'Stevenson and Henley's ' Deacon 
Brodie' Harward's ' Hereward' ' L St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital Reports.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See8 S. ix. 228, 477.) 

From the lists given by your correspondents it 
will be seen that hardly any two authorities are 
agreed upon what were the correct supporters used 
by the English sovereigns. In all probability 
this divergence arises from the fact that in a good 
many instances the sovereign changed his or her 
supporters from time to time, and adopted others, 
derived, it may be, from matrimonial alliances, or 
as being the family badge of either himself or of 
his consort. 

Perhaps it may be useful if I give a summary 
of what has been contributed by your correspond- 
ents, from which your readers will be able to see 
at a glance, I think, what were the various sup- 
porters used from time to time by our reigning 
families, and the authorities for the same. To 
these authorities I have added two later ones. 

These may be stated as follows : 

1. Clark's * Heraldry ' (1818), cited by COL. 

2. FATHER 0. H. BLAIR, who supplements and 
varies 1. 

3. Echard's * England' (1718), cited by COL. 
PITCHER. It does not appear from what early 
heraldic authority or source Echard compiled his 

4. Berry's 'Encyclopedia Heraldica,' cited by 
MR. COLEMAN, who supplements and varies 1. I 
take it that both FATHER BLAIR and MR. COLE- 
MAN, when they are silent, agree with 1. 

The two following authorities the only ones I 
an refer to here I add myself. 

5. Aveling's ' Heraldry ' (1891), which contains 
a list of royal supporters, taken no doubt from 
Boutell's 'Heraldry' (1864?), upon which work 
Mr. Aveling's book is founded. 

6. Dr. Woodward's ' Heraldry : English and 
Foreign '(1896). 

I have just received the new and extended 
edition of this, which I think I may venture to 
call the most important heraldic work of modern 
times, which from the excellence of its drawing, 
blazonry, and general typographical details leaves 
nothing to be desired, and is deserving of the 
highest praise to author and publisher alike. 

If I may be allowed for a moment to pass a 
hyper- criticism upon it, I would Bay that I regret 
that its learned author has not thought fit to give 
more examples from English armory of the various 
blazonings and illustrations of his shields and 
charges, for there are many instances to hand. I 
cannot help thinking that, whilst the arrangement 
of the plates is so much better than in Boutell, the 
foreign element is in the particulars I have alluded 
to somewhat too pronounced for the generality of 
English students of heraldry, who would have pre- 
ferred, I fancy, to have seen more examples taken 
from their own nobiles. Further, I would say 
that it would be an addition to the general useful- 
ness of the book (particularly when used as a work 
of reference) if, instead of the pagination in the 
centre of each page, the title of the chapter was 
repeated. As it is, even when you know the 
book, it makes too frequent a reference to the 
index necessary, and this (especially when the 
index is contained in one of the two volumes only, 
as it is here) means a certain waste of time. 

I make these remarks, however, with some diffi- 
dence, as I have not had the opportunity as yet 
of making more than a very cursory perusal of this 
important work. 

1. Edward III. Lion* and eagle, 1, 2, 4. Lion 
and falcon, 2, 5, 6. COL. PITCHER (3) states that 
Edward III. and all previous sovereigns bore their 
arms without supporters. All the other authorities, 
however, take this sovereign as being the first to 
use them. Dr. Woodward states (vol. ii. p. 324) 
that " the early ones are doubtful, and do not 
appear on the great seals." 

2. Richard II. Two white harts, 2,5,6 (?). Lion 
and hart, 2, 4. Two antelopes, 2. Two angels, 
3, 6. White hart and white falcon, 6. COL. HAR* 
COURT (1) gives no supporters for this sovereign. 

* Where no othei 1 tincture of the lion is specified in 
this list it may be taken to be the golden liou of England. 


[8* S. XI. JAN. 30, '9?. 

3. Henry IV. White antelope and white swan, 
1, 4. Swan and antelope, 3. Lion and antelope, 

5. Swan, 5. Lion and white antelope (of Bohun), 

6. Dr. Woodward (6) also states that before hia 
accession Henry IV. used two swans ; whilst MR. 
BLAIR (2) says that the authority as to his sup- 
porters is very doubtful. 

4. Henry V. Lion and antelope, 1, 2 (?), 4, 5. 
Crowned lion and antelope, 3, 6. 

5. Henry VI. Lion and antelope, 1, 2, 6. Two 
white antelopes, 2, 3, 5, 6. Antelope and leopard, 
4. Lion and panther or antelope, 5. Lion and 
tiger or panther (of Beaufort), 6. 

6. Edward IV. Lion and black bull (of Clare), 
1, 2, 3, 6, 6. Bull and lion, 2, 4. Lion and 
white hart, 2, 4, 5 (?). Two white lions (of March), 
4, 5, 6. 

7. Edward V. A yellow and a white lion, 1. 
Lion and white hind, 2, 4, 5. Lion and cow or 
doe, 3. White lion and white hind, 6. 

8. Eichard III. Yellow lion and white boar,* 
1, 2, 4, 5, 6. Two white boars, 2, 3, 5, 6. 

9. Henry VII. Lion and red dragon, 1, 5, 6. 
Two white greyhounds, 2, 5, 6. Dragon and grey- 
hound, 2, 3, 4, 5. Dr. Woodward (6) also gives 
"the red dragon of Wales. A white greyhound 
(Neville or Lancaster)," as if borne as single sup- 
porters, but probably there is a typographical 
error, and they are intended to represent the dexter 
and sinister supporters, as in the above instances. 
FATHER BLAIR states that he has " never seen a 

10. Henry VIII. Lion and greyhound, 1, 2, 4. 
Dragon and greyhound, 2, 6. Lion and dragon, 
3, 4, 6. Two white greyhounds, 6. Antelope and 
stag, 6. Mr. Aveling (5) also gives " a lion or and 
a dragon gules," and then adds, somewhat loosely, 
" and sometimes a bull, a greyhound, or a cock, 
all argent." I presume he means, in each case, as 
a sinister supporter to the lion of England. 

11. Edward VI. Lion and dragon, 2, 5, 6. 
Crowned lion and dragon, 3, 4. Lion and grey- 
hound, 6. COL. HARCOURT (1) gives no supporters 
for this sovereign. 

12. Mary. Lion and greyhound, 1, 2, 5, 6. 
Lion and dragon, 2, 5, 6. Eagle and crowned lion, 
3. MR. COLEMAN (4) states that Mary bore the 
same supporters as Edward VI. (but does not state 
which), but on her marriage with Philip of Spain 

* See ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. ix. 267, 331, 358, as to the origin 
of the white boar used as a badge by Richard III. 
Surely MB. CASS must be mistaken when he gays (p. 331) 
that Richard III. adopted this badge in right of hia wife 
Anne Neville, daughter of the Earl of Warwick, and 
cites Burke's ' General Armory ' for the statement that 
"the device of Richard's queen was a white boar, chained 
and muzzled gold, an ancient cognizance of the house of 
Warwick." Should not this read bear, instead of " boar ' 
Tbe bear and ragged staff was the well-known device of 
Earls of Warwick. 

placed an eagle on the dexter and removed the lion 
bo the sinister side. 

13. Elizabeth. Lion and greyhound, 1, 2, 5, 6. 
Lion and dragon, 2, 5, 6. Crowned lion and dragon, 
3, 4. Dragon and greyhound, 6. Antelope and 
stag, 6. 

14. James I. All the authorities agree in accord- 
ing to this sovereign, on his ascending the English 
throne in 1603, the lion of England and the silver 
unicorn of Scotland, which supporters have been 
continued to the present day. Dr. Woodward, 
however, states (p. 326) that instances of other 
supporters are to be met with, and gives examples 
from the Exchequer and other seals. 

Dr. Woodward's book is not only of considerable 
value in thus furnishing a trustworthy list of Eng- 
lish royal supporters, but, as might be expected 
from the title, deals largely with foreign ones.* 

With his assistance, I think, COL. HARCOCRT 
may be able to solve most of the questions he has 
submitted, and will find that he is not correct 
when he says (at the earlier reference) that "the 
kings of France and Spain apparently had no sup- 

According to our latest authority, the supporters 
of the royal arms in France in modern times were 
two angels habited in albs, over which are dalmatics 
charged with the royal arms, andf holding banners 
of the same ; and he gives a list of the French royal 
supporters as borne by the earlier sovereigns, which 
vary as much as those of our own royal houses, but 
states that these were not borne to the exclusion 
of the angels, which were common to all the kings 
after Charles VII. indeed, Louis XIV. and his suc- 
cessors used no others. This latter fact curiously 
coincides with the modern practice in respect 
of English royal supporters, where there has been 
practically no change since the union of the Eng- 
lish and Scottish crowns on the accession of James I. 
in 1603. Dr. Woodward is careful to add that the 
use of angel supporters was not, as is sometimes 
asserted, a prerogative of the royal house in France, 
and he instances several French families who use 

Apropos of angel supporters, I have in my pos- 
session a ring of antique workmanship and some- 
what ecclesiastical in style (which I obtained in 
Oxford nearly thirty years ago), upon which is 
shown a long sharp- pointed plain shield, supported 
by two angels, the dexter holding what may be a 
mallet, and the sinister what looks something like 
a boxing-glove. I cannot say for certain of what 
metal it is composed, but it is a hard white one, 
heavier, I think, than silver, and has been gilded 
over. Can it be an old memorial emblem ? I 
shall be glad of any information enabling me to 
trace the origin or purport of this ring. 

I gather, moreover, from the above authority 

* See hia chapter on "Supporters," vol. ii. pp. 271-98, 

S. XI. JAN. 30, '97.] 



that the use of supporters also obtained in early 
days in Spain, Italy, and Germany, both by royalty 
and by untitled gentlemen, though the use of sup- 
porters by these latter is not nearly so restricted as 
with us. It is well known, however, that there are 
not infrequent instances amongst the untitled 
gentry of England of a right to supporters derived 
by prescription or by special grant, though nowadays 
it is but seldom, I imagine, that a right to use sup- 
porters would be granted to any one of a degree 
lower than a peer holding a courtesy title, or, may 
be, members of the higher grades of our principal 
Dr. Woodward states (p. 285) : 

"In Spain the infrequency of the use of supporters 
by the high nobility is probably due to the fact that 
the regulations of the Order of the Golden Fleece per- 
mitted no supporters, and only one crested helm to a shield 
surrounded by the collar of the Order. In Italy the use 
of supporters was very infrequent in late mediaeval times, 
and is still very far from general. In Germany their use 
is somewhat more in accordance with our own, but the 
fashion of placing the arms of princes and counts of the 
empire on the breast of an eagle displayed is still not 
unfrequently seen." 

Again, at p. 275 : 

" r " Probably that which contributed most to the general 
adoption of a single supporter was the use by the German 
Emperor of the eagle displayed, bearing on its breast hig 
personal arms, a fashion early adopted by his kinsmen and 

F This fashion exists at the present day too, for 
the national arms of the German Empire are still 
borne on the breast of the Imperial eagle displayed 
as a single supporter. 

I think the above will satisfy COL. HARCOURT 
as to his query whether supporters were used by 
the Emperors of Germany in the Middle Ages. 

The arms of the United States of America affords 
another modern instance in point of a single sup- 
porter, where the shield is borne on the breast 
of the American eagle displayed. 

With reference to COL. HARCOURT'S final ques- 
tion, I should say that there can be no precedent 
or authority for the Scottish unicorn appearing as 
the dexter supporter to the royal arms, either in 

Scotland or elsewhere. J. S. UDAL. 



The following account of the death of John 
Thurloe, Cromwell's Secretary of State, is from 
the papers of Philip, Lord Wharton, amongst the 
Carte MSS. in the Bodleian Library, vol. Ixxx. 
p. 782. It is endorsed in Lord Wharton's hand, 
" Extract of a letter writt of the circumstances of 
the death of Mr. Thurlow ; and the last words I 
heard him speak." The Col. Jones referred to was 
probably Thurloe's old colleague Philip Jones. 

" Feb. 21, 1667. My worthy ffreind Mr. Thurlow died 
about four a clocke in the afternoone ; he was in a good 
moderate state of health to all apprehensions. That 

morning hee had taken a gentle lenitive, which wrought 
accordingly with him. About 3 a clocke hee dined with 
his ordinary appetite (Collonell Jones sitteing by him). 
After hee had eaten his Physick gave him occasion to 
desire the Coll: to stepp into his Clossett, and the 
occasion being over hee desired the Coll to come in 
againe, and walking with him towards the window the 
Coll. observed him to reele, as if hee were ready to fall, 
and hee catch't hold of him to support him, but hee 
never spoke word but immediately died. Now that I 
have given this accompt of that excellent person, which 
I know will affect you, lett mee adde the very last words 
which ever I heard him speake, which are to mee matter 
of great comfort when I consider that by the rules of 
Charrity I have warrant to judge that hee was in a fitt 
frame of heart for death. The day seven-night before 
hee dyed hee gave mee and a Doctor of Physicke in the 
company a large account of the great fitt of the stone 
hee had about a moneth agoe, and of the exquisite paine 
hee then had, and how it was drawne from him after 50 
houres stoppage of his water, in which fitt hee had the 
sentence of death in him selfe, and freinds & physitiaus 
about him were of the same opinion. The Doctor being 
gone wee had some further discourse, and most abouc 
the things of God & his people, when wee were about to 
part I told him where I meant to be on the next Lord's 
Day, and asked him if hee would be there ; I, saith hee 
willingly, except such a one preach and break bread, and 
then, said hee, I intend to bee with him, for hee presseth 
hard after nearer communion with God & helps others 
much therein; and at our very parteing the last words 
hee said to mee were to this effect, ' I would not for any- 
thing have been without this late providence. I know the 
worst of death, & it is nothing for mee to die.' " 

0. H. FIRTH. 


(See 6t s. xi. 105, 443 ; xii. 321 ; 7* S. i. 25, 82, 342, 
376; ii. 102, 324, 355; iii. 101, 382; iv. 123, 325, 422 ; 
v. 3, 43, 130, 362, 463, 506; vii. 22, 122, 202, 402 ; viii. 
123, 382; ix. 182, 402 ; x. 102 ; xi. 162, 242, 342 ; xii. 
102 ; 8> S. i. 162, 348, 509 ; ii. 82, 136, 222, 346, 522 ; 
iii. 183; iv. 384; v.82, 284, 504; vi. 142, 383; vii. 102; 
viii. 63, 203, 443 ; ix. 263; x. 110, 210.) 


P. 1 a. For " bought by " read intended for. 

P. 15. James Eennell. See Mat hi as, 'P. of 
L.,' p. 360. 

P. 30 b. For " Moysey " read Moyser. 

P. 40. Bp. Edw. Reynolds. On his 'Passions 
and Faculties of the Soul,' am. 4to., Lond,, 1640, 
see Oldham, * Boileau,' viii. ; he wrote an epistle 
for W. Bailee's ' Predestination/ 1656, and pref. 
for Hibbert's 'Body of Divinity,' 1662; his 
funeral sermon in Norwich Cathedral, by B. Bively, 
4to., 1677. For "Bramston"? Braunston. 

Pp. 41-2. Frederic Reynolds. See Mathias, 
1 P. of L.,' p. 79 ; Gifford, ' Baviad and Maeviad.' 

P. 42. F. M. Reynolds. On his ' Miserrimus ' 
see ' N.-& Q.,' 5" 1 S. xi.; xii. 291. 

Pp. 53-67. Sir J. Reynolds. See Mafchias, * P. of 
L.,' p. 237 ; Cowper>s ' Task ' (" Sofa "). 

Pp. 108-110. Chr. Rich. See Curll's 4 Miscel- 
lanea/ 1727, i. 18. 

P. 122 b. For " Carey" read Gary. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8s.xi.jAH.8o,w. 

P. 132 b. line 17. Correct press. 

P. 143. Richard I. On his heart see ' N, & Q., 

4 s, v ii. 

P. 151 a. " As good or a better position than" ? 

P. 173 b. "NunBurnham." Nunburnholme. 

P. 229. John Richardson, Quaker. See Wight, 
Quakers in Ireland,' 1751 ; ' Collection of Testi- 
monies,' 1760, pp. 143-5; Ross, Yorkshire 
Wolds'; Budge, 'Thomas Elwood, and other 

P. 235 a. For " Ingold wells " read Ingoldmells. 

P. 238. Jonathan Richardson. See Gray, by 
Mason, 1827, p. 236. 

P. 240 b. "From a seedling he planted a 

cedar "? 

Pp. 251-2. Dr. William Richardson, Master of 
Emmanuel Coll., Camb., preached before the 
House of Commons, at St. Margaret's, 30 Jan., 
1764, on St. Matt. xxii. 21, printed Lond., 4to., 

P. 258. Legh Richmond. One of his daughters 
was the mother of Sir James Marshall (q.v.), who 
joined the Church of Rome. His exposure of 
Anne Moore of Tutbury (q.v.), 1813, see Simms, 
' Bibl. Staff.' ; see also ' Three Days at Turvey, by 
a Clergyman's Son,' South Shields, 1848 ; ' Life of 
W. Wilberforce ' ; ' Life of J. Pratt,' p. 88 ; ' Life 
of Tho. Jones,' pp. 136, 344; Olphar Hamst, 
Fict. Names,' pp. 212-3. 

P. 277. John Rider. A notice of him in the 
preface to Ains worth's 'Latin Dictionary.' 

Pp. 283-4. Humphrey Ridley. See Garth, 
' Dispensary,' canto v. 

P. 289. Bp. Ridley. See Ascham's ' Letters ' ; 
Wordsworth, ' Eccl. Biog.' 

Pp. 302-4. Richard Rigby. His letters in 
' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. vii. 

P. 307. Tho. Riley, actor. Randolph's ' Poems,' 
1668, pp. 343, 348. Not mentioned. 
Pp. 328-9. Ritson. See Mathias, ' P. of L.,' 

p. 100. 

P. 337. Rivington. Mathias, ' P. of L.,' p. 181. 

P. 362. Robert of Newminster. See 'New- 
minster Chartulary,' Surtees Soc. 

P. 375 a. Line 6 from foot, "To which they 
turned over." To what, and how ? 

P. 378 b. " Cannon Liddon." 

P. 388 b, line 8. For " certified" read issued or 

P. 398 a, line 13 from foot. A man who was not 
born till 1806 could not marry the granddaughter 
of a man who died in 1690. 

P. 398 b. " Ryle," ? Kyloe. 

P. 433. Robin of Redesdale. See ' N. & Q./ 
8* S. viii. W. C. B. 

Froissart (tomes ii. and iii.) are acquainted with 
the exploits of Sir Franc de Halle or van Hale, 
a foreign soldier much employed and honoured by 

King Edward III. It is known that he was 
appointed by the king a Knight of the Order of 
the Garter soon after its foundation, being thirty- 
fourth on the roll ; Beltz, in his history of the 
Order (pp. 122-127), can give little information 
concerning him. So little, indeed, was known 
about him in the sixteenth century that he was 
appropriated as an ancestor by the compiler of the 
pedigree of the family of Hall, of Northall, in 
Shropshire ('Visitation of Shropshire,' Harl. Soc., 
vol. i. p. 245). As Edward Hall, the chronicler, 
was a member of this family, and all the more as 
his name appears in this pedigree, we have some 
reason to suspect that he unscrupulously "annexed" 
the hero, about whom he clearly knew nothing 
more than Froissart told him. Confusing the 
Flemish van with the German von, he supplied 
the knight with a father, Albert, Archduke of 
Austria and King of the Romans. Then, to fit him 
for his position in the pedigree, he bestowed on him 
a wife and children nay, children's children for 
four generations till the chain was hooked on to 
his own great-grandfather, David Hall, of Northall. 
Vincent passed the pedigree without due investiga- 
tion. One thing still remained to be done. Perhaps 
the knight's armorial bearings had never been 
affixed to his stall at St. George's, Windsor ; cer- 
tainly they could not have been there when this 
bogus pedigree was fabricated, for a coat of arms 
was also invented and put up on the knight's stall 
Gu., a wyvern, wings elevated, crowned or, 
pendent from the neck an escocheon of the field, 
thereon an eagle displayed with two heads argent, 
all within a bordure azure, charged with six lioncels 
rampant and as many fleurs-de-lis alternately of 
the second just such a coat as at that time would 
have been invented and received without suspicion, 
and there the spurious thing remains to this day. 
Modern research has, however, exposed the fictitious 
nature of the pedigree foisted on the College of 
Arms. It has also thrown a good deal of light on 
the true history of Sir. Franc van Halen. The 
principal authorities made use of in this note are 
the archives of the city of Malines and Ghent, 
'Het klooster Teu Walle en de Abdij van den 
Groenen Briel,' by V. van den Haeghen, and State 
Papers in the Record Office, London. 

John de Mirabello, dit van Halen, was by 
descent a Lombard. He was Receiver-General of 
Brabant and Sire de Perwes. He died immensely 
rich in 1333. He had several children. The eldest 
was Sir Simon, who at his death in 1346 was 
Ruward or Governor of Brabant. He left no male 
issue. The second son was Sir Franc, who for 
many years was in the service of Edward III., 
besides holding the position of a powerful 
nobleman in Brabant ; his name is frequently 
mentioned in Brabant chronicles and histories ; 
he had three wives (neither, of course, being 
the mythical lady given in the Northall pedigree), 

S. XI. JAK. 30, '97.] 



and he bad several sons (not one of whom bore 
the names of the two sons attributed to him by 
Vincent). His descendants still exist, and can be 
traced. Besides being a Knight of the Garter, he 
was also created a knight banneret. He died in 
1375, and was honoured by the city of Malines 
with a public funeral, while a fine monument was 
erected to his memory at the expense of the 
city. The remains of this are still to be 
seen in Malines Cathedral ; it is, however, 
unfortunately, much mutilated, and all traces 
of armorial bearings have disappeared. From 
the archives of the city of Malines it can be 
proved that his son Sir Andrew bore Gu, a lion 
rampant or, armed, langued, and crowned az. But 
quite lately there has been found in the Record 
Office, London, Sir Franc's own seal of arms 
appended to a receipt for money paid for military 
service rendered to Edward III., and dated 1348. 
The arms are the same as those of his son, with a 
label of three points, showing that he derived 
them from his father, Sir John. The legend is 
s . FRANCONIS . BE . MiRABELLo. The name 
Mirabello gradually fell out of use, and Halen, a 
fief, either brought into the family by marriage or 
purchased in the thirteenth century, became the 
usual family name. One branch, descended from 
Sir Franc and holding a high position in Antwerp 
in the sixteenth century, continued to use both 
names. Surely now the true arms are known 
and authenticated, steps should be taken to place 
them on Sir Franc van Halen's stall and to 
remove the fictitious plate. It is a matter for the 
Garter King to consider. It may be well to note 
that, while Halen is the correct name, Hale and 
Halle were often used, possibly owing to the fact 
that in Flemish the final n is not sounded at all, 
or very slightly. A. W. CORNELIUS HALLEN. 

CHURCH. The ceremony known in the Catholic 
Church as "the Asperges," or the sprinkling of 
the congregation with holy water before the High 
Mass, has recently been introduced at St. Alban's, 

(Holborn, London (27 Sept., 1896). As I believe 
this is the only instance, so far, of the revival of 
this ancient pre- Reformation ceremony in any 
Anglican church, it may be of interest to note it 
in the pages of < 1ST. & Q.' The ceremony at St. 
Alban's Church is identical with that at the Pro 
Cathedral and at every other Catholic church 
where High Mass is celebrated. 


Tunstall, son of James Tunstall, attorney, of 
Richmondshire, was born in Richmond, Yorkshire, 
and bred at Slaidburn, under Mr. Bradbury, until 
his admission, 29 June, 1724 (then aged past six- 
teen), as sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
He graduated B,A. 1727, a.nd proceeded M.A. 

1731, B.D. 1738, and D.D. 1744. Dr. Tunstall 
was fellow and tutor of his college, Public Orator 
at Cambridge 1741, chaplain to Archbishop Potter, 
Treasurer and Canon Residentiary of St. David's, 
and Vicar of Rochdale, Lancashire, 1757. His 
writings are distinguished for great learning and 
critical acumen. His death is thus recorded in 
the London Chronicle, Tuesday, 30 March, to Thurs- 
day, 1 April, 1762, p. 306 : " On Sunday died, at 
his brother's house in Mark-Lane, the Rev. James 
Tunstall, D.D. He lately came to town from 
Leicestershire to visit his brother." Nichols 
('Lit. Anec.,' 1812, ii. 167 note), Chalmers, 
Darling, and the rest of Dr. Tunstall's biographers 
are in error regarding the dates of his birth and 
death. He was not born "about the year 1710," 
nor did he die "in 1772." In view of the 
statement appearing in Whitaker's ' History of 
Whalley,' ii. 429 note, that the place of Dr. Tun- 
stall's interment has never been discovered, it may 
be noted that an entry in the parish register of 
St. Peter, Cornhill, London, records his burial in 
the chancel of that church, under date 2 April, 

CIRCUMLOCUTION. I noted down the following 
fine periphrasis for "I don't know," spoken recently 
by an official witness in answering a question 
before a Select Committee of the House of 
Commons: "The honourable member is direct- 
ing inquiry into matters as to which personal 
cognizance on my part is a matter of impossibility." 


philologist, but I have often wondered whether 
any value attaches to local pronunciation for deter- 
mining the derivation of words or their phonetic 
worth in Middle English. The West Yorkshire 
dialect presents some peculiarities which may be 
of interest. Take, for instance, six words in which 
a long i is the dominant sound night, right, 
might, lie (down), find, sky. These are repre- 
sented in the West Riding by six different sounds, 
becoming respectively neet, rate, mud (u sounded 
a<? oo in hood), lig,finnd (to rhyme with s&wn'd),and 
skah. Mud is, I believe, wholly irregular, as also 
lig (though we say jlig for fledge), the form rate 
(which sometimes becomes red), is not very 
common, tliough we say fate for fight (past par- 
ticiple fuffen), and 'ay for high. The rule seems 
to be that a long i is represented by a short one, 
as in find, grind, blind, or ee, as in night, lie (fib), 
fly, die, &c., or it is broadened out into ah, as in 
mind, kind, tight, &c. The pronunciation seems 
to have altered very little since the Towneley 
Mysteries' were written in this neighbourhood 
same four or five hundred years ago, although many 
words have fallen into disuse since that time. I 
believe that the works of Richard Rolle, written 
before 1349 in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. xi. JAN. 30, '97. 

would be much more easily understood by general 
readers than a story written in the West York- 
shire dialect of to-day. E. 8. A. 

" GAMBLE "=" BET. "The other day I heard 
a costermonger say to a cab-driver, u I Ml get up 
this hill, I '11 gamble." The road which he pro 
posed to go up was steep and covered with snow 
and ice. S. 0. ADDY. 

question was asked some time ago, and I think 
has received no answer, where Queen Mary's verses 
on the death of her first husband are to be found. 
They are printed in Brantome's ' Dames Illustres 
Discours III.,' in ' Me*moires Historiquea,' 
Ixiii. p. 257. They are given also, with an English 
translation by M. P. Andrews, in the ' Annual 
Register/ 1789, p. 158. 



PIE CORNER. (See 3 rd S. viii. 292.) At this 
reference a correspondent suggests that this name 
may possibly be derived from the French term 
pied cornier, which he states was used in our old 
forest nomenclature for a boundary tree. As this 
suggestion seems to have escaped the notice of 
recent writers on London, I venture to draw atten- 
tion to it as affording a reasonable explanation of 
the name. Perhaps some correspondent may be 
able to corroborate the statement that the term is 
used in English works on forestry. On referring 
to Littre, s.v., I find that as a " terme d'eaux et 
forets" pied cornier signifies "1'arbre qu'on laisse 
a 1'extremite d'un heritage, d'un arpentage, pour 
servir de marque." We know that the campus 
planus of Smithfield was overgrown with elms in 
early days, and it may well have been that the 
furthermost of these, which marked the boundary 
of the field, may have been known as the pied 
cornier. French expressions were in not uncommon 
use in London in early times : Leaden Hall, for 
instance, was known as the Salle de Plomb, and 
the Carfukes, which marked the parting of the four 
ways, was identical with the French carrefour. 
Perhaps some early quotation for the term pied 
cornier may be found, though I have failed to dis- 
cover it in Riley's ( Memorials of London ' or in 
Dr. Sharpe's * Calendar of Husting Wills.' 


Perhaps the following interesting information 
deserves preservation in * N. & Q.' : 

" At the first meeting for the present winter session 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, held in Edin- 
burgh, one of the papers read waa a notice by Mr. J. W. 
Morkill, M.A., of a human hand and forearm pierced 
with nail-holes, and a baaket-hilted sword, formerly 
preserved in the family of Graham of Woodhall, York- 
shire, and considered as relics of the famous Marquis of 
Montrose. The sword bears on both sides of the blade, 

immediately below the hilt, the quartered coat of arms 
of Montrose and the date 1570 damascened in gold. 
The arm is in a mummified condition, and has evidently 
never been interred. A hole through the centre of the 
hand, and a second through the fleshy part of the arm 
near the elbow, are suggestive of the limb having been 
affixed to aome gate or post, as it was customary to thus 
expose the severed limbs of those executed for high 
treason. It ia known that the arms of Montrose were 
affixed to the ports of Dundee and Aberdeen, and it is 
on record that during the time of the Commonwealth 
all limbs thus affixed in different places in Scotland 
were taken down by the English or with their permis- 
sion. This is confirmed by the records of Aberdeen as 
regards one of the arms of Montrose, which was taken 
down and interred in Lord Huntly's vault till 1661, when 
it was disinterred and sent to Edinburgh to be reunited 
to the other members for the public funeral which was 
accorded ' the murdered Marquis ' after the Restora- 
tion. There is, however, no record of the arm that had 
been exposed at Dundee, and a possible explanation of 
the presence of an arm of the Marquis in Yorkshire is 
suggested by the fact that a Cromwellian officer of the 
name of Pickering was settled there, and that the arm 
is traced to the possession of a Dr. Pickering in the 
beginning of the last century, or within a few years of 
the death of the officer referred to, The arm has been 
submitted to Sir William Turner, Professor of Anatomy 
in the University of Edinburgh, who testified that the 
hand is not that of a big man, or one accustomed to 
manual labour, and that there is nothing in its appear- 
ance irreconcilable with the view that it may be the 
arm of the Marquis of Montrose." 

Ckpham, S.W. 

times say in joke, not unfreqnently with a flavour 
of irony, " He must have got up very early in the 
morning to have known that." Very likely the 
phrase has a long pedigree of distinguished ancestors 
through many generations, but I have never till 
to-day met with it or its like in literature, and I 
think it may be worth while to give a niche in 
* N. & Q.' to a very early ancestor. 

Guillaume de Guileville, in his ' Pe"lerinage de 
Jesu Christ,' circa 1350, apostrophizes the woman 
who cried, " Blessed is the womb that bare thee, 
and the paps which thou hast sucked " (Luke 

xi. 27). 

Hee femme estrange, qui es tu 1 
Comment et a quoy congnois tu 
La mere de ce pelerin? 
De bonne heure tes au matin 
Huy leuee, quant le cognois 
Au parlement et a la voix. 


At the Michaelmas Term, 22 Jac., 

"Two Men came Ore Tenus into the Star-Chamber, 
for stealing of the King's Deer, and were fined an 100J. 
apiece, and three years Imprisonment, unless it would 
please the King to release them sooner, and before they 
should be released of their Imprisonment to be bound to 
their good Behaviour : And it was observed by the 
Attorney-general that the Offence was the greater, in 
regard that the King had but one Darling Pleasure, and 
yet they would offend him in that : And it was said by 

8" 8. XI. JAN. 30, '97.] 



some of the Court that it was a great folly and madness 
in the Defendants to hazard themselves in such a manner 
for a thing of so small value as a Deer was. The Lord- 
President said, that Mr. Attorney was the best Keeper 
the King had of his Parks, in regard he brings the 
Offenders into this Court to be punished : The Lord 
Keeper said, that the Defendants in such a Case being 
brought Ore tenus are not allowed to speak by their 
Council, and yet these Men have had their Council, but it 
was Peter's Counsellors, meaning, their sorrow and Con- 
trition at the Bar, which much moved him so that if his 
Vote might prevail he would set but 201. Fine upon 
them." Sir John Popham's Reports, ed. 1682, p. 152. 

Portland, Oregon. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

" FREE LANCE." I should be glad to know 
what is the history of this designation, applied by 
recent writers to the condottieri of the Middle 
Ages, and now often used figuratively. The 
earliest instance I have is dated 1855 (Miss Yonge's 
' Lances of Lynwood '). The term must be older 
than that date ; but I doubt whether it goes very 
far back. If it is in Scott I have failed to dis- 
cover it, though he has " free companion " in the 
same sense. Is there any approximately literal 
equivalent for "free lance" in any continental 
language? HENRY BRADLEY. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

Wilson has a long and interesting note on New- 
castle witches at the end of * The Oiling of Dicky's 
Wig,' printed in ' The Pitman's Pay/ published at 
Gateshead (1843). In this note reference is made 
to the description of the " Pelton Brag," given by 
Sir Cuthbert Sharp, in his 'Bishoprick Garland.' 
I cannot find any mention of this book in the cata- 
logue of the Bodleian Library. Should any of your 
readers possess a copy, I should be glad to hear 
what Sir 0. Sharp has to say about " brags," i. ., 


Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

^ COUNTY FAMILIES. What is the oldest work 
similar in character to Burke's ' County Families ' 
and Walford's ? E. E. THOYTS. 

ARMS. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' who is 
acquainted with old French heraldry tell to what 
family belong the following arms ? A chevron erm. 
between three dolphins, the shield surmounted by 
a French coronet, presumably that of a viscount. 
Crest, a dolphin on the top of a spear. The above 
are attached to two old Leicestershire wills, dated 
1677, and unfortunately the tinctures are not 

denoted. The family to whom these armn be- 
longed were supposed to descend from one of the 
most ancient noble families in France. 


LEECH FAMILY. Will any reader tell me if a 
family of the name of Leech, which was living at 
or near Cheltenham, Gloucester, previous to the 
year 1682, was a branch of the original Derbyshire 
family of the same name settled at Chatsworth ? 
One Tobias Leech left Cheltenham in 1682, and I 
wish to connect him, if possible, to the parent tree. 



BEAUMONT COLLEGE. Will you please say 
where Beaumont College is situated, when founded, 
and by whom ] R. J. SMITH. 


CLAUDIUS DU CHESNE. Can any reader give 
particulars concerning the period of " Claudius du 
Cheane, Londini," an eminent clockmaker ? 


MOTTO. Can any reader give me information 
as to the motto and arms of John Propert, the 
Welsh apothecary, who founded the Royal Medical 
College, Epsom ? The motto would appear to be 
either "Dyfalad" or "Deo non fortuna,"but there 
is some uncertainty on the point, and any trust- 
worthy information would be very acceptable. 



catalogue I noticed the following book advertised 
for sale : " The Green Book ; or, Register of the 
Order of the Emerald Star : a Collection of Inter- 
esting Literary Articles by a Society which included 
the most Learned Men of the Time," folio, circa 
1821. What is known of this learned society, and 
whence the origin of the name of their order ? 

A. C. W. 

SIR HENRY CALVERLEY. Can any of your 
readers tell me whether Sir Henry Calverley, of 
Ery holme, oo. York, who died in Paris in 1683, 
was on a diplomatic mission ? After his death, but 
before the death of his daughter and heiress, Mary, 
who married Bonnet Sherard, son of Lord Sherard, 
the property was in the possession of Christopher 
Pinckney, who lived at Eryholme, married Dorothy 
Dobson, and had ten children, to one of whose 
descendants Sir H. Calverley's family Bible now 
belongs. Were the Pinckneys related to the 
Calverleys ; or how did this property pass to them? 


Langton Rectory, Maltou, Yorka. 

EDMUND BURKE. Edmund Burke wrote to 
Barry, the artist, under date 13 July, 1774, ' 
have been painted in my life five times, twice in 
little and three times in large." This was before 


[8*8. XI. JAN. 30, '97. 

Barry had painted his portrait. Can you let me 
know where the authentic portraits are now, and 
how often his portrait was painted during his life ? 
Also, where are the manuscripts of his works 
deposited ? A. W. H. 

paragraph appeared in the Times of 30 June, 1819: 

"The Savannah, steam vessel, recently arrived at 
Liverpool from America; the first vessel of the kind 
that ever crossed the Atlantic, was chased a w'iole day 
off the coast of Ireland, by the Kite, revenue cruiser, on 
the Cork station, which mistook her for a ship on fire." 

Can any correspondent supply a contemporary 
description of the build of this vessel, or a pictorial 
representation ; and say whether it was constructed 
for a sailing or steam ship ? The log book would 
only furnish the course and distance sailed, with 
ship's position from day to day, but neither the 
horse-power of the engine nor the space occupied 
thereby. If a copy of the ship's register is avail- 
able that document would clear up all doubts. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

on historical English point out that Shakespeare 
does not hesitate to begin a question with a nomi- 
native case even where the rules of strict syntax 
clearly demand the objective. They are careful, 
however, to note that this is a licence, and they 
dwell upon it as a practice unknown in modern 
English. Is the fashion changing ? In the Saturday 
Review for 9 Jan., p. 29, the following occurs : 

' Three of the most important appointments in the 
gift of the Crown must shortly fall vacant the High 
Commissionership of South Africa, the Governor-General- 
ship of Canada, and the Governor-Generalship of India. 

Who on earth will the Government find to fill these 

vacancies 1 " 

If there is not here a double ellipsis, should not 
the interrogative, according to modern practice, be 
in the objective case ? The query receives special 
pertinency from the fact that the editor, at p. 40 
of the same number of the journal, reproves certain 
correspondents for " outraging grammar." 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

KNIGHTS OF ST. LAZARUS. I should be glad 
to be referred to any account of the institution of 
the Knights of St. Lazarus (I think that is the title) 
during the time of the Crusades ; also generally 
to any account of leprosy as it then existed. 

R. F. 

Letters of Sir Charles Halle",' p. 361, occurs an 
extract from his diary, which runs as follows : 

"January 15, 1856. Left for Wakefield at 12.40. 
Before starting I bought a good edition of the * Vicar 
of Wakefield,' and by its perusal changed an otherwise 
tedious day into a very pleasant one. The place itself 

is most prosaic, dark and smoky, as are all English 
manufacturing towns, and in no way answers nowadays 
to Goldsmith's description." 

Has not the same anecdote been told of the mis- 
apprehension of some one else ? ST. SWITHIN. 

POPE JOAN. As evidence that there was no room 
for this papesse between Leo IV. and Benedict III., 
Gregorovius refers to Garampius for a coin of 
Benedict's that reads "Hlotharius Imp." on the 
obverse. Leo IV. died 17 July, 855. Lothaire 
died 28 or 29 September at Trier. Benedict III. 
was elected Pope 29 September. The coin, if 
genuine, must have been very promptly minted to 
have been struck before the news of the emperor's 
death reached Romein early autumn the passes 
would be open. Will some reader of * N. & Q.' tell 
me if the coin is genuine, and where a specimen 
can be seen ? C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence, Baeingstoke. 

Mr. Tankerville Chamberlayne, of Cranbury Park, 
to use the arms and crest of the ancient family of 
the same name, who are descended from the Counts 
de Tankerville, being questioned by a writer in the 
Saturday Review, Mr. Chamberlayne, in reply, 
states that his father was thinking of claiming the 
"so-called " extinct baronetage of the Chamberlay nes 
of Wickham, co. Oxon. Now, after reference to 
various authorities, it appears without the smallest 
doubt that this title expired in 1776. Neither, 
after considerable research, am I able to find the 
smallest clue which would connect the family 
residing at Cranbury with the very ancient one 
formerly seated at Sher borne, co. Oxon, whose 
ancestor assumed his surname from the fact of 
being chamberlain to King Stephen. Other 
branches of this family settled in Warwickshire 
and elsewhere, including the baronets of Wickham. 
Can any one point out where, if anywhere, the 
pedigree of the Cranbury family joins in ; and, if 
so, what claim have they to a title undoubtedly 
extinct ? HIBERNICUS. 

INSCRIPTION. A leading London paper lately 
announced the sale, by Christie & Manson, of a 
piece of old Flemish tapestry, representing the 
baptism of Dionysius, and bearing the following 
inscription : " Sordet mihi Dionysius levante 
Olera." Can any of your ingenious readers say 
what is the meaning of the last two words of that 
inscription ? Is there a misprint here ; and, if so, 
what may be the correct reading ? Is it a quota- 
tion ; and, if so, from what ? 



"THE JUSTICE." It was stated in a parlia- 
mentary return, printed in 1819, that the Laun- 
ceston town prison was in the jurisdiction of "the 
Justices of the Peace for the borough, oonaisting 

8i 8. XI. JAN. 30, '97.] 



of the Mayor, Deputy Recorder, senior Alderman, 
and the Mayor for the preceding year, commonly 
called 'the Justice." Is the latter term, which 
continues to be locally used as descriptive of the 
immediate ex-Mayor, generally employed in the 
same sense elsewhere? I would note that at 
Launceston the title is enjoyed only for a twelve- 
month, so that, if a mayor is re-elected, there is no 
" Mr. Justice " during the second year of his 
mayoralty. DUNHEVBD. 

ARABIC STAR NAMES. Can any reader refer 
me to a book, not written in Arabic characters, that 
gives the signification of these names ? 


JOHN WOOLWARD, 1607. Blomefield's 'Nor- 
folk,' v. 326, says that John Woolward, A.M., 
resigned the rectory of Thorp Abbots in 1607. 
I should be glad if any one could tell me anything 

Totternhoe Vicarage, Dunstable. 

'THE FORTUNE-TELLER.' In May, 1786, was 
published a mezzotint engraving of a picture bear- 
ing this title, which had been painted by the Rev. 
Matthew Peters, R.A. The plate was dedicated 
to the Duke of Rutland, and the picture was com- 
panion to ' The Gamesters,' by the same artist, in 
which were represented the Prince of Wales, Lord 
Courtney, and Mr. Rowlandson. I am curious to 
know who the lady and (presumably) her brother 
are in the former work, and shall be sincerely 
obliged for any information leading to their identi- 
fication. In the Diploma Gallery at Burlington 
House I observe another picture by Peters, in 
which, unless I am mistaken, the same lady 

WALDEKSHARE. -What is the origin of this 
name of an East Kent parish, which in the Domes- 
day Survey was written Walwalesere ? 

Wingham, Kent. 


It is an old belief 
That on some solemn shore, 
Far from this sphere of grief, 
Dear friends will meet once more. 


nox quam longa est quse facit una senem ! 


If you 'd seek in thia world to advance, 
And your merits you fain would enhance, 
You must foot it and stump it, 
And blow your own trumpet, 
Or you have not the ghost of a chance. 


And didst thou love the race that loved not thee? 
And didst thou take to heaven a human brow 1 
Dost plead with man's voice by the marvellous sea? 
Art thou his kinsman now 1 R. B. 

(8 th S. xi. 27.) 

Is not the " three "' in Gurwood a copyist's 
mistake for two ? The London Gazette Extra- 
ordinary of 22 June (not likely to be wrong) says 
two, and so do all the newspapers of that period. 
The Times of 22 June has also an official bulletin 
from Downing Street (again not likely to be wrong) 
announcing " Capture of Two Eagles ' ; in the largest 
type. No correction was ever made, because, as I sup- 
pose, there was no mistake to be corrected. Other 
contemporaneous evidence, all, or nearly all, in 
favour of two eagle?, is not wanting. The Kentish 
Gazette of 23 June informs us that at 3 P.M. on 
the 20th Major Percy, who had sailed from Ostend 
in His Majesty's brig Peruvian, landed from a 
rowboat near Broadstairs with the Waterloo 
despatch and the eagles and standards of two 
French regiments of infantry, with which he im- 
mediately proceeded in a chaise and four for the 
metropolis, little imagining (I may add) that one 
John Roworth quite the Archibald Forbes of the 
occasion (see ' N. & Q./ 19 Sept., 1868) had 
preceded him by many hours, and was far on the 
road to London with the secret of Wellington's 
victory in his bosom, to be divulged only to his 
employer Nathan Rothschild, who next morning 
on the Stock Exchange will turn the said secret 
into countless sums of gold. Again, the Morning 
Herald of that week speaks of the two captured 
eagles being at Carlton House on 23 June, and 
afterwards of the two eagles being displayed from 
the windows of the Home Office. Such is the 
evidence of the time ; see also the Quarterly 
Review, July, 1815, p. 510. In after years, it is 
true, we find some authors state that three eagles 
were captured ; but, qucere, Are not all such state- 
ments subsequent to and consequent on the mis- 
take in Gurwood 1 For instance, ' Diaries of a 
Lady of Quality/ second edition, p. 169 ; Countess 
Brownlow's ' Reminiscences of a Septuagenarian/ 
p. 117 ; * Journals of Rev. J. C. Young,' vol. i. 
p. 212 ; * Lady de Ros's Reminiscences,' p. 128. 

I perhaps ought to mention one piece of con- 
temporaneous evidence in favour of Gurwood's 
version. It is to be found in General Sir James 
Kempt's despatch of 19 June, printed in Welling- 
ton's * Supplementary Despatches,' vol. x. 
Kempt there states that in the great attack on 
Picton's division three eagles were taken. I hold 
this to be a mistake ; see, however, Siborne's 
' Waterloo Letters,' p. 88, and Dalton's * Waterloo 
Roll Call,' p. 231. The latter records that the 
28th Regiment (the Slashers) captured a flag of the 
25th French Regiment. The 28th formed part of 
Sir James Kempt's brigade, and in the excitement 
of the fight it may have been reported that they 



had captured an eagle hence, perhaps, Kempt's 
mistake. A third eagle, it seems, was in the 
momentary possession of the Blues, who charged 
on the west side of the great road to Charleroi, 
and managed to cross poor Victor Hugo's Chemin 
Creux without being engulfed. In the ' Supple- 
mentary Despatches' it is stated. that a private in 
the Blues killed a French officer and took an eagle, 
but, his own horse being killed, he could not keep 
the eagle. See also Booth's ' Waterloo,' eleventh 
edition, p. 207. General Alava, in his official 
despatch, was in error in saying that the eagle of 
the 49th French Regiment was taken. The 49th 
was not at Waterloo. He meant the 45th, the 
alleged recapture of whose flag by Urban, quarter- 
master of the 4th French Lancers, as recorded by 
Thiers in his account of the battle, brings to one's 
mind the saying "To lie like a trooper." 


With reference to this very interesting subject, 
the following quotation from my copy of 'The 
Waterloo Campaign, 1815,' by William Siborne 
(fourth edition, Westminster, Archibald Constable 
& Co., 1895), may interest your correspondent 
0. R.: 

" I send, with this despatch, two Eagles taken by the 
troops in this action ; which Major Percy will have the 
honour of laying at the feet of His Royal Highness. I 
have the honour, &c., " WELLINGTON." 

Clapham, S.W. 


A copy of Wellington's despatch dated 19 June, 
1815, is given in ' A Full and Circumstantial 
Account of the Memorable Battle of Waterloo,' 
published by Thomas Kelly, London. It is similar 
to the quotation given by C. R., except that two 
eagles were taken by the troops and sent with the 
despatch. This information, coupled with the 
statement in the 'Annual Register' for 1816 
" that the eagles were carried by two sergeants," 
creates a doubt respecting the accuracy of the 
printer of Gurwood's ' Despatches,' which question 
can only be answered by referring to the original. 


One of these three eagles was captured by the 
hands of the late General Sir A. Clark-Kennedy, 
G.C.B.; and its whereabouts could probably be 
learnt by your correspondent C. R. if he were to 
address that gallant general's grandson, Mr. A. 
Clark-Kennedy, at his house, 20, Tite Street, 
Chelsea, S.W. E. WALFORD. 

SHELTA (8* S. viii. 348, 435, 475 ; x. 434, 
621 ; xi. 34). I find myself so often in accord 
with MR. PLATT on questions of philology that I 
am sorry to disagree with him on this occasion. 
I hardly think that MR. PLATT has advanced his 
case by shifting his ground, and saying that 

changing the initials of words is not the basis, but 
a basis of Shelta. Dialectics 'would be an easy 
matter if the counterchange of the definite and 
indefinite articles were an optional alternative. 
I feel even doubtful if the process in question is a 
basis of Shelta, if by basis is meant a structural 
necessity. Two tinkers could probably carry on 
a conversation in Shelta without having recourse 
to this process at all. 

Now for my alleged "mistakes." Slang has 
long been a favourite study of mine. I think I have 
nearly every book that has been written on the 
subject in my small collection ; and a few years ago I 
ventilated a few ideas on ' Slang, Jargon, and Cant ' 
in 'N. & Q.' (7 tb S. viii. 341). Amongst other 
things, I gave definitions of slang and cant, which 
I still venture to think are perfectly sound, and 
which show that there is a real and substantial 
difference between the two terms. In regard to 
"rhyming slang," therefore, I cannot, like Dr. 
Johnson on a similar occasion, plead " pure ignor- 
ance." As a matter of fact, "rhyming slang," in 
the highly artificial sense to which MR. PLATT 
would wish to restrict its use, is an exoteric term, 
invented by a few literary professors of argot. No 
one supposes that the classes which say "Billy 
Button " for " mutton " are sensible of these refine- 
ments of glossology. In writing of Shelta, I thought 
it best to use a short and intelligible phrase in the 
sense in which it was employed by Mr. John 
Sampson, in his paper on ' Tinkers and their Talk,' 
in the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society (see 
vol. ii. pp. 214, 215). In matters of language it 
is clearly desirable to use a uniform terminology 5 
and if I have made a mistake, I feel I have gone 
astray in good company. Errare melo cum 
Platone, &c. 

As regards "mistake" No. 2, 1 may have gone 
too far in saying that Prof. Meyer's third process 
is governed by certain fixed rules; but the per- 
sistency with which certain Shelta words commence 
with gr, *, sh, st, and sr t and the rarity of any 
other prefixes in words undergoing that process, 
goes some way to prove that the principle is not 
entirely imaginary. This, however, is a question 
which I will leave to Mr. Sampson to decide, 
should he think it worth while, along with the 
others which MR. PLATT has brought into dis- 
cussion, and which require trained Irish scholar- 
ship for their solution. I may, however, say that 
I question altogether the occurrence of mizzard in 
Shelta, " deep " or otherwise. MR. PLATT asserts 
that it is "just gizzard no more nor less"; but 
he has failed to explain why the term for a mouth 
should be derived from an entirely different organ, 
which is unknown to the human economy. I 
should be more inclined to connect it with museau 
or muzzle ; but this, I admit, is only a guess. 

In reply to MR. J. HOBSON MATTHEWS, it may 
be observed that Shelta is, or was, the language of 

88. XI. JAN. 30, '97.] 



the travelling tinkers, and not of the Gypsies, 
though some Shelta words may have crept into 
the Romany vocabulary. There is no doubt that 
the Gypsy language is a dialect of Prakrit, and the 
careful researches of Mr. Grierson tend to show 
that its nearest congener is the form of Bhqjpuri 
which is spoken especially by the Doms of Bihar. 
Mr. Leland's suggestion that the original Gypsies 
may have been Doms of India is thus curiously 
confirmed by the evidence of language. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

524). I was in Russia shortly after the coronation, 
and was given to understand that the mugs were 
made and made in Vienna solely for distribution 
to the crowd on that fatal morning outside Moscow. 
As a matter of fact, they were a principal cause of 
the disaster, for a rumour had got about unkind 
people said had been put about that the first 
mugs given out would contain lottery tickets and 
rouble notes. Hence the crush. When I was 
there the small shops, both in Moscow and Peters- 
burg, were full of them ; but there were no buyers. 
' They had brought bad luck." I am sorry to have 
to break to W. I. R. V. that the number exported 
to this country was " limited " by the demand, not 
by the supply, and that, in all probability, the 
enterprising importer and advertiser makes fully 
a thousand per cent, over each one he disposes of. 

G. S. 0. S. 

523). The use of uno for prime in " Primo avulso 
non deficit alter " calls to mind the story about the 
Parisian dentist, who had inscribed above his door 
: Uno avulso," &c., intimating that, if he had to 
take out a patient's tooth, he could at once supply 
another. The misquotation "Ne sutor ultra 
crepidam" is not of yesterday. It occurs in 
R. Greene's < Menaphon,' 1589, p. 68, Arbor's 
reprint, 1880 : 

' When as, God wot, had they but learned of Apelles, 
Ne sutor vitro, crepidam, they would not haue aspired 
aboue their birth, or talkt beyond their sowterly bring- 
ing vp." 

Your correspondent may be interested to know 
that " Le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle " is in Cot- 
grave's ' French-English Dictionary,' 1650. 


I am sure the thanks of all readers of ' N. & Q.' 
are due to MR. HORTON SMITH for drawing atten- 
tion in your columns to the much abused and 
long-suffering " Ne supra crepidam sutor." I know 
for a fact that some people who have small regard 
for quantities imagine this proverb to be a portion 
of an hexameter line. At the same time one can- 
not help thinking that there must be some authority 
for the use of " ultra " in the proverb. I see that 
Mr. Chotzner, who wrote the successful Latin 

epigram at Cambridge a year or so back, takes as 
his motto " Ne sutor ultra crepidam," and I am 
naturally loth to believe that so excellent a scholar 
would commit such a popular mistake without 
any ground. Is it not possible that there may 
be at least some oral authority for the corrupted 
form ? I believe Prof. Mayor has a useful and 
instructive note on the point in one of his editions, 
and should be much obliged if any reader of 
' N. & Q.' could let me know where to find his 
remarks or those of any other authority on the 
subject. CECIL WILLSON. 


< THE SAILOR'S GRAVE ' (8 th S. x. 356, 402, 501). 
I send herewith a correct copy of this fine old 
song, from a printed edition, with the music, pub* 
lished by D'Almaine & Co. fifty years ago : 

There is in the lone, lone Sea 

A spot unmark'd but holy, 

For there the gallant and the free 

In his Ocean bed lies lowly. 

Down, down beneath the deep, 

That oft in triumph bore him, 

He sleeps a sound and peaceful sleep, 

With the salt Waves dashing o'er him. 

He sleeps, he sleeps serene and safe 

From tempest and from billow, 

Where storms that high above him chafe 

Scarce rock his peaceful pillow. 

The Sea and him in death 

They did not dare to sever, 

It was his Home when he had breath, 

'Tis now his Homo for ever. 

Sleep on, sleep on, thou mighty dead, 
A glorious Tomb they 've found thee ; 
The broad blue Sky above thee spread, 
The boundless Ocean round thee. 
No vulgar foot treads here, 
No hand profane shall move thee, 
But gallant hearts shall proudly steer 
And Warriors shout above thee. 

And though no Stone may tell thy Name, thy worth 

thy glory, 
They rest in 'hearts that loved thee well, and they grace 

Britannia's Story. 

The words are by the Rev. H. F. Lyte, the 
music was composed by Mrs. Shelton, and it was 
sung by Mr. Braham. B. HOWLETT. 

COL. STUART (8* S. ix. 68, 170, 258). It 
may be added that General James Stuart, for 
merly Commander-in- Chief at Madras, and late 
Colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot, died in 
Charles Street, Berkeley Square, 29 April, 1815, 
aged seventy-five years, and was buried in a vault 
in St. James's Chapel, Hampstead Road, London. 
What relationship did Rear- Admiral Henry Stuart, 
who died 9 April, 1840, aged seventy- two years, 
bear to the above-named General James Stuart 1 


As a step in the direction of what is required, it 
is necessary to discover the date of the Whittier 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*&xLJur.w,w. 

settlement in Massachusetts. This was furnished 
by the poet in 1888, when, writing to the Essex 
County Agricultural Society, he said, "My 
ancestors since 1640 have been farmers in Essex 
County." An obituary notice (September, 1891) 
in the Christian World said, " His roots struck 
deep in the New England soil of which his 
ancestors were, in 1638, among the first settlers." 
Setting on one side the question of the two years' 
difference in date, it is evident, from the second 
quotation, that immigration, and not migration 
merely, was meant, and that Whittier's ancestors 
in the direct line must be sought for in this country 
prior to 1640. I am sorry I cannot supply in- 
formation on that point. ARTHUR MATALL. 

A will made at Ipswich, in 1773, was witnessed 
by Greenleaf Clark. S. A. W. 

The origin of the surname of this poet would 
not puzzle any one familiar with our Midland 
Counties' dialect. It is clearly a surname of occu- 
pation, Whittier=Whittawer, originally a tanner 
of white leather, now a collar and harness maker. 
In Nottinghamshire the name is usually contracted 
toWhittaw. C. 0. B. 

S. x. 412). By the notices in the daily papers it 
must be generally known throughout the kingdom 
that there is annually held in Colchester a great 
feast of the oysters for which this town has been 
for ages celebrated. It is always held on 20 Octo- 
ber, and is presided over by the mayor, who issues 
all the invitations and pays all the expenses 
incurred, it being the grandest function of his 
year of office. To this feast invitations are sent to 
many public men, and last year, as will be remem- 
bered, Lord Eosebery came, and made a speech of 
very great public interest, both to this kingdom 
and Europe generally. To be invited is considered 
in the town a compliment of special value, from 
the importance of the function and the treat of a 
luncheon on an unlimited number of the finest 
native oysters which can be obtained, of which 
sacks are consumed. 

Advantage is often taken of the holding of the 
feast to inaugurate some public improvement on the 
morning of the day, at which the invited guests 
usually take part. Last year it was the opening of 
a technical school, this part of the proceedings being 
commenced by the mayor, aldermen, and councillors 
in their robes, preceded by the mace-bearer, carry- 
ing the very fine mace, and four police-constables, 
having the four ward maces, appearing on the steps 
of the town hall. The town clerk, wearing his official 
robe, then reads in a loud voice a proclamation 
declaring the fair of St. Denis to be open and to 
continue for four days, the town crier having 
previously given the (i1 Oyez, Oyez !" three times. 
The hats of those taking part in the procession 

are usually raised at the finish of the reading of this 
proclamation, the crier giving, in a loud voice, 
" God save the Queen." A move is then made 
towards another part of the High Street, the pro- 
cession being preceded, s before, by the police and 
the mace-bearers, and other policemen walking by 
the side at intervals, and the Corporation being 
followed by the borough officials. When another 
ward of the borough is entered a stop is made, 
and the same ceremony is gone through, and then 
the party goes to another part of the High Street, 
and so repeats the proclamation in each of the 
other wards, which done, they, in the same order, 
return to the town hall and disrobe. 

It is a rather quaint proceeding, but is in accord- 
ance with the charter, and so, one may hope, may 
continue, although, like the proclamation at Lan- 
caster, its effects are almost nil. 



At Honiton, Devon, a fair is held on the first 
Wednesday and Thursday after 19 July, 
Henry VI. having granted the charter to the 
lord of the manor. It is proclaimed on the 
Tuesday at noon by the crier, an officer of 
the lord* That official comes into the centre of 
the town, where the old market cross stood, and 
carries a pole on the end of which is a glove 
decorated with flowers, and after ringing his bell 
three times, says, " Oyez, Oyez, Oyez I The glove 
is up, the fair is begun, no man can be arrested 
till it's taken down again." The glove on the 
Wednesday is placed outside an inn in the centre 
of the cattle fair, and on Thursday outside another 
inn, the centre of the horse fair. At midnight on 
Thursday it is taken down. K. A. F. 

THE " PARSON'S NOSE " (8 th S. x. 496 ; xi. 33). 
The "parson's nose" and the "bishop "were 
familiar names in my nursery days, the thirties. 
I have also heard the part called the " mitre." The 
mention of the " apron " reminds me of the under- 
lying seasoning in the lanthorn of duck or goose. 
This good stuff went by the name of the <l gun- 
room," a part of a line-of-battle ship answering to 
the hinder end of the roast bird. MR. BIRKBECK 
TERRY mentions the " Pope's eye " in a leg of 
mutton. Can he tell me what part of the joint 
is called the " alderman's walk " ? 


Hilfield, Yateley, Hants. 

BROWNING AS A PREACHER (8 tb S. xi. 28). 
MR. GOWERS'S statement will be news to at least 
one biographer of Browning. Here is what Mrs. Orr 
has to say on the subject, ' Life and Letters of 
Robert Browning/ 1891, p. 52 n. : 

"Mr. Browning's memory recalled a first and last 
effort at preaching, inspired by one of his very earliest 
visits to a place of worship. He extemporised a surplice 
or gown, climbed into an arm-chair by way of pulpit, 

8" S. XI. Jiff. 30, '97.] 



and held forth so vehemently that his scarcely more than 
baby sister was frightened and began to cry ; whereupon 
he turned to an imaginary presence, and said, with all 
the sternness which the occasion required, ' Pew-opener, 
remove that child.' ' 


No account of the publication of any of Brown- 
ing's sermons appears in the ' Bibliography of the 
Writings of Robert Browning ' given in the Athe- 
nceum of 26 Dec., 1896, and other numbers. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

OXFORD (8 th S. xi. 26). MR. PicKFORDis correct 
in his surmise. The painting by Eneller is one of 
six portraits of personages to whose collections the 
formation of the Museum is due. The other 
portraits are three members of the Cotton family, 
Sir Robert, Sir John, and Sir Thomas Cotton ; a 
full-length of Sir Hans Sloane ; and a half-length 
of Edward, Earl of Oxford, by Dahl. These 
pictures, with others, are the remainder of the large 
collection formerly in the Museum, of which the 
greater part was transferred to the National Por- 
trait Gallery, and a small number to the National 
Gallery. This information is given in " A Guide 
to the Exhibition Galleries of the British Museum 
(Bloomsbury), printed by order of the Trustees, 

34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 

WESTCHESTER (8 th S. xi. 28). Chester (see 
Camden's 'Britannia'). The question has been 
answered several times previously, as is observed 
in 'N. & Q.,'8 tb S. iii. 492. Your correspondent's 
other inquiry I cannot answer further than to in- 
form him that the Goodmans are, or were, an old 
Cheshire family, to which belonged the Puritan 
divine Christopher Goodman, who was deprived 
of his living for nonconformity in 1571 and died 
at Chester in 1603. F. ADAMS. 

Westchester is another name for Chester, so 
used about the period named by C. S. I have 
amongst my pamphlets a Civil War tract, dated 
1642, entitled 'Good News from Westchester.' 
Christopher Goodman was (says the late J. E. 
Bailey, F. S. A M in a paper in the first volume, new 
series, of the Journal of the Chester Archaeological 
Society) probably a son of William Goodman, 
merchant, of Chester, whose will (1544) has been 
printed by the Chetham Society. Christopher was 
born at Chester in 1519, and educated at the 
King's School there. He went in 1541 to Brase- 
nose College, Oxford ; became M. A. in 1544, and 
a senior student of Christchurch in 1547. He wag 
Professor of Divinity from 1548 to 1553. On 
Queen Mary's accession he fled to the Continent. 
3e was subsequently Vicar of Aldford, near 
Eaton Hall, and Rector of St. Bridget's, Chester, 
in which church it is believed he was buried. He 

was the first to bring a supply of water to Chester. 
He was a writer of considerable note and a famous 
preacher. T. CANN HUGHES, M.A. 


[Many replies to the same effect are acknowledged.] 

THE PARTICLE "WITH" (8 th S. x. 472). 
According to the strict rule of English grammar 
that a verb must agree with its subject with 
respect to number, G. L. G.'s sentence is gram- 
matically wrong, though I suppose it may be 
defended on the ground of synesis, just as we have 
in Thucydides, iii. c. 109, Am/,o tffle vrjs pera rwv 
vo"T/o(m7ya>i/ onrevSovTai MatmveiJO'lv. Apropos 
of this use, I may quote what Dean Farrar says in 
his ' Brief Greek Syntax,' 1867, p. 59 : 

" The Greeks being an extremely quick race, often 
allowed the sense to overrule the grammar, or substi- 
tuted tbe logic of thought to that of grammatical forms. 
They saw through the form, and often disregarded it." 

So Sallust writes : 

"Bocchus cum peditibus, quos Volux films ejus 
adduxerat, neque in priore pugna, in itinere morati, 
adfuerant ,'postremam Bomanorum aciem invadunt." 
'Jug.,' 101. 

MR. F. ADAMS'S friend seems to have got some' 
what mixed in the enunciation of his metaphorical 
statement, " The cloven foot stepped into grammar 
a long time ago, and made a lasting impression on 
mankind, apparently." As the foot stepped into 
grammar, surely the impression would be on 
grammar ; and not on mankind. 


DOMESDAY SURVEY : " GURGES " (8 tn S. x. 114, 
181). In Hearne's ' John of Glastonbury ' (Oxford, 
1726), p. 317, 1 note : " Sunt ibidem duse gurgites, 
vocatee Hacchewere & Bordenwere, unde piscacio 
anguillarum & aliorum piscium valet communibus 

annis " Another gurges is mentioned on the 

same page. Q. V. 

" PARLIAMENT " (8 th S. x. 455). The following 
remarks from Miss Baker's ' Northamptonshire 
Glossary,' 1854, may prove of interest to your 
correspondent : 

"Parliament. A thin rectangular piece of Crisp 
gingerbread. Jamieson has ' Parliament-cake,' and re- 
marks, ' perhaps originally used by members of the 
Scottish Parliaments during their siderunts ' [sic]. Our 
name may, with equal probability, have a similar 

PROF. ATTWELL speaks of " brandy-snap," alias 
"jumble." The "jumble" of my childhood was 
made of flour, sugar, butter, and eggs, in various 
shapes, and was entirely different from a " brandy- 
snap." F. C. Bi REBECK TERRY. 

See Jamieson's ' Scottish Dictionary ' (Paisley, 
Alexander Gardner, 1880), vol. iii. p. 442 : 

" Parliament-Cake, Parley. A. thin species of ginger- 
bread, supposed to have had its name from its being 
used by the members of the Scottish Parliament during 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 th B. XL JAN. 30/97. 

their sod e runts. S. 'They did business on a larger 

scale, having a general huxtry, with parliament-cakes, 
and candles, and pincushions, as well as other groceries, 
in their window' ('Annals of the Parish, 'p. 182). 'Here's 
a bawbee tae ye : awa' an' buy parleys \vi 't.' ' 

Kelvineide, Glasgow. 

In the alphabetical list of streets at the end of Sir 
John Fielding's ' Brief Description,' 1776, there is 
" Garrick Street, Mayfair," as well as " Hertford 
Street." ED. MARSHALL. 

Upwards of three-and-forty years ago it was 
recorded in 'N. & Q.,' 1 st S. viii. 411, that on a 
square stone in the wall of No. 15, Hertford Street 
was inscribed " Garrick Street, January 15, 1764," 
and that the inscription was not noticed in any 
work on London to which your correspondent had 
referred. So far as I can trace, no further mention 
of this change of name has appeared in ' N. & Q.,' 
or in any other publication until the issue of Mr. 
Clinch's ' Mayfair and Belgravia.' 


71, Brecknock Road. 

JEWISH MEDALS (8 th S. x. 415, 466). The few 
books on medals and coins I possess do not state 
that a medal of the class mentioned by the DUKE DE 
MORO was struck. The ' History of Jewish Coin- 
age,' by F. W. Madden, 1864, pp. 154-210, gives 
some valuable and interesting information respect- 
ing the coins struck and restruck during the first 
and second revolt against the Roman Empire, in 
which the Jewish leaders commemorated their 
trials and struggles. Bar-cochab was a leader in 
the latter, and it is supposed bore the name of 

Regarding the query relating to the Jewish 
medal, I have every reason to believe that one was 
struck to commemorate the rising of the Jews 
under Barcochebas ; but can any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
throw any light on its probable shape and inscrip- 

Apuldram, Chichester. 

RACHEL DE LA POLE (8 th S. x. 516). In the 
few scant pedigrees of the family of Ry ther (Rither, 
Ryder, or Rider) originally of a place of that 
name in co. York which have come down to us, 
at least as met with in public collections, there is 
evidently some confusion ; and I know of none 
mentioning the match referred to by your corre- 
spondent. The place about which he inquires is, 
however, certainly Muckleston, co. Staff. ; and, as 
the only Ryther connected therewith that I am 
aware of was Thomas son of Thomas, seventh son 
of Sir William Ryther, of Harwood (or Hare wood) 
Castle, co. York, Knt., by Elenor, daughter of 
John Fitzwilliams, of Sprotborough who is stated 
in Stowe MS. 624, pencil fo. 160, to have married 

"Catherin, daughter of Mr. Poole, of Com' Staf- 
ford," I should think that this latter must be the 
lady in question. But the marriage could hardly 
have taken place much earlier than 1547, 
whereas MR. PIGOTT mentions 1480-1500 ; and 
there is some reason to believe that the Christian 
name of this Thomas's wife was Ellen at least that 
appears by the entry in the parish register of her 
burial at Stepney, co. Middlesex, 4 Sept., 1606, to 
have been the name of the mother of Sir William 
Ryder, Lord Mayor of London, 1600-1, who was 
the said Thomas's eldest son. Possibly the father 
may have married twice. To add to the confusion, 
it will be seen by a reference to Stow's ' London,' 
ed. Strype, that the author was in doubt as to the 
parentage of the Lord Mayor as above one of the 
vexed questions in the family history upon which 
the recent combined researches of my friend Mr. 
G. E. Cokayne and myself have thrown consider- 
able light. W. I. R. V. 

230, 269, 365 ; 8 th S. iv. 468 ; v. 90 ; x. 520).- 
St. Teilo's ritual comb was among the relics of 
that great fifth-century bishop which were pre- 
served in Llandaff Cathedral until the Reformation. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

"JENKY AND JENNY" (8 th S. x. 416, 483).- 
Cf. Byron's ' The Waltz': 

New victories nor can we prize them less, 
Though Jenky wonders at his own success. 

This " apostrophic hymn" is dated 1813. 

H. E. M. 

St, Petersburg. 

SHRINE OF ST. CUTHBERT (8 th S. x. 494), In 
the * History of St. Cuthbert,' by the venerable 
and much -loved Archbishop Eyre of Glasgow 
(London, Burns & Oates, Limited, third edition, 
1887, pp. 236-7), we find the following :- 

" At the foot of the shrine, i. e., at its east end, stood a 
box to receive the offerings made by the faithful to the 
shrine of St. Cuthbert; it was called the Fix of St. 

And in note i. p. 237 : 

" The sums of money offered at the shrine in this box, 
from the year 1378 to 1513 are printed in Kainc, p. 115. 
The yearly amount of the donations received was, on an 
average of sixty-nine years, 24. 10s. 6d., equal to about 
1501. of the money of the present day. (See ' Remarks,' 
p. 39.) This money was expended in divers ways, in 
promoting the interests of the church and monastery. 
The expenses and repairs of the feretory were met by it; 
and the different entries connected with the shrine serve 
to throw much light upon the feretory and shrine. We 
select a few from the entries published." 

Here follow excerpts from Raine, ending with 
1513-4 ; and Archbishop Eyre does not seem to 
refer in his book to any later offerings. How does 
your correspondent J. T. F. say, " The last given 
by Raine is : 1488-9, 41 19*. 9d.," when in his 

8> 8. XI. JAH. 30, '97.] 



own quotation from Raine he has already said 
" 1513-4 " 1 The last item given in the quotation 
from Kaine, pp. 115-165 in Archbishop Eyre's 
book is, " 1513-4. Repairing the banner of St. 
Cuthbert, 13s. 4d." J. B. FLEMING. 

Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

RELIGIOUS DANCING (8 th S. x. 115, 202 ; xi. 
29). In Hone's * Every-Day Book,' vol. i., there 
is the following under Easter customs, quoted from 
Fosbrooke's 'Brit. Monach,': 

"Easter ball play another ecclesiastical device, the 
meaning of which cannot be traced ; but it is certain 
that the Romish clergy abroad played at ball in the 
church, as part of the service ; and we find an arch- 
bishop joining in the sport. A ball, not of size to be 
grasped by one hand only, being given out at Easter, the 
dean or his representative began an antiphone, suited 
to Easter Day ; then taking the ball in his left hand, he 
commenced a dance to the tune of the antiphone, the 
others dancing round hand in hand. At intervals the 
ball was bandied or passed to each chorister. The organ 
played according to the dance and sport. The dancing 
and antiphone being concluded, the choir went to take 
refreshment. It was the privilege of the lord, or his 
locum tenens to throw the ball ; even the archbishop did 

This quotation is from the edition of * Hone's 
Works' published by Ward, Lock & Co., 1888, 
vol. i p. 215, and the same quotation is on p. 432 
of that volume. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Wingham, Kent. 

Can any of your readers explain the allusion in 
the following passage from ' Tanz und Tanzkunst,' 
A. Czerwinski, second edition, p. 30 : 

" In eigenthiimlicher Deutung einiger Ausspriiche 
ties Apostel Paulus wurde das Tanzen beim Gottesdienst 
fiir erlaubt erklart, (lurch Gregoriua Thaumaturgus 
eingefiihrt, und besonders, nachdem die Christenverfol- 
gungen aufgehort batten, alle Freuden- und Friedens- 
feste damit verherrlicht, wahrend es bei anderen 
Gelegenheiten z. b., bei den Hochzeiten der Christen, 
verboten war." 

St. Peter's Vicarage, Bury, Lancashire. 

" HEAR, HEAR ! " (4 th S. ix. 200, 229, 285 ; 6 th 
S. xii. 346 ; 8 th S. iv. 447 ; v. 34 ; xi. 31.) The 
following, from Mr. Austin Dobson's pleasant and 
entertaining * Eighteenth Century Vignettes,' Third 
Series, 1896, is perhaps worth reproduction, It 
is taken from the essay on * Grosley's " Londres." ' 
M. Pierre Jean Groeley visited England in 1765, 
and attended a sitting of the House of Commons : 

' They [i. e., the speakers] stood up,' he says, ' and 
addressed themselves to the Speaker's chair (the bureau 
du Spik, is M. Grosley'a phrase), with lega apart, one 
knee bent, and one arm extended as if they were going 
to fence. They held forth for a long time, scarcely any 
one paying attention to what they said, except at such 
moments as the members of their party cried out in 
chorus, Ya, ya.' Many of these last, he observes else- 
where, confined themselves to this monosyllabic contri- 
bution to debate ; and he instances one gentleman who 
for twenty years had never but once made a speech, and 
that was tp moye that a broken window at the back qf 

his seat might be mended without loss of time. M. Grosley 
omits the name of this laconic emulator of ' single-speech 
Hamilton, ' but according to certain recently published 
records he is to be identified with James Ferguson of 
Pitfour, afterwards member for Aberdeenshire," 

M. Grosley's acquaintance with the English 
language was very limited, and presumably his 
spelling was phonetic. A. C. W. 

The parliamentary exclamation " Hear, hear " 
may be dated, on good authority, from the time 
"when George IV. was king": "The Duke 
warmed, and a courteous * hear, hear ' frequently 
sounded " (' The Young Duke,' bk. v. chap. viii.). 


DULANY FAMILY (8 th S. x. 357, 484, 524). 
Patrick Delany, D.D., Dean of Down, was born 
of humble parentage in 1686. He entered Trinity 
College as a sizar, and rose to be Senior Fellow. 
He was twice married in 1731 to Mrs. Tenison, 
a rich widow, and in 1743 to Mrs. Pendarves, 
a widow of wealth, uncommon brilliancy, and 
accomplishments, his junior by fourteen years. 
Her maiden name was Mary Granville, and she 
was a niece of Lord Lansdowne. "Those precious 
volumes " (as George Augustus Sala called them) 
her ' Autobiography and Correspondence ' were 
edited by Lady Llanover, three appearing in 1861, 
and three in 1862, enriched with numerous por- 
traits. The particulars of her life in Ireland are 
very interesting. Mrs. Delany delighted in her 
residence at Delville and liked the Irish people. 
Her marriage with Dr. Delany proved singularly 
happy, and she writes of her husband as follows : 

" I could not have been so happy with any man in the 
world as the person I am now united to ; his real bene- 
volence of heart, the great delight he takes in making 
every one happy about him, is a disposition so uncommon 
that I would not change that one circumstance of hap- 
piness for all the riches and greatness in the world." 

The doctor died in Bath on 6 May, 1768, and 
was buried in Glasnevin, There is a bust of him 
in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. His 
widow survived until 1788 (vide ' A Compendium 
of Irish Biography,' by Alfred Webb, Dubliq, 
M. H. Gill & Son, 1878) ; 

Only in love they happy prove 

Who love what most deserves their love, 

Clapham, S.W. 

Account of duel and death of Lloyd Dulany in 
' Annual Register,' 1782. Probably other refer- 
ences, but I have not searched. 


CHURCHWARDENS (8 tb S. x. 77, 106 ; xi. 12). 
That the election of only two churchwardens in a 
parish has not been strictly adhered to may be 
instanced by the custom in this city. Before the 
passing of the Reform Bill, this city had been 



[8> S. XI. JAN. 30, '97. 

divided into ten wards, BIZ being in St. Michael's 
parish and the remaining four in the parish of 
Holy Trinity. In St. Michael's parish the custom 
was to elect one warden for each ward, the vicar 
nominating the one for the ward in which the 
church is situated, the sixth nominated acts as 
warden for the church of St. John Baptist, 
that being in Spon Street ward, which constitutes 
its parish, but is for all civil purposes a part of St. 
Michael's parish, i.e., a parish within a parish. 
This custom still continues, a warden being elected 
for each of the old wards. At Holy Trinity four 
wardens are still elected, but in different order, the 
first by the vicar, then the accountant warden, and 
then two others ; but the different wards are not 
mentioned. In both cases the present and past 
wardens constitute the vestry. J. ASTLBY. 

"COCKTAIL" (7 th S. xii. 306 ; 8 S. x. 400). 
Bartlett's ' Dictionary of Americanisms,' 1877, 
has : 

" A friend thinks that thia term was suggested by the 
shape which froth, as of a glaaa of porter, assumes when 
it flows over the sides of a tumbler containing the 
liquid effervescing. ' A bowie knife and a foaming cod-- 
tail: N.Y. Tribune, May 8, 1862." 


MONT-DE-PIT (8 tb S. iv. 203, 309 ; x. 302). 
With regard to the suggestion that a similar in- 
stitution would be desirable for London, I thought 
such an idea had been completely crushed out by 
a most amusing article full, however, of thorough 
practical knowledge of the working of such institu- 
tions in the Daily Telegraph some time last year. 
I regret I did not make a note of the date, not 
thinking I should ever require it. The writer 
showed what a bad thing officialism was (in this 
as it is in most things) for the French, and he gave 
an interesting account of the trouble he had to 
pawn his own properties, merely for the sake of 
seeing how it worked. Paternal government has, 
fortunately, never found much favour in England. 

As an official of the L.G.C. it is, of course, 
quite right for MR. JOHN HERB to think any 
project of that body a good thing, and I am sorry 
I must express an opinion at variance with my 
friends, whose learned notes are usually indisput- 
able. I should like to take this opportunity of 
saying that I am not connected with Thomas 
Ralph, who has been sentenced for hitting his 
superior officer (People, 11 Oct., 1896). I should 
not do that, although I do not mind having a quiet 
hit at an official. RALPH THOMAS. 

Ruskin, in 'Fors Clavigera,' thus explains the 
meaning of this expression : 

"The Mount is the heap of money in atore for lending 
without interest. You shall have a picture of it in next 
number as drawn by a brave landscape painter four 
hundred years ago ; and it will ultimately be one of the 
crags of our own Mont Rose [an institution founded by 

Ruskin], and well should be, for it was first raised among 
the rocks of Italy by a Franciscan monk, for refuge to 
the poor against the usury of the Lombard merchants 
who gave name to our Lombard Street and perished by 
their usury as their successors are like enough to do also. 
But the story goes back to Friedrich II. of Germany 
again, and is too long for this letter." ' Fors Clavigera,' 
ii. let. zxi. 17 (note). 

There is a woodcut to the twenty-second letter, 
representing the Mount of Compassion and the 
coronation of its builder, from a picture by Botti- 
celli. The author says of this illustration : 

" It represents the seven works of Mercy, as com- 
pleted by an eighth work in the centre of all ; namely, 
lending money without interest from the Mount of Pity 
accumulated by generous alms. In the upper part of 
the design are seen the shores of Italy, with the cities 
which first built Mounts of Pity ; Venice chief of all ; 
then Florence, Genoa, and Castruccio's Lucca ; in the 
distance prays the monk of Ancona [Terni?] who first 
thought inspired of heaven of such war with usurers; 
and an angel crowns him, as you see. The little dashes, 
which form the background, represent the waves of the 
Adriatic ; and they, as well as all the rest, are rightly 
and manfully engraved, though you may not think it ; 
but I have no time to-day to give you a lecture on 
engraving nor to tell you the story of the Mount of Pity, 
which is too pretty to be spoiled by haste, but I hope 
to get something of Theseus and Frederick the Second 
preparatorily into next letter." ' Fors,' xxii. 22. 


LANDOUARD FORT (8 th S. x. 515 ; xi. 35). 
Oamden has (' Essex,' col. 424, vol. i., 1722) :- 

"Over against it [Harwich] at Langerfort (contracted 
from Land-guard-fort, which tho' it may seem to be in 
Suffolk, ia notwithstanding by the officera of her Majesty's 
Ordnance in the Tower of London, writ in Essex, accord- 
ing to former precedents) are the remains of an ancient 
fortification, which shew great labour and antiquity. 
The line of it runs southerly, from a little without the 
town gate to the Beacon-hill-field, about the midst of 
which is a round artificial hill, cast up probably either 
for placing their standard on, or else for a tumulus over 
some one of their commanders deceased ; for that we find 
common in many parts of England. Another work runs 
across from the first, easterly ; but they are both broken 
by the encroachings of the sea." 

This refers to the ancient remains. The more 
recent fortifications have been thus described in 
the * England's Gazetteer,' 1751 : 

" Landguard Fort seems to belong to Suffolk, but ia in 
the limits of Essex, and has a lovely prospect of the 
coasts of both counties. It was erected and is maintained 
for the defence of the port of Harwich over against it ; 
for it commands the entry of it from the sea up the 
Maningtre water, and will fetch any ship that goes in or 
out. It is placed on a point of land so surrounded with 
the sea at high water, that it looks like a little island at 
least from the shore. The making its foundation solid 
enough for so good a fortification cost many years of hard 
labour and a prodigious expense. It was built in the 
reign of King James I., when it was a much more con- 
siderable fortification than now, having four bastions 
mounted with so very large guns, particularly those on 
the royal bastion, which would throw a forty-eight pound 
ball over Harwich. Here is a small garrison, with a 
governor and a platform of guns. This fort is now (1749) 
refitting and greatly enlarging for the conveniency of 

8 h S. XI. JAM. 80, 



the officers of ordnance engineers and matrosses ; and a appointed, the three Scottish bishops were consecrated." 
barrack is building for the soldiers, whose number is to Spottiswood's 'History of the Church of Scotland,' 

be augmented. Col. Cracherode is the Governor." 

In the ' Description of England and Wales,' 
1769, vol. iv. p. 49, there is this further notice : 
"The fortifications on the land side were demolished 
in the reign of Charles the first; but tho' an act of 
Parliament has since been passed for erecting new forti- 
fications, and ground has been purchased for that purpose, 
little or no progress has been made in the Work." 


MR. WARREN is in error in making Capt. 
Thicknesse a governor of Landguard Fort : he was 
lieutenant-governor from 1753 to 1765. The 
governors from 1711 were : 

1711. Francis Hammond. 

1719. Bacon Morris. 

1744. Mordaunt Cracherode. 

1753. Lord George Beauclerck. 

1768. Kobert Armiger. 

1770. John Clavering. 

1778. Hon. Alexander Mackay. 

1788. Harry Trelawney. 

1800. David Dundas. 

1801. Cavendish Lister. 

1823. Sir Eobert Brownrigg, Bart., till his death 
in 1833. 
The lieutenant-governors from 1753 were : 

1753. Philip Thicknesse. 

1765. Anketell Singleton. 

1804. John Blake. 

1806. Alexander Mair. 

1811. Charles Augustus West, till his death in 



CHURCH OF SCOTLAND (8 th S. xi. 27). Presby- 
terial Church government was legalized by the 
Parliament of Scotland in 1592. King James 
introduced Episcopacy in 1610. In 1604 the 
Church of Scotland was still Presbyterian. When 
Messrs. John Spottiswood, Gavin Hamilton, and 
Andrew Lamb were summoned to England to 
receive consecration, the question was raised 
whether it was not necessary that they should first 
receive ordination as presbyters, no such ordination 
having been conferred on them from episcopal 
hands. I give the result in Archbishop Spottis- 
wood's own words : 

"The twenty-first of October (1610) was appointed to 
be the time, and the Chapel of London House to be the 
place of consecration. A question in the meantime was 
raised by Dr. Andrews, bishop of Ely, touching the 
consecration of the Scottish bishops, who, as he said, 
'must first be ordained presbytars, as having received no 
ordination from a bishop.' The Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, Dr. Bancroft, who was by, maintained ' that thereof 
there was no necessity, seeing where bishops could not 
be had, the ordination given by presbyters must be 
esteemed lawful ; otherwise that it might be doubted if 
there were any lawful vocation in most of the reformed 
Churches.' This was applauded to [sic] by the other 
bishops, Ely acquiesced, and at the day and in the place 

vol.'iii. p. 209. 

The narrower Anglican views, with which we 
are now unfortunately too well acquainted, and 
which, it is to be hoped, in the interest of true 
catholicity and Christian charity, have lately 
received a damper from the Pope, evidently had 
not in 1610 become dominant. There is, therefore, 
nothing remarkable in the fact that the Presbyte- 
rian Church of Scotland was recognized as the 
Church of Scotland in the Canons of Canterbury 
promulgated in 1604. R. M. SPENCB, M.A. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

The fifty-fifth canon undoubtedly refers to the 
Church of Scotland as by law established, which 
was in 1604, as now, Presbyterian in its form of 
government. I do not know whether the dis- 
establishment of the Irish Church has impliedly 
repealed this canon so far as that Church is con- 
cerned. If not. " all Preachers and Ministers " of 
the Church of England are liable to ecclesiastical 
censures if they do not " before all Sermons, 

Lectures, and Homilies move the people to 

join with them in Prayer especially for the 

Churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland." 

Q. V. 

I would refer KOM OMBO to the two articles on 
the 'Church of Scotland' and the 'Episcopal 
Church of Scotland' in 'The Dictionary of Religion' 
(1891) edited by the Rev. William Benham (pp. 
940 and 945). In 1604 Episcopacy would appear 
to have been in the ascendant. A. C. W. 

FUNERAL CUSTOMS (8 th S. x. 412). When our 
hero king, Henry V., died at Vincennes in 1422, 
his body was dismembered and the flesh stewed 
off the bones ; but it was otherwise with the 
remains of his contemporary Charles VI. and with 
those of Charles VII. I quote from M. Franklin's 
' L'Annonce et la Reclame ' (pp. 45, 46) in * La Vie 
priv^e d'Autrefois ' series : 

"'Son corps,' dit Juvenal des Ursins, 'fut mis par 
pieces et bouilly en une paesle [poele] tellement quo la 
chair se separa des os. L'eau qui restoit fut jettee en 
une cimetiere, et lea os avec la chair furent mis en un 
coffre de plomb avec plusieurs especes d'espices, de drogues 
odonferantes, et choses sentant bon.' Charles VI. fut 
moins maltraite : ' Son corps, vuide des entrailles et 
rempli d'epices et d'herbes sentant bon, fut mis en un 
coffre plombeV On dut proceder autrement vis-a-vis de 
Charles VII., car le 17 Octobre, 1793, quand fut faite a 
Saint Denis 1'ouverture de son cercueil, on y trouva ' du 
vif argent qui avait conserve toute sa nuidite.' ' 

I do not think M. Franklin makes any mention 
of the forty days' exposure of the effigy of a king 
deceased : that of Francis I. was exhibited for 
eleven, and six sufficed in the case of Charles IX. 
Meals were served in its presence with royal 
state, exactly as if the monarch were still able to 
enjoy them. At one time gentlemen were wont 
to carry the body to its grave, but at length they 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8-B.xiJiisofw. 

found such a burden too heavy, and relegated 
their duty to the Hanouards. 

" Le singulier privilege dont ils jouiesaient de porter 
le corps dea roia a leur derniere demeure a souleve bien 
des discussions. On a suppose qu'ils avaicnt ete charges 
des operations de 1'embaumement, ou le sel serait entre en 
grande quantite. M. Lecaron (' Me"moires de la Societe 
de 1'histoire de Paris,' t. vii. p. 126) croit qu'ils furent 
choisis pour rendre aux rois les derniers honneurs 
' parce qu'ils otaient les plus anciens, les plus habiles el 
les plus forts des Porteurs de Paris ' triple assertion qui 
resterait a prouver." Note, p. 53. 


A girl here told me that last year, when she 
went to be a bearer at the funeral of a baby, she 
declined to take any wine or cake, but the father 
said, " You must take something ; it 'a the last meal 
you will have with the baby." Can this be with 
the same idea as the French repasts before the 
king's effigy ? M. E. POOLE. 

Alsager, Cheshire. 


49 ; xi. 19). 

Non annorum canitiee, &c. 

May I give an addendum to my reply at the last 
reference ? The passage as it appears in ' Sancti Am- 
brosii Opera,' Mediolani, 1881, vol. v. col. 378, is 
Non annorum canities est laudata sed morum. 

4 Epistolse,' Priraa Classis, xviii. sec. 7. 
A note says, " Grimes editiones ante maurinam et pauci 
MSS. ' est laudenda ' [sic]." ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

MR. PIERPOINT'S reference to Proverbs xvi. 31 sug- 
gests the question, Was it from Plautus, Ambrosius, or 
Seneca that the English translators got the "if" with 
which they " improved " this text ] The Hebrew and 
the LXX. have it not, the Vulgate suggests it with 
" quae reperietur," which Wiclif, translating from the 
Vulgate, renders " that schal be foundun." The Revisers 
timidly reject the " if " froai the highway of the text, 
but restore it in the bypath of the margin. 


(8* S. xi. 9). 

" Each day is a little life, and our whole life is but a 
day repeated." Can 

Omnia fert aetas secum, aufert omnia secura ; 
Omnia tempus habent, omnia tempus habet. 
Age brings all things with it, and carries all things away. 
All things have their time, Time has all things 
be considered a parallel passage 1 J. B. FLEMING. 

The 1886 edition of Mr. Dobson's < At the Sign of the 
Lyre ' has : 

The ladies of St. James's i 

They 're painted to the eyes ; 
Their white it stays for ever, 

Their red it never dies : 
But Phyllida, my Phyllida ! 

Her colour comes and goes ; 
It trembles to a lily, 
It wavers to a rose. 

In connexion with the last couplet and the name 
Phyllida, it is interesting to note that the pink blossoms 
of the almond-tree were called by the Greeks Pbylla. 

The ladies of St. James's, &c., 

is from one of a set of poems entitled ' At the. Sign of 
the Lyre,' by Austin Dobs'on. HAROLp MALET. 


The Autobiographies of Edward Gibbon. Edited by 

John Murray. (Murray.) 
Private Letters of Edward Gibbon, 1753-1794. Edited 

by Rowland E. Prothero. 2 vols. (Same publisher.) 
FEW things in literature are more surprising than that 
we should have had to wait for more than a century after 
the death of the author for the full text of an acknow- 
ledged masterpiece by one of the greatest of English 
writers. Now, even, when it is definitely set before UP, 
the so-called autobiography of Edward Gibbon is in 
a quasi-fragmentary state; and though we have the 
work exactly in the form in which the author left it, 
it is scarcely in that which it is destined ultimately to 
assume. The circumstances by means of which this 
state of affairs was brought about are known. John 
Baker Holroyd, the first Earl of Sheffield, to whom 
Gibbon left his MSS., published in 1799, in two 
volumes, ' The Miscellaneous Works of Edward Gibbon, 
with Memoirs of his Life and Writings.' A third 
volume was added in 1815, in which year a new edition, 
in five volumes, saw the light. A clause in Lord 
Sheffield's will provided that no further publication 
of Gibbon's MSS. should be made. So strictly has this 
been observed that when, in 1842, Dean Milman produced 
his edition of ' The Decline and Fall' he was permitted 
access to the MSS. only on the condition of publishing 
no new matter. When, in 1794, the centenary of Gib- 
bon's death was commemorated, at the instance of the 
Royal Historical Society, the present Lord Sheffield was 
chairman of committee. After the exhibition in the 
British Museum of the Gibbon MSS. and relics, a wish 
was expressed that the former should be again collated, 
and that the unpublished portion should be given to the 
world. With this wish Lord Sheffield, who contributes 
explanatory introductions to the ' Autobiographies ' and 
to the ' Letters,' complied, and he gives his personal 
assurance that every piece in the 4 Autobiographies ' 
"as the work of Edward Gibbon, is now printed exactly 
as he wrote it, without suppression or emendation." 
This is, of course, a priceless boon to literature, and the 
volume of autobiographies edited by Mr. Murray will 
remain a lasting treasure. To students of Gibbon it is 
known that the historian in his later years began six 
times the task of writing his memoirs. These six works, 
dealing to some extent with different periods of his life, 
involve very much repetition, especially concerning his 
pedigree and early years. In some cases the reflections 
and the quotations are the same. From these six MSS. 
the first Lord Sheffield compiled the memoir which 
accompanies ' The Miscellaneous Works.' The whole six 
are now published in extenso, the names, for prudential 
reasons left blank at first, being now, so far as possible, 
filled in, and Gibbon's fragmentary and sometimes mys- 
terious memoranda being elaborated into intelligibility 
and affixed to the passages to which they belong. This 
is all as it should be. It needs only be added that the 
portions now first printed very numerous, and often 
most important are enclosed in thick brackets [ ]. One 
is reminded on reading the volume and comparing it 
with the previous memoir, of the treatment accorded by 
subsequent editors to Pepys until Mr. Wheatley took 
heart and gave us nearly all. Exactly the same mistake 
was made by the two noble editors, Lord Braybrooke 
and Lord Sheffield, though the error of the former was 
the more serious as to what would and would not interest 
the public. It is needless to say that Gibbon gives no 
such indiscreet revelations or such indecorous phrases as 
abound in Pepys. ]\Jattere ? however, that may perhaps 

8 h S. XI. JiH, 30, '97. J 



justly be regarded as unimportant or trivial acquire in 
time value aa illustrations, and purely personal facts 
concerning a man of eminence, talent, or opportunities 
become priceless to the public. It is impossible to give 
more than a glimpse at the nature of the restorations. 
On pp. 31-5 are some disclosures concerning the rela- 
tions of his father and mother, and some speculations in 
the fashion of the Encyclopaedist?, and in part from 
Buffon, concerning his own physical birth. A declara- 
tion concerning his mother, " As I had seldom enjoyed 
the smiles of maternal tenderness, she was rather the 
object of my respect than of my love," &c., had been 
excised, as scarcely to the historian's credit. The same 
fate ha'd attended the passages very characteristic 
they are in which Gibbon declares that "a school 
is the cavern of fear and sorrow." So, again, is it 
with portions of his condemnation of English univer- 
sity systems. Another restored passage, for the previous 
absence of which it is not difficult to account, is, " And 
falsehood, I will now add, is not incompatible with the 
sacerdotal character." A passage we are glad to see 
restored is that in which of a performance by Voltaire's 
" fat and ugly niece Madame Denys " it is said that she 
"could not, like our admirable Pritchard, make the 
spectators forget the defects of her age and person," 
which goes some way towards compensating for John- 
son's churlish utterances concerning the great actress. 
We had marked for comment many other restorations, 
on which considerations of space forbid us to dwell. On 
pp. 204, 205, is a passage which gives one of the few 
instances of Gibbon's subjugation by the fair sex; and 
a few pages further on a passage is restored in which he 
acknowledges how, during his stay at Lausanne, some 
"riotous acts of intemperance" caused him deservedly 
to forfeit the good opinion his early virtues had won 
him. This book is, indeed, in every respect a treasure, 
and we see our Gibbon for the first time. 

Innumerable letters to the Holroyd (Sheffield) family 
now first see the light in the correspondence. These 
we are glad to have, though they do not show Gibbon 
at his best. He is always occupied with his own pecu- 
niary affairs, and seems, indeed, to have used the obliging 
Lord Sheffield almost as an agent. In those letters, 
even, which deal with the shock of the French Revolu- 
tion, he rarely though his condemnation of the canaille 
of the Terror is strong enough can get far away from 
his private concerns. His letters to Lady Sheffield and 
Miss Holroyd are better. Best of all are those to his 
stepmother, his devotion to whom is one of the plea- 
santest traits in his character. His passion for study is 
also an acceptable feature. Still, we like him better in 
his autobiographies than in his letters. Both books 
are capitally edited, Mr. Prothero's task having been the 
heavier. The illustrations consist of a pleasing portrait 
of Gibbon, from an enamel by Bone after Sir Joshua ; 
the well-known silhouette portrait, presenting the comic 
little figure tapping hie snuff-box ; and a view of his 
residence at Lausanne. No book of the season is likely 
to earn from scholars a warmer welcome than this. 

Napoleon's Opera Glass: an Histrionic Study [sic]. 

By Lew Rosen. (Elkin Mathews.) 
THE purpose and significance of this little work are 
explained by the two words, ascribed to Pope Pius VII., 
" Comediante ! " " Tragediante ! " which serve as motto. 
The interview took place at Fontainebleu, where Napo- 
leon raged and stormed about the floor, uttering pro- 
mises, boasts, threats. In answer the Pope spoke the 
one word, " Comediante," rousing Napoleon to fury. The 
utterance of the second word appeased the storm, and 
the conversation began on a more peaceful footing. 
These utterances have inspired Mr. Rosen to present 

Napoleon under the two aspects both of them familiar, 
hough the former the more familiar of comedian and 
ragedian. Besides thip, we are shown him as a critic 

and patron of the drama, the friend of Talma, and the 
' familiar of playwrights and players." The book thus 

constituted is agreeable reading, and as the Napoleon 
1 boom " is now on us, is timely also. 

Pickle the Spy ; or, the Incognito of Prince Charles. By 

Andrew Lang. (Longmans & Co.) 
To the indefatigable industry and penetrative insight of 
Mr. Lang we are indebted for the most earnest and 
uccessful effort yet made to clear up the mystery that 
surrounds the closing years of "Bonnie Prince Charlie." 
That a full light of illumination should be thrown upon 
the proceedings of the Pretender was not to be expected, 
and Mr. Lang can be credited with no more than cast- 
ing one or two brilliant rays athwart a gloom that can 
no longer be justly described as impenetrable. Mr. Lang 
has long been coquetting with tlio task he has now 
espoused. In his introduction to his edition of 'Red- 
gauntlet ' he deals at some length with the circumstances 
attendant on the supposedly last visit of Charles to 
England, and with the irreparable damage inflicted on 
the Jacobite cause by the Prince's infatuation for Miss 
Walkinshaw. A portion of the very materials he now 
uses he placed, he informs us, in the hands of Robert 
Louis Stevenson, for the purpose of forming the basis of 
an historical romance. Since the death of his friend he 
has determined to turn them to historical account. The 
world is, accordingly, the richer for a work of useful 
research in quarters not generally accessible, and of very 
ingenious speculation, against which we have only to 
urge that, though profoundly interesting and valuable, 
it is shapeless and indigested, and less entitled to rank 
as a history than as memoires pour servir. For these 
things hasty execution is in part responsible. If Mr. 
Lang had taken adequate pains, he would scarcely have 
passed the mistake which occurs on p. 254, where the 
substitution of " his " for her renders the information 
supplied unintelligible, nor would he have passed one or 
two errors less important but more surprising. While 
on this subject, which we make glad haste to quit, may 
we ask whether " Simer," near " Bulloighn," should not 
be Samer, in the valley of la Liane. 

The point of chief interest in the volume is the settling 
definitely of the point, long debated, Who was Pickla 
the spy? Mr. Lang has penetrated through all the 
disguises of this miscreant, and greatly, it may be 
believed, to his own disgust has run him to earth, dis- 
covering in him no less a person than the head of a great 
Highland clan. Pickle is, in fact, none other than 
Alastair Ruadh Macdonnell, heir to the chieftainship of 
Glengarry, and subsequently himself the thirteenth 
ominous number ! Glengarry. The suspicion, and, aa 
it seemed, almost the certainty of guilt had been cast 
upon James Mohr Macgregor, or Drummond, the son of 
the famous Rob Roy. Mr. Lang convincingly to us, at 
least brings home the guilt to this great Scottish chief, 
who was trusted to the last by Charles Edward, when 
discarding wise and faithful friends and councillors, a 
man who carried in his pocket a mandate for a peerage, 
and who, as head of his clan, was held responsible for 2,600 
claymores of his own clan, besides half as many more 
Mackenzies, MacLeods, and Macleans. A sordid story 
is that of his Judas-like conduct, and of the persistence 
of his demands for his thirty pieces of silver. As a 
patriotic Scot, Mr. Lang reddens in telling it, finding, 
however, consolation in the fact that if he fixes upon one 
countryman the burden of infamy, he removes a similar 
load from the shoulders of a second. Much light is cast 
upon the change of religion by Charles upon his visit to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* a xi. JAN. so, '97. 

London in 1750, and upon the fissure in the Jacobite 
party owing to the want of confidence between " James 
the Third " and his son. To the amours of the Prince, 
generally untoward, and to his wanderings, to the 
danger he incurred of being kidnapped or slain, special 
attention is directed. A pleasing picture of the Young 
Chevalier during his early years is drawn, and the 
political intrigues around him base and unworthy for 
the most part by which his spirit was broken, are well 
shown. So far as concerns his places of hiding when he 
disappears from view, much is left to conjecture. As we 
have before said, Mr. Lang has written a pleasant, an 
important, and a valuable book. If it is less shapely 
than we could have wished, Mr. Lang himself, by the 
opportunities for comparison he has afforded, is to blame. 
He will himself acknowledge that often le mieux est 
Vennemi du lien. 

Deacon Brodie: a Play. By R. L. Stevenson and 

W. E. Henley. (Heinemann.) 

CONCERNING the merits of this play for stage purposes 
critics are at variance. Its claims as literature can, at 
least, not be disputed. In its present shape it should be, 
and probably will be, read by multitudes. 

Hereward. By Lieut. -General Harward. (Stock.) 
GENERAL HARWARD has apparently been drawn by two 
motives to undertake writing a life of the great Saxon 
patriot a personal interest in the hero, of whom, as he 
confidently believes, he is himself a lineal descendant, 
and the less worthy ambition of proving that other 
claimants of the same distinction have no ground for 
their confidence. He treats the subject, he confesses, 
as " a family rather than a public history " (p. 3). He 
bears an undying grudge no doubt by virtue of his 
descent against all nobles of Norman birth, and in 
particular against Ivo de Taillebois, who was only a 
" wood tollman " when he was at home (passim) ! His 
genealogical investigations do not seem to us so conclu- 
sive as they do to him. Granting that the two Here- 
wards of Terrington in Norfolk, referred to in the 
4 Historia Ecclesise Eliensis,' were respectively son and 
grandson of the famous champion, there is no evidence, 
BO far as we can see, for believing that John Hereward 
of Pebwith was son of that grandson, as is here assumed. 
With that visionary link the whole dependent chain of 
descent falls to the ground. No less baseless is his 
affiliation of Hereward himself to Earl Leofric 111. 
From what has been said it will be seen that the book 
has a polemic tone throughout, and the author does not 
mince matters when be expresses his contemptuous 
dissent from Prof. Freeman and Charles Kingsley. To 
the unfortunate blunder of the latter in the matter of 
"the Wake," he returns again and again, and a need- 
lessly offensive imputation about it disfigures p. 112. 
Putting aside this and other questions of taste, we 
cannot say that General Harward shows much inde- 
pendent historical research or special qualifications for 
his task. He is very unhappy in his etymological 
speculations. For many reasons we cannot believe that 
the original form of Hereward was Heorn-vard, "the 
sword-guardian," from A.-Sax. heorn (!), a sword 
(probably heoru is the word intended, but there is no 
such compound as that suggested) ; and when he pro- 
ceeds to bring in Ares and other " Greek derivations," 
we become just a little impatient. However, if we do 
not like this account of the name, we are at liberty 
to identify it with Ariovistus (p. 8). What are "post 
facto records," of which General Harward has a low 
opinion (p. 4) ? It would be unkind to take advantage of 
all the opportunities of adverse criticism which we have 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports. Edited by Samuel 
West, M.D., and W. J. Walaham, F.R.C.S. 
Vol. XXXI. (Smith, Elder & Co.) 
THE first two articles in the present volume of 'Hos- 
pital Reports 'are written "In Memoriam." Sir Wil- 
liam Savory, Bart., F.R.S., late consulting surgeon to 
the hospital, died in March, 1895, and the present 
sketch, by Howard Marsh and Mr. Oliver Pemberton, 
brings back with almost painful vividness the man as 
he appeared and was known to Bartholomew's men. 
Mark Morris, the Steward of St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, has passed away, and there is probably not a 
Bartholomew's man now living who did not know the 
steward, and to whom the name will not recall one of 
the most familiar faces in the hospital. His death 
leaves " a bald place in the Hospital headpiece, a blank 
which is and will be felt." Turning to the body of the 
Reports, we are pleased to find a contribution by 
Richard Gill ' On the Mechanical Factor in Chloroform- 
Anaesthesia,' a subject of great importance and worthy 
of careful study. With his usual ability Dr. T. Claye 
Shaw writes a most engrossing article ' On Cell- 
Memory,' whilst an account of ' Bacteriological Investi- 
gations in Diphtheria,' and ' A Report on the Treatment 
of Diphtheria by Antitoxin at this Hospital,' show that 
the work carried on is kept up to date. It is needless 
to mention each article separately, but a wise and wide 
selection has been made in choice of subjects and cases, 
rendering the present volume worthy of a place beside 
its predecessors. 

AN effort is about to be made by the Committee of the 
Lancaster Free Library, acting on the instructions of Sir 
Thomas Storey, to establish in Lancaster an historical 
library, bearing not only on the history of the immediate 
district of Lancaster, but on the County Palatine in 
general. The library will be a special department of the 
Lancaster Free Library, the home of which is the Storey 
Institute, a building founded by Sir Thomas Storey, and 
given by him to the town. 


We must call special attention to the following notices t 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

SENEX ("The Burleigh Shake of the Head "). This, 
so far as we understand, refers to the great Cecil, Lord 
Burleigb, and is a humorous invention of Sheridan. See 
4 The Critic,' Act III. We know of no Judge Burleigh. 

THOS. RATCLIFPE (" Carfindo "). " One of the car- 
penter's crew" (Smyth's 'Sailors' Word Book'). See 
1 N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. iv. 398 ; 6i S. ix. 407, 614 j x. 94. 

CORRIGENDUM. P. 46, col. 2, 1. 2 from bottom, for 
"omine " read omne. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8" 8. XI. FEB. 6, '97.] 




CONTENT S. N 267. 

NOTES : The Book of Common Prayer in Latin, 101 Home 
Tooke's Diary, 103 Ophelia Prof. Nichol's Poems 
Bishops' Wigs, 104 " Lane" St. Distaff's Day' Night 
and Morning,' 105 " Baldacchino " Letter from Elizabeth, 
Lady Hervey Flower Custom " Layman," 106 'The 
Oxford English Dictionary,' 107. 

QUERIES: "Braal" Quotation of Dickens's Tapestries 
from Raphael Cartoons High Water Coin " Invulta- 
tion "' Expenses of Elizabeth of York,' 107 " Non sine 
pulvere " ' The Travels of True Godliness 'Christopher 
Whichcott Quaker Characters in Opera "Li inaisio 
hierlekin "Oldest Parish Register Cornish Hurling 
Licences to Emigrate Van Acker Knightley Smith, 108 
" Dymocked " Ralegh's Library Nonconformist Minis- 
tersThe Hague and Osnaburg 'History of Essex' 
Stowe MSS. ' Middlemarch,' 109. 

REPLIES : " Rarely," 109 Clementina J. S. Douglass, 110 
Sir Horace St. Paul Launceston Astrological Signa- 
tures "God save the King" Blessing the Fisheries, 111 
"Picksome" OldArminghall Beaumont College, 112 
" Peer and Flet" Gog and Magog Manx Dialect Wy- 
vill. 113 Theatre at Tottenham Court Road Earls of 
Halifax Horseshoe Monuments "To worsen " Pen- 
sioner W. Hiseland Lamb's ' Prince Dorus ' Wellington, 
114 Scottish Clerical Dress Louis Philippe ' Bleak 
House,' 115" She " Gosforth, 116 London Directories, 
117" A Nott Stag" Authors Wanted, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Hazlitt's ' Four Generations of a 
Literary Family ' Beeching's ' Paradise of English Poetry ' 
' Book- Prices Current.' Vol. X. ' Scottish Poetry of the 
Eighteenth Century,' Vol. II. Spence's 'Earl Rognvald' 
Scbrbder's ' Carlyle's Abhandlung tiber Goethe's Faust ' 
Angot's ' Aurora Borealis/ 

Notices to Correspondents. 



So far back as the Second Series of ' N. & Q.' 
(vol. ix. p. 262), a correspondent, using the letters 
B. H. 0. as a signature, asks, " Where can I find 
any tolerably complete account of the various Latin 
versions of the English Prayer Book ?" 

A very brief paragraph, in which the questioner 
was referred to Procter, ' On the Book of Common 
Prayer/ 1855, p. 61, and to Lathbury's ' History 
of the Book of Common Prayer,' 1858, p. 61, 
appeared at p. 333 of the same volume, and there 
the matter dropped. I have examined the index 
volumes of 'N. & Q.,' and I do not find that the 
question was ever repeated, or that any further 
reply was given. The bibliography of the Latin 
Prayer Book certainly deserves fuller treatment; 
and though I cannot for a moment profess to handle 
the matter exhaustively, yet it is not difficult to 
give a list of some, at least, of the printed editions. 

A useful and important volume for the study 
of the subject is 'The Latin Prayer Book of 
Charles II. ; or, an Account of the Liturgia of 
Dean Durel,' &c., by Charles Marshall, M. A., once 
a prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral, and William 
Marshall, M.A., printed at Oxford in 1882. 
b is, indeed, almost indispensable to the student, 
have also freely used the British Museum cata- 
logues, both manuscript and printed, and have had 

the opportunity of collating the interesting series of 
Latin Prayer Books in St. Paul's Cathedral Library. 
A few editions are standing on my own shelves. 

1. The earliest Latin translation with which I 
am acquainted is that of Alexander Aless, a small 
quarto, printed at Leipzig in 1551, of which there 
is a good copy in the British Museum (221. e. 5). 
It contains prefatory matter and sixty-six numbered 
folios. As the book is scarce, I give the title-page 
in extenso. At the top of the title in the Museum 
copy is written, in a very clear hand, * Liturgia 
Prima Edwardi Sexti.' 

"Ordinatio Ecclesiae, eev minis terii Ecclesiastic!, in 
florentissimo Regno Angliae, conscripta Sermone patrio, 
& in Latinam linguam bona fide conversa, & ad consola- 
tionem Ecclesiarum Christi, ubicunque locorum ac 
gentium, his tristissimis temporibus, Edita, ab Alexandra- 
Alesio Scoto Sacrae Theologiae Doctore. 

" Lipsiae in officina Wolfgang! Gvnteri,anno M.D.LI." 

The Litany commences, " Pater de coelis Deus,'' 
&c. , and contains the well-known petition 

" A aeditione, & conspiratione, a tyrannide Epiecopi 
Romani, a falsis & Haereticis dogmatibue, & duritia cordis, 
& contemtu uerbi, & mandati tui," 

Lathbury says of Aless's version that, instead of 
a literal translation of a rubric, he sometimes 
" gives his own notion of what he conceived to be 
its intention," a method not greatly to be com- 
mended. And he adds that Walter Haddon took 
this translation as the groundwork for his own 
book, sometimes, however, following Aless so 
closely that the book of 1560 by no means gives 
an accurate view of the Book of Common Prayer 
of Elizabeth's reign (Lathbury, p. 61). 

" Somewhat before this time [5 May, 1560] the Queen 
ordered the English Common Prayer to be turned into 
Latin. Dr. Walter Haddon, as some suppose, bad a 
share in this version. The Queen, in her Letters 
Patents [nc] of the 1st of April, recommends this 
book to the use of both Universities, and to the Colleges 
of Eton and Winchester." 

So says Collier, 'Ecclesiastical History of Great 
Britain,' vi. 298, edit. 1882. 

2. Walter Haddon, LL.D. , was a civilian, born 
in Buckinghamshire in 1516, died in London 
21 Jan., 1571/2, not, as the Rev. George Towns- 
end says, at Bruges. "Queen Elizabeth being 
asked whether she preferred Buchanan or Haddon, 
adroitly replied, ' Buchannum omnibus antepono, 
Haddonum nemini postpone. '" See a brief but 
good life of him by Thompson Cooper in the ' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography.' He was admitted 
President of Magdalen, Oxford, in 1552. He was 
judge of the Prerogative Court, &c. 

Here follows a list of the editions of his version, 
compiled from the British Museum Catalogue, and 
in several instances from the books themselves. 

1560. Liber Precum Publicarum apud R. Volfium, 

Londini, 4to. [Without date, but the date is ascertained 
from the ' Cyclus Solaris.'] 

1571. Liber Precum apud R. Wolfium, Londini, 




[8> St xi. FEB. 6, '97. 

1574. Liber Precum Excusum Londini perassigna- 

tionem Prancisci Florae. Colophon : Londini, Excudebat 
Thomas Vautrollerius. 1574, 8vo. 

1594. Liber Precum Excusum Londini, per assigna- 

tionem Francisci Florae. 1594. Colophon : Londini, 
Excudebat loan lacksonus. 1594. 8vo. 

Of the last two editions, the Psalter is "Ad 
Hebraicum veritatem, a Sebastiano Munstero quam 
diligentissim& versus." 

1604. Liber Precum Typia Joh. Norton, Londini. 


Of these, I possess only the editions of 1574 and 
1594, but the last named has the arms of Charles I. 
or James I. on the sides. 

Lowndes mentions an edition in 1572, duodecimo. 
This I have not seen. 

3. The next translation which I have to notice 
is that of Dr. John Durel, chaplain in ordinary to 
Charles II., Prebendary of Windsor, Prebendary 
of Durham, and possessor of other valuable prefer- 
ments. He also translated the Prayer Book into 
French, a task for which he was especially qualified, 
having taken his Master of Arts degree at Caen. 
Of this version I am acquainted with the follow- 
ing editions : 

1670. The first edition. Excudit Rpgerus Nortonus 

in vico vulgariter dicto Little Britain. 


1685. Apud Car. Mearno. 




1703. A portrait of Queen Anne prefixed. 

All in duodecimo, except the first, which is in 

I possess two copies of the edition of 1670, one 
of which has no plates, but the other has a por- 
trait of Charles II. facing the title, and a series of 
plates of apostles, scriptural events illustrating the 
festivals, and certain other plates attached to 
special forms of prayer. Amongst these last is the 
curious plate of 'King Charles the First Mur- 
thered,' in which the block is represented as a 
long low log of wood. The Psalms are "juxta 
Vulgatam Latinorum Versionem." 

In my copy of the edition of 1685 there is a 
frontispiece representing a kneeling female figure, 
receiving from an angel a scroll inscribed with the 
words " Liturgia Ecclesise Anglicanse." 

4. Next after Dr. Durel's translation follow the 
numerous editions of Thomas Parsel or Parsell, 
who was head master of Merchant Taylors' School, 
appointed in 1707, and who died July, 1720. 

The psalms, epistles, and gospels, " inseruntur 
juxta Sebastiani Castellionis Versionem." In some 
editions, besides the usual special forms are found, 
as in the edition of 1759 now before me, the 
"Forma Precum secundo die Septembris" (the 
Fire of London), " Forma Strumosos Attrectandi," 
"Articuli," "Forma Precum Convocationis. " All 
these forms are found in the edition of 1727 : the 
first and second are not found in the issue of 1706. 

The last-named recension, that of 1706, has the 
curious reading in the lesser litany, " Miserere 
nostri, Jova" ; in the Litany "Parce nobis, Jova," 
"Ne nos, Jova, pro nostris peccatis tracta," and, 
instead of the familiar " Dominus vobiscum," 
"Vobisadsit Jova." 

A frontispiece found in several editions of this 
book represents the interior of a church. On the 
left the pulpit, reading-desk, and clerk's desk, a 
clergyman saying prayers, the congregation kneeling 
on the marble floor (one has a kneeling-cushion) ; 
in the background the altar, above it the symbolic 
triangle, surrounded by cherubs. This is found in 
1727, 1759, and, no doubt, in other editions ; it is 
not in my copy of 1706. 

The translation of the Lord's prayer is 
peculiar : 

" Pater noster, qui es in coelis, sancte colatur Norn en 
Tuum. Veniat regnum Tuum. Fiat voluntas Tua, ut 
in coelo, sic et in terra. Victum nostrum alimentarium 
da nobis hodie. Et remitte nobis debita nostra, ut et 
nos remittimus debitoribus nostris. Neve nos in tenta- 
tionem inducito, sed a malo tuere. Quoniam Tuum est 
regnum, et potentia, et gloria in sempiternum. Amen." 

So it stands in 1713, 1727, 1733, 1744, 1759, now 
before me, and probably in other editions also. 
Whatever may be the literary merits of this trans- 
lation, it seems very harsh to those familiar with 
the rendering of the Vulgate. 

Editions of Parsell's Version. 
1706. First edition, 12mo. 
1713, Editio altera. 
1716. Editio altera. 
1720. Editio tertia, 8vo. 
1727. Editio quarta, 12nao. 
1733. Editio quinta, 12mo. 
1744. Editio sexta, 8vo. 
1759. Editio septima, 8vo. (Booksellers.) 

All published in London. 

5. The next version appears to be that of 
Edward Harwood, D.D., a classical scholar and 
biblical critic ; born in 1729, died 14 January, 
1794. In the 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' he is said to 
have been a Presbyterian minister. I can^only 
enumerate the following editions : 

1785. 12mo. 
1791. 12mo. 
1800. Editio tertia, 16mo. 

1820. 24mo. 

1821. 32mo. and foolscap 8vo. (Bagster.) 

1840. Editio octava, 16mo. 
1848. (J. W. Parker.) 12mo. 

6. Later on comes the interesting version of 
Canons Bright and Medd, which has already 
passed through three editions : 

1865. 8vo. London. 

1869. [1868.1 8vo. London. 

1877. 8vo. London, Oxford, Cambridge. 

7. Not, indeed, as a complete Latin Prayer 
Book, but as an important version, must be men- 
tioned the "Liber Precum Ecclesise Cathedralis 

8 th S. XI. FEB. 6, '97.] 


Christi, Oxon. Oxoniae, e Theatro Sheldoniano," 
8vo. Of this I possess the edition of 1726. There 
are other editions in 1615 and 1639. 

May I venture to ask for corrections and addi- 
tions to this attempt at a bibliography of the 
Latin translations of the Book of Common Prayer? 



(Continued from p. 62.) 

Monday, June 16, 1794. Kinghorn tells me that I shall 
have only one warder (henceforward) ; that he told the 
Governour one was enough. Underwood the new warder 
this week. At r, past 3 Dr. Pearson & Mr. Olive paid 
me a visit together, Kinghorn coming with them & 
sitting close to hear my complaint, & their words in 
answer. I desired them both to observe what sort of 
custody I was in, & I added [here the author narrates 
how he purposely used some coarse language when pre- 
paring himself for the doctor's examination, in order 
to get rid of Kinghorn who] had just the modesty to 
rise from his chair & go to the door in the ante room. 
In two minutes Kinghorn returned. Dr. Pearson would 
then have given me two ten pound Bank notes which Mr. 
Vaughan had sent me, but Kinghorn took them examined 
them & gave them to me. I desired Pearson & Olive to 
see my girls, to conceal from them my treatment & my 
health, & to desire them to send me some fruit. 

Tuesday, June 17. Kinghorn told me that Hayne, 
Bonney's brother in law (who was at first permitted to 
visit Bpnney) has been forbidden to visit Bonney at the 
same time that Vaughan had been forbidden to visit me. 

Wednesday, June 18. Dr. Pearson paid me a visit. 
Insulted by a eerjeant. Mr. Weston declines being my 
attorney. Respects & loves me. Is anxious to be em- 
ployed on the occasion ; but has married Mr. Styles'a 
(Commie r of Customs) daughter, & does not dare to be 

Thursday, June 19. An insolent soldier the second 
time. (The first time a handkerchief.) Mr. Olive paid 
me a visit. N.B. He was obliged to wait an hour & a 
half. He will apply to Mr. Nepean. 

Friday, June 20, 1794. I walked only half an hour for 
the same reason (this is the third time). Mr. Olive has 
seen Nepean, thinks him not friendly. 

Saturday. Overslept myself a full hour. Did not rise till 
seven. Sent fruit & vegetables to all the prisoners & to K. 

Sunday, June 22. Mr. Pitt at Privy Council quarrelled 
last week with Mr. W. H. Sharp. Sharp words passed 
on both sides. Reeves said " Well we can do without 
his evidence, Let him be sent to prison, & hanged with 
the rest of them in the Tower." Mr. Pitt ordered him to 
be sent to the Tower. Lord Grenville opposed it. 

Wednesday, June 25. Adjutant Brice paid me a long 
visit, & was very civil, & perfectly well behaved. 

Friday, June 27. Kinghorn tells me that the Governor 
has a letter for me from Melton Mowbray, which he 
cannot read & therefore shall carry to the Privy Council. 
L never knew any one at or near Melton Mowbray, & 
have no correspondent anywhere in the World. What 
therefore this can mean it is impossible for me to con- 
jecture. Perhaps the beginning of some scheme against 
me by Messrs. Reeves & his employers. I fear them not : 

trust without the smallest doubt that falsehood of 
every kind will from its nature furnish ample means for 
its own detection. 

Wednesday, July 2. Mr. Olive paid me a visit. Mr. 
the Special Pleader is employed by the Attorney 
General to draw Indictment. 

Friday, July 4. I have been this day 7 weeks in close 
Custody without any charge or accusation, & all I know 
or can conjecture of the cause which is to be pretended, 
is, that Mr. Dundas told me "It was conceived (he would 
not say by whom or why) that I was an active & leading 
member of the Corresponding & Constitutional Societies ; 
& had been guilty of treasonable practices." I sent 
fruit & vegetables to each of the prisoners, i. e., to 
Bonny, Kyd, Joyce, Martin, Richter, Hardy, Thelwal, 

T L 


Saturday, July 5. Kinghorn bro 1 me a message from 
Bonney : " that he had sure intelligence from Mrs. 
Bonney, that the trials were to come on immediately, by 
the special order of the King, who was eager for them." 
I believe I am 58 years old this day. 

Monday. July 7. I received my weekly pension of 
13s. 4d. My expenses are at least 7 pounds or guineas 
per week. 

Wednesday, July 9. Mr. Clive visited me. The Allies 
quit Flanders. In 1777 after I had been in the King's 
Bench about 7 weeks (I believe) Gen 1 Burgoyne was 
captured at Saratoga : (i. e., the news of it reached us). 
When I had been 7 weeks in the tower, the allied armies 
retired from Flanders & Brabant ! ! ! 

Monday, July 14. I read this day in all the papers 
" yesterday Mr. Pitt with a party of his friends dined 
with several members of both houses of parliament at 
Mr. Dundas's villa at Wimbledon." The air no doubt 
blew fresher on them, from the consideration that his 
next door neighbour was sent to spend his summer a 
close prisoner in the tower ; & they might contemplate 
with luxury the forlorn condition of my poor disconsolate 
girls. " For thee fair freedom, welcome all the past." 

Sunday, July 20. Walking about my room I accident- 
ally stopped for a minute looking out of my window at 
a boat on the Thames. The wharf was full of people 
and to my surprize they all together suddenly pulled off 
their hats to me ; this is the first time that such a cir- 
cumstance has happened, though at different times 
different individuals have done it as they passed. They 
repeated it two or three times ; I was forced to bow to 
them, and immediately retired from the window. 

Monday, July 21, 1794. Mr. Clive visited me. A most 
unpleasant story about Mr. Frost and his behaviour to 
my maid. It has much distressed my family. The maid 
is gone, and a stranger come in her place. Mr. Frost has 
very properly been refused admittance to my house. 
The villains who have taken me from my family without 
the slightest pretence ! If there were not a Hell, it 
would be an impeachment of Providence. 

Tuesday, July 22. The papers tell us we are to be tried 
at the Old Bailey in September. 

Thursday, July 24, 1794. I have worked hard with my 
Chaucer. There are 40 Warders, but only 20 attend ; 
the other 20 have leave of absence. Ten have the care 
of the gate. 

Friday, July 25. I have this day been ten weeks in 
close custody. In this so close custody I have had time 
to review my life that is passed ; and I cannot find any 
one action that I have committed, any word that I have 
written, any syllable that I have uttered, or any single 
thought that I have entertained, of a political nature, 
which I wish either to conceal or to recall. 

Saturday, July 26. Kinghorn tells me that Joyce has 
permission to walk about the Tower. Kinghorn repeats 
to me again, that he has orders to sit close to me, & 
to hear every word that I speak to my surgeon. Mr. Olive 
visited me. Kinghorn close whilst operation. 

Monday, July 28. Wallace told, me that Governor 
Vernon, when he appointed him to assist Kinghorn, 
told Wallace he was to stand close & listen to every 
word ; & that if any Visitor, wife, child or other, spoke 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8t*s.xi.FEi,6,'97, 

low or spoke seditiously or any thing improper, Wallace 
should take them away & turn them out. So these 
Gaolers & Warders are made judges of sedition, Miser- 
able England 1 ! 

Friday, Aug. 1. I have this day been eleven weeks in 
close custody ; at this hot season & uncommonly hot 
summer in one room day & night; the same room for all 
occasions natural, &c., without a possibility of conjectur- 
ing charge. 

Sunday, Aug. 3. I applied through Kinghorn to the 
Governour tbat Mould, my landlord, might continue to 
attend me, giving my reasons of more cleanliness & 
comfort. Kinghorn tells me the Governour had no 
objection, but would send for Warders & ask their choice, 
as he would give them no subject to complain, for they 
got about 14 shillings a week at gate, & are allowed 17 
shillings for attending prisoners. Warders on application 
to them chose to attend me by rotation weekly. They 
always dine with me. The Governour therefore directed 
their choice to govern. I am much obliged to the 
Governour, who promised me every indulgence in his 
power when first I entered the Tower ! 

Monday, Aug. 4. I asked Kinghorn if I was permitted 
to go to the Record Office. He would ask the Governour. 
He came afterwards to tell me that no person was at any 
time permitted to see it without an order from the 
Secretary of State; that the Governour had not yet 
seen it. 

Tuesday, Aug. 5. Kinghorn tells me Governour will 
see me in a few days. Dr. Pearson visited me ; brought 
me Zoonomia by Dr. Darwen. Tells me that Dr. De 
Sails expressed his astonishment at the supposition that 
I was an enemy to King & Lords : for that he (Dr. De 
Salis) was present at the Crown & Anchor, when they 
hooted me for defending the Constitution & Government 
of England, by Kings, Lords & Commons. This was 
when Newman was Sheriff, who threatened me upon 
Sheridan's motion : to which I wished an amendment 
lest Sheridan's too general approbation of French revolu- 
tion should mislead men. Not obtaining amendment I 
made a separate subsequent motion & carried it. Quod 
vide. Major Cartwright has been refused (permission) 
by Privy Council to visit me. Mr. Bosville applied for 
permission & (was) refused unless he would declare upon 
his honour he had some serious business with me. 

G. J. W. 

(To be continued.) 

OPHELIA. Whence Shakespeare derived this 
name for the lady of our love and pity in * Hamlet ' 
I am unable to ascertain. I suppose there is no 
other origin for it than the Greek wc/jeAia, but it 
would be interesting to know if it was borne by 
any lady in history or fiction before Shakespeare 
made it immortal and popularized it as a baptismal 
name for his countrywomen of succeeding genera- 
tions. The only instance known to me of its use 
prior to his time is in the 'Arcadia* of Jacopo 
Sannazaro, who bestows it on one of the herd folk 
whom he introduces into his pictures of pastoral 
life. Ofelia (such is the Italian form) first appears 
in prosa iv. without indication of sex, but in 
prosa ix. masculinity is declared in the words, " II 
nostro Ofelia, offeso da tanta salvatichezza, si come 
colui che piacevolissimo era e gratioso," &c. Of 
Ofelia's musical ability we have evidence in prosa iv., 
and the " salvatichezza " which now offends him is 

the behaviour of a goatherd who, surprised by his 
fellow peasants discoursing sweet music to his herd 
with lyre and song, hides his lyre and ceases sing- 
ing in resentment at being disturbed. It may 
console those who regret that the name was first 
given in literature to a male shepherd to reflect 
that he was no churl. F. ADAMS. 

PROF. NICHOL'S POEMS. The author of ' Mona 
Maclean,' writing ' Halcyon Days/ a Glasgow 
story, in Blackivood for January, quotes two 
stanzas from Nichol's 'Donna Vera,' and names 
the book from which they are taken ' Theocritus 
and other Poems/ Of course, novelists and story- 
tellers take liberties with facts to adapt them to 
their fancies ; but as no purpose can possibly be 
served by change of name in this case there seems 
no reason why it should have been made. The 
title of Prof. Nichol's volume is, of course, ' The 
Death of Themistocles and other Poems.' 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

BISHOPS' WIGS. A recent inquiry concerning 
the time and manner in which bishops of the 
Church of England were relieved of the wig, 
which is so conspicuous an object in seventeenth 
and eighteenth century portraits of bishops, has 
suggested my sending to *N. & Q.,' for the use of 
future inquirers, a few notes and extracts which 
were collected a year or two ago. In the * Life of 
Bishop Sumner of Winchester ' reference may be 
found to this part of the episcopal costume. Under 
the date 19 May, 1826, when describing the con- 
firmation of his appointment to the see of Llandaff, 
the bishop wrote : 

"On this occasion I sallied out for the first time 
equipped in my wig, though without the loss of my 
hair, as I have reserved to myself the comfort of wearing 
it for these last two days. On Sunday morning it 
finally falls, and you must prepare your eyes for a trans- 
mogrified head on your return. However I am more and 
more convinced of the propriety of it, and you will be 
soon reconciled to the sight of it." 

Ten days later, in another letter, he informed his 
wife that his wig was " admitted on all hands to 
be a good one of the kind," and that opinions as 
to its effect upon him were various. *' My head," 
he continued, 

"is now becoming a little more accustomed to it, and I 
have less the sensation of feeling it always in a pillory." 
'Life of Charles Richard Sumner,' D.D.,' by the Rev. 
G. H. Sumner, chap. vii. 

Dr. Bagot, on his preferment to the see of 
Oxford, made an attempt to obtain dispensation 
from the custom which made the wig a part of the 
episcopal dress. In a letter to Bishop Blomfield, 
dated 3 Aug., 1829, Mr. Lyttelton referred witl 
some humour to this attempt, saying : 

"A wig-question, in which your Lordship is con- 
cerned, and your name confidently appealed to, has 
fallen under my notice during my stay here with my 

S. XI. FEE, 6, '9?.] 



friend, the newly-appointed, and yet wigless, Bishop of 
Oxford : and before I leave his house, I think I cannot 
do better than at once to refer the matter to you, and to 
beg you to acquaint me, or him (when you meet him, 
which I understand you will in a few weeks) with your 
opinion, which will be [final, on the subject in debate. 
The enclosed document will at ouce show your Lordship 
the important nature of this capital controversy ; and I 
will say no more upon it, than that as I wish heartily 
well to the heads of the Church, I sincerely hope it may 
be settled to their advantage and comfort." 

What the document here mentioned was does 
not appear, but Dr. Bagot had to submit himself 
to the process alluded to in Bishop Sumner's corre- 
spondence, and it was not until after the accession 
of William IV. that royal sanction was given to a 
discontinuance of use of the wig by bishops. The 
manner in which this was brought about is 
described in the late Bishop of Colchester's 
memoir of his father, Bishop J. C. Blomfield. Sir 
George Sinclair, we are told, happened to be at 
Fulham Palace just before paying a visit to the 
king at Brighton, and asking whether the bishop 
had any message to send, he received a reply which 
was meant as a jocular allusion to the extreme heat 
of the weather. " You may present my duty to 
His Majesty," said the prelate, 

" and say that at this tropical season I find my episcopal 
wig a serious encumbrance, and that I hope he will not 
consider me guilty of a breach of Court etiquette, if I am 
induced to lay it aside." 

Intending to amuse the king, Sir George repeated 
what had been said. The message was taken 
seriously, and drew forth the answer 

" Tell the Bishop that he is not to wear a wig on my 
account ; I dislike it as much as he does, and shall be 
glad to see the whole Bench wear their own hair." 

Bishop Blomfield seized the opportunity, discarded 
the wig, and was gradually imitated by his epis- 
copal brethren (' Memoirs of Bishop Blomfield,' 
i. 97). After a serious illness, in 1832, Bishop 
Sumner left off wearing his wig habitually, and 
allowed his hair to grow again ; but he continued 
its use for some years whenever he was performing 
episcopal functions. F. JARRATT. 

THE ETYMOLOGY OP "LANE." In the Peak of 
Derbyshire a lane is called a " leen," and occa- 
sionally, though rarely, a "lone.'' On the other 
hand, such a word as "pay," to discharge a debt 
is pronounced "pee," as, "He wilna pee may" 
(" He won't pay me"). In Leeds a lane is known as 
a " loin," and Yorkshire people sometimes speak, 
by way of a joke, of a Leeds man as a " Lades 
loiner," i.e., a Leeds man who lives in a lane. A 
road in Morley, near Leeds, is known as Scatcher 
Loin. A long, straight road, with no hedges or 
walla on either side, which runs across the moors 
between Ringinglow and Fox House, near Sheffield, 
is known as the Long Line. 

One would expect the form "loin" to point 
back to a short o, and in that case the older form 

would be " Ion " or " lone." The first of these 
forms is to be found in Old Frisian, and the second 
In Middle English. But is it not possible that 
the Derbyshire pronunciation has preserved the 
right form of the word ? If so, " leen " represents 
a long i, as in Lat. Imea, a string or line. I have 
a reference to Hyginus, * De Limit.,' pp. 151, 152, 
ed. Goes, where Imea is used in the sense of a 
boundary-line or narrow path separating single 
fields. If "shire," "shore," and "share" are 
allied words, are not " line," " lone," and " lane " 
also allied? Compare " strind," a string, in my 
Sheffield Glossary,' with "strine" or "strind," 
a ditch. S. 0. ADDY. 

ST. DISTAFF'S DAY. In the calendar of 
' Whitaker's Almanack ' for the present year there 
is the entry for 7 January, the day after the 
Epiphany, "St. Distaffs Day." I suppose the 
object is to remind us of a custom which has 
become obsolete, though it may be that the name 
is still used in some parts of England. If such 
is the case, I should like to know what counties 
still retain the name, and whether the day is in 
any way kept up. I am not asking for any in- 
formation about " Plough Monday." In Herrick's 
'Hesperides' there is a poem on * Saint Dis- 
taffs Day,' in which you are reminded that 
Partly worke and partly play 
Ye must on S. Distaffs day. 

But says Herrick : 

If the Maides a-spinning goe, 
Burne the flax, and fire the tow. 

Afterwards, in retaliation, the maids have their 

turn : 

Bring in pailes of water then, 
Let the maides bewash the men. 

Are there any allusions in literature to this 
practice subsequent to Herrick's time? In 
Grosart's * Herrick,' 1876, vol. iii. p. 55, there is 
the following note : 

" ' I have not hitherto met with any record of this 
saint, nor was I aware that such ever occurred in our 

calendar St. Distaff is perhaps only a coinage of our 

poets, to designate the day, when the Christmas vacation 
being over, good housewives, with others, resumed their 
usual employment.' N. Good Dr. Nott is perhaps too 
absurdly matter-of-fact. Probably St. Distaff was a 
piece of rustic witticism." 


After the lapse of perhaps forty years, I have 
lately read this romance for the second time, and 
have been struck by the evidence it affords of the 
comparative antiquity of some of the most fondly 
cherished solecisms of the modern novelist and 
leader-writer. I have not found chaperone or 
dishabille in it, but locale, in the sense of a place 
or locality, occurs more than once, and it seems 
evident that Lord Lytton, like half of the writers 
of the present day, was ignorant of the facts that 



S. XI. F EB. 6, '97. 

locale does not exist as a substantive in French, 
that as an adjective it is the feminine of local, 
and that, if it is necessary to use it at all, the 
substantive local expresses the required meaning. 

In book iii. chap. xii. one of the characters is 
described as lying " in a miserable grabat, or 
garret." Grabat does not mean a garret, but a 
pallet bed, or any bed of a mean and cheap 
description. At the end of book iv. chap, xi., "a 
dormeuse-and-four drove up to the inn door to 
change horses." The meaning of dormeuse is 
evidently a travelling carriage in which one could 
sleep comfortably ; but the word seems to have 
become quite obsolete. 

Can any reader of * N. & Q.' favour me with 
the words of the " Bacchanalian hymn n referred 
to in book iii. chap. iv. , which began : 
Oh ! have you e'er heard of the famed Captain Wattle ? 

I cannot find it in any song-book to which I have 
access. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

" BALDACCHINO. " In 'A Student's Pastime,' 
319, Prof. Skeat says: "I suppose the word 
baldacchino is related to Arab, baldat, a city." The 
It. word baldacchino is properly the name of a silk 
stuff, so called because it was manufactured at 
Bagdad. The It. form for the word Bagdad was 
Baldacco. This is the explanation given in Hatz- 
feld's ' Diet.' (.. " Baldaquin "), and in the ' New 
English Dictionary ' (s. v. " Baldachin "). It is 
also given in Littr^'s great dictionary. The change 
of gd into Id in Romanic is not without analogy. 
It occurs in other cases, cp. It. smeraldo, emerald, 
with Lat. smaragdus, Gr. cr/i,apay8os. We may 
also compare It. sdlma, a load, a burden, which is 
the same word as Gr. o-ay/^a, a pack-saddle. 


TAGU, OF BOUGHTON. The following letter is 
copied from the collection of Montagu MSS. at 
Ditton Park (see 8 th S. vii. 303). For particulars 
concerning the writer see 8 td S. vii. 201. Her 
daughter Elizabeth was the first wife of Thomas, 
second Earl of Stamford. At the time of the 
desertion of her by her husband, referred to in this 
letter, she would be only sixteen years of age, if 
the year of her birth is correctly given as 1659. 

This particular matrimonial quarrel must have 
been satisfactorily arranged, for this wife certainly, 
after the date of this letter, bore her husband two 
sons and a daughter (?). The original letter is torn 
in places : 

Dec' y e 15: 1675. 

MY LORD, I have not troubled your Lor pp with 
account of my Lord Stanford's follys & impertinences, 
because they are so many for a letter, or for anybody's 
patience, so that I will only tell your Lor p P in short, 
that after his uncle had made him so imprudent, as to dair 
fall out with me, he haa made him Leave his wife with- 

out telling Mr why he Left hir, or whither he went, so 
that she must shift for hirself, as I mem to do, for I am 

extremely to have the settlement I haue made of my 

Lord Stanford's estate and so my daughter to haue 

nothing, unless I will quietly give Mr. Augetcll* pay ; the 
inheritance, w ch I am sure now he shall never haue, 
unless he can get it by forse, I do not doubt but that 
the settlement is very good, how ever my daughter shall 
know that hazard for hirself w ch I do not take to be near 
so great as that I haue ventured for hir. 

My Lord, if my Lord Stanford shall haue the con- 
fidence to wait on your Lor pp I hope you will be pleased 
to Resent his ingratitude to me, so much as to give him 
but a very cold wellcome, which he deserues upon his 
own account as well as upon mine, for I never mett with 
such a pittifull creatur. I ask your LorPP' 8 pardon for this 
trouble who am 

Your Lordship's dutifull and most 

obedient daughter 


The married life of Lord Stamford and his iirst 
wife seems to have been a particularly unhappy 
one. Famfly tradition says that in a fit of temper, 
caused by her husband's ill treatment, she set fire 
to the curtains of her bed, and thus caused the fire 
at Bradgate House. 

Nichols, in his * History of Leicestershire/ vol. iii, 
p. 679, says : 

"About this period (1694) the house at Bradgate was 
purposely set on fire (according to one tradition) by the 
then Countess of Stamford. The fire began in the North- 
west tower, in which the noble earl then elept, and 
where the ends of the burned beams are still to be seen. 
Only a small part of the house, however, was injured, 
there being a large reservoir of water on that tower, 
supplied by leaden pipes across the forest from a spring 
in Lea-wood, about two miles distant. The countess, 
with her infant daughter, Lady Diana, narrowly escaped 
with their lives. The lady, as appears by a print of her. 
engraved by Thompson, from a painting by Lely, was a 
remarkably handsome woman; but after so unpardon- 
able an attempt, a separation took place ; and his lord- 
ship married secondly, about 1695, Mary, daughter and 
coheir of Joseph Maynard, Esq." 


Weekley, Kettering. 

FLOWER CUSTOM. I extract the following from 
the Pontefract and Castleford Express of 4 Jan. : 

" Less than sixty years ago it was the custom at Birkin 
for the clerk to present the rector with a nosegay of 
flowers before the beginning of the morning service on 
Christmas Day. This nosegay the rector carried with 
him wherever he went, to desk, pulpit, or altar, during 
the service. Is that practice still observed] It cer- 
tainly was in the time of the Kev. George Alderson, who 
was rector in 1835 ; but we suspect it, too, has gone with 
the rest." 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

"LAYMAN." (See 8 th S. xi. 4.) Let a protest 
be entered against the use of this word of a non- 
professional person of any sort. Such use is of 
modern and newspaper origin. See * N. & Q.,' 

7"> S. v. 193. 

W. C. B. 

* Mr, Augetell Grey, the uncle referred to above. 

* S, XI. FEE, 6, '97.] 



following lines from the Daily News of 30 Jan. 
will be of interest to your contributors : 

" We noticed the other day that the letter D in the 
great 'Oxford Dictionary' had now been completed. 
The following jeu cTesprit has been addressed by Prof. 
Skeat to Dr. Murray on the occasion of his beginning 
the letter H : 

I 'm glad that you 've done so I hear you say 

With words that begin with D, 

And have left H. B. to be Glad and Gay 

With the Glory that waits on G : 

And you laugh Ha ! Ha ! defying fate, 

As you tackle the terrible aspirate, 

The H that appals the Cockney crew, 

Lancashire, Essex, and Shropshire too, 

For they cannot abide the Hunter's Horn, 

And hold e'en Heavenly Hosts in scorn : 

And I fear there are some that can scarcely say 

Why you didn't give Hat when you worked at A, 

Whose utterance leaves some doubt between 

The human Hair and an Air serene, 

The Harrow that creeps and the Arrow that flie?, 

The Heels where chilblains are wont to rise 

And the nice fat Eels that are baked in pies ! 

We all rejoice on this New Year's Day 
To hear you are fairly upon your way 
To Honour and Happiness, Hope and Health 
I would you were nearer to Worldly Wealth. 

'H. B.,' of course, is Mr. Henry Bradley, who is editing 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

{ BRAAL." Jamieson gives this as a Forfar 
word, occurring in the phrase "There's nae a 
braal to the fore," i. ., " There's not a fragment 
remaining." Is the word still in use in any part 
of Scotland 1 THE EDITOR OF THE 

The Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

tell me who was the " traveller of honoured name " 
who, about 1800-10, wrote as to America : 

Oh but for such, Columbia's days were done, 
Bank without ripeness, &c. ? 

' Martin Chuzzlewit,' chap. xvi. 


-Nine pieces were sold at the sale of the goods of 
Charles ]. for 4,4292. 5s., described as Arras hang- 
ings of the history of the Acts of the Apostles. 
What was the subsequent history of this set 1 


of your readers tell me the reason why it has been 
found convenient to refer to the time of high or 
low tide at Condon Bridge, in order, tp calculate 


the time of high or low water at any port in England 
or Wales 1 Why London Bridge especially ? 


COIN. I have in my possession an article of 
which I should be glad to know the name and 
value. It is not a coin proper, but appears to be 
intended to represent value for some definite 
purpose or other. It was found by a fisherman in 
the sand off Southwold, in Suffolk .after a heavy 
storm, at a place where coins, rings, and similar 
small articles sometimes turn up after stormy 
weather, some probably lost by visitors in the 
summer time, others (mostly coins ancient or 
modern) washed out of the cliffs or cast up from 
wrecks. The material is brass, or some metal 
closely resembling brass. In shape it is round 
and flat, its diameter is exactly one inch, and 
thickness one-eighth of an inch, the weight 9 dwt. 
12 grs. There is a small beading towards the 
edge, but the outer rim is flat and smooth. It has 
the words "Thirty-six shillings" stamped upon 
it in plain modern letters within a kind of shield 
or scroll. Both sides are alike in all respects. 
There is a similar article in Southwold with the 
inscription "Seventy -two shillings," and just 
double the weight of the former, which it closely 
resembles. The owner found it in a collection of 
coins, but knows nothing more about it. 


"INVULTATION." Is there any work dealing 
with the art of invultatio, or moulding waxen 
images for magical purposes 1 Lenormant, writing 
of Chaldsean magic, says : 

" Nous avons done ici 1'enchantement par des paroles 
que recite le sorcier, ce que les Latins appelaient carmen, 
d'ou est venu notre mot ckarme, 1'emploi d' l oeuvres,' de 
pratiques mysterieusea et d'objets ensorceles qui pro- 
duisent un effet irresistible, pratiques dont une des 
principales est I'envoutement," &c. ' La Magie chez les 
Chaldeens,' Paris, 1874, p. 57. 

In Mr. N. B. Denny's ' Folk-lore of China ' it is 
stated that the Chinese are proficient in the art 
of invultatio, and we know that Western witches, 
high and low, in castles and cottages, practised 
this devil's art. Both Horace and Virgil refer to 
it, and it seems to have had a world- wide vogue. 

The life-size waxen images offered by votaries 
at the shrines of saints seem to have been a sancti- 
fied adaptation of the practice of the sorcerers. 

I cannot find invultatio in any Latin dictionary 
to which I have access, and envodtement in French 
dictionaries seems to be imperfectly translated by 
bewitching. In no English dictionary can I find 
invultation, but Funk & Wagnalls have invul- 
tuation. What authority is there for this ? 


YORK.' A work was published in 1830 by Sir N. 
Harris Nicolas, entitled ' Privy Purse Expenses of 
Elizabeth of York,' being a copy of the account 



[8 g. xi. FEB. 6, '97. 

book of her treasurer or secretary, Richard Decons, 
edited with notes. Will you kindly, through your 
valuable periodical, have me informed where the 
original document which Sir Harris copied is now 
deposited ? I am anxious to refer to it. E. D. 

"NoN SINE PULVERE." What is the locus 
classicus of this phrase? I think the Dean of 
Canterbury used to be very fond of it. Q. V. 
["Sine pulvere," Hor., 'Epist.,' i. i. 51.] 

beginning of the World to this Present Day ; in 
an Apt and Pleasant Allegory.' The second edition 
of this work, by B. K(each), appeared in 1683. 
What is the date of the first edition ? Bunyan's 
' Pilgrim's Progress ' was published in 1678. 
There is not much similarity between the two, 
but some of the names given to the characters 
in the ' Travels ' suggest the more famous work, 
e. g., Legalist, Faintheart, Fearman, Worldly 
Wiseman, and Apollyon. 0. C. B. 

exist of Christopher Whichcott, Governor of 
Windsor Castle, temp. Civil War ? 


ing production in England of Leoncavallo's * Chat- 
terton ' reminds me of a query that I ought to have 
sent from Eome in March. The opera was just 
being brought out ; and, in glancing casually over 
the cast, I noticed among the characters "un vecchio 
quacquero." Mr. Birrell, in his excellent essay on 
' Authors in Court ' (' Res Judicatse,' ed. 1896, 233), 
remarks that " a sailor on horseback, or a Quaker 
at the play, suggests that incongruity which is the 
soul of things humorous." The " vecchio quacquero " 
on the Roman playbill tickled me and a Friend of 
my acquaintance in an even greater degree. I 
should be glad to know whether this is the first 
instance in which a Quaker is a character in opera 
specially Italian opera. Q. V. 

"Li MAISIE HIERLEKIN." (See Derivation of 
' Harlequin,' 8 th S. x. 472). At the moment I am 
unable to refer to Prof. Skeat's ' Dictionary ' as to 
the O.F. phrase "li maisie hierlekin," as quoted 
by MR. JOHN HEBB at the above reference ; but is 
that phrase old French ; and, if so, in what French 
author may it be found ? The Maisne Hellequin, 
or household of the evil knight Hellequin, seems 
to have been a company of knights and barons 
condemned for their evil deeds to wander till 
doomsday through forests and waste places. Their 
horses and dogs were demons in animal form, and 
the most wicked among them was doomed to take 
the form of the hunted animal. Perhaps "li 
maisie hierlekin " may be a dialectal variant ; but in 
any case I should be glad to know more of the 
wicked knight Hellequin, and of any proved or 

probable connexion of his name with the Italian 
arlechino, said to have entered Franco as arlequin 
in the sixteenth century. JAMES HOOPER. 


OLDEST PARISH REGISTER. What is the oldest 
known parish register in England ; and was any 
kind of register kept before 1536 ? 


CORNISH HURLING. Hunt's description of 
hurling in his * Popular Romances of the West of 
England ' and the account of the game which was 
given in the Sketch a few weeks ago both show 
that this sport nearly resembles the Lincolnshire 
hood-game described in Folk-lore, December, 
1896, and that it is also very similar to the ball- 
play between neighbouring parishes till lately 
well known in France. What were the days 
ecclesiastical festivals or otherwise on which 
hurling was usually commenced while it was still 
general in Cornwall ? And what local differences 
occurred in the manner of playing ? It appears 
to be almost certain that the ball-games between 
certain districts, when traditionally connected 
with religious festivals and churches, are Christian 
adaptations of heathen ceremonies relating to the 
sun (Folk-lore, vii. 343, 347). Can any reader of 
* N. & Q. J inform me whether other forms of the 
hurling are traceable in the United Kingdom, and 
whether many instances of such games have been 
noted on the Continent ? M. F. 

LICENCES TO EMIGRATE, 1635. Were all com- 
pelled to take out these licences ? as I fail to find 
William Hersey, who settled at Hingham, Mass., 
1635. He seems to have been related to the 
Gilman, or Gillman family in England, and later 
on in New England. Are there any other documents 
likely to give any clue to his place of embarkation ? 

A. C. H. 

VAN ACKER OR ACKERE. Any information 
regarding Francis and Nicholas van Acker or 
Ackere will be acceptable to me. Who were they ; 
and how were they related ? In the * State Papers 
(Dom.) ' is a letter dated " in Fulham parish," 
2 Nov., 1625, from Francis van Ackere to Sir 
Robert Pye, stating that he was not in any way able 
to advance the great sum of money solicited on a 
Privy Seal and that he had been "clean driven 
out of his trade," having had great losses. I find 
Nicholas was living at Fulham in 1639. 


KNIGHTLET SMITH. According to Nichol's 
' History of Leicestershire,' Knightley Smith, of 
Leire, who married Darrell Jervis, died in 1722 ; 
he had a sister Susan, who died 1792. In a foot- 
note to the Jervis pedigree, in the same work, it is 
stated that after the death of this Susan Smith the 
property was given away from the family as a 
punishment to her brother Richard for marrying a 

S. XI. FEB. 6, ' 



wife with a small fortune. Is anything known of 
the descendants of this Richard ? In July, 1759, 
there was baptized at St. George's-in-the-East, a 
Richard Knightley Smith (afterwards at the Blue- 
coat School, 1770-1774), son of Joseph and Eliza- 
beth Smith. Joseph, who is described as citizen 
and carpenter and deputy coal-meter, died in 1761. 
This looks like a descendant. Perhaps some 

reader of ' N. & Q.' could supply the connecting 



"DYMOCKED."- A friend in Lincolnshire writes 
that the gardener says, " It is a pety the tates are 
so dy mocked." Will some kind Lincolnshire 
orthographer dissect this provincialism and impale 
the bits in the pages of * N. & Q.' TENEBR^E. 

SIR W. RALEGH'S LIBRARY. Is it known where 
any of the volumes are preserved that 


formerly in the possession of Sir Walter Ralegh ? 
After his execution, in 1618, many (all ?) of them 
were taken possession of by James I., and pro- 
bably remained in the royal library until its 
dispersion on the death of Charles I. 

Salterton, Devon. 

existence any lists of the 3,500 Nonconformist 
ministers who accepted and were licensed by the 
Act of Indulgence, 1672 ; and where may they be 
seen ? I should like to see the Hampshire list. 


Boscombe, Hanta. 

CENTURY. Where can I find accounts of the 
society at the Hague and also at Osnaburg in the 
middle of the eighteenth century ? 

Swallowfield, Reading. 

' HISTORY op ESSEX.' Is Salmon's * History 
of Essex ' still in print ; and, if so, will you be good 
enough to say from what publisher it is obtainable ? 


[This unfinished work of Nathaniel Salmon, of which 
nineteen numberg were issued, can only, we believe, be 
obtained second-hand, A copy, bound by C. Lewis, gold 
at Sotheby's, in April, 1889, for 41. 6s.] 

STOWE MSS. I should be glad to know where 
the Irish MSS. offered by auction at the sale of 
the library of Stowe House in 1849 now are. 


' MIDDLEMARCH.' Has it been noted that this 

made-up name for a manufacturing town in the 

Hands, which George Eliot took as a title for 

famous novel, was probably suggested by 

Middle Mercia, the latter word having, no doubt, 

once been pronounced Marcia ? 

S. Woodford, A> 

(8 th S. x. 333, 366, 421, 518.) 

In the last page referred to, " It is rarely that 
one of them emerges " is condemned on the ground 
that, if "It" is struck off, and the first two words 
of the decapitated sentence are put at its end, the 
result is the inadmissible "That one of them 
emerges is rarely." But a formula of speech is not 
to be thought the worse of because, after the loss 
of its head, dismemberment, and the rest, it does 
not come up smiling. Even where nothing is 
omitted from a sentence, its refusing to bear 
transposition of its clauses is no certain proof of 
its being amiss, that is to say, unidiomatic ; for 
idiom is here our concern. Thus, "Many is 
the man that wisely thinks so " and ' * His is 
an assertion that I do not depend on," are 
phrases liable to no censure, in spite of "The 
man that thinks so is many " and ' * His is an 
assertion on that I do not depend.'' To philo- 
logists of every calibre, it, in various connexions, 
has been a source of miscarriage. For instance, 
in the opinion of Dr. Johnson, " It is I ; be not 
afraid," though established for many centuries, 
has "an appearance of barbarism." If, for the 
ghost of a reason which has been evoked, " It is 
rarely that one of them emerges " is to be cashiered, 
" It is reluctantly that a scholar measures swords, 
metaphorically, with a sciolist" is an expression 
belonging to a numerous category which must be 
cashiered likewise. 

One of the impugners of the locution in ques- 
tion writes : " Of course, if we allow ' it is rarely ' 
to be correct, then we may at once allow the use 
of any other adverb with the substantive verb in 
predication." Very different is the judgment 
necessitated by any but a most superficial exam- 
ination of usage. 

Adverbs in great abundance, though far short 
of universally, may, indeed, hold the position of 
" rarely " in a sentence framed on the model of 
"It is rarely that one of them emerges." 

Among such adverbs are most of the temporal 
and spatial classes, simple and complex, as now, 
then, again, sometimes, once, always, for ever, 
often, seldom, rarely, lately, betimes, yesterday, 
to-day, to-morrow, between whiles, last week, next 
year, without cessation, here, there, everywhere, 
anywhere, nowhere, above, below, backwards, for- 
wards, behind, in front, and so on ; exceptions 
being while, when, whenever, whensoever, where, 
wherever, also ago and back, unless qualified, 
and probably some others. As is still the case, in 
slipshod style, with now and then, seldom and 
often were, of old, both adverbs and quasi-ad- 
jectives, but are, at present, only adverbs. 

We are by no means to stop here, however. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s,xi, FEB. 6/97. 

" It is impatiently that I expect my friend," " It 
was orally that he communicated with me, not by 
letter," " It will be conditionally, not absolutely, 
that I consent to your proposal," " It would be 
unwillingly that we should meet," "It should 
be earnestly that you protest, not lukewarmly." 
Who will arraign these sentences as false English ? 
A host more to match them any one can devise 
for himself. 

"It was not pretendedly, but truly, that he 
admired them " is unobjectionable ; but otherwise 
is "It is truly that I was there." In the first 
sentence, " truly " goes, in mental construction, 
with "admired"; in the second, the word required 
to go with " was " is "true." 

Yet the second of these sentences would once 
have passed muster, inasmuch as, in former ages, 
the rights of the adverb were not so restricted as 
they are in our time. Witness the following 
quotations, selected from a mass at hand which 
would occupy several pages : 

"Sodenly from the lieuen descended great violence 
and plenty of rayne-water that it was more than suffi- 
ciently to all the army, a^wel to men as beestes." Alex- 
ander Barclay, tr. Sallust's ' Jugurtha,' Pyneon's first ed. 
(c. 1520), fol. 58 r. 

" The duke of Bretayne, who was pesably I his owne 
countre," &c. Lord Berners, tr, Froissart (1523), vol. i. 
p. 458 (ed. 1812). 

"The things which I found difficult and impossible 
shall be easelie for me to accomplished' William 
Painter, ' Palace of Pleasure ' (1556-7), vol. i. p. 402 
(ed. 1813). 

" All these things are easly to tel, but very hard to 
suffer." Sir Thomas North, tr. Guevara's ' Diall of 
Princes ' (1557), fol. 400 (ed. 1582). 

"Touching their affections of feare and sadnesse, 
sufficiently hath bene saide before."- Timothy Bright, 
' A Treatise of Melancholic ' (1586), p. 128. 

" His ccelestiall spirit was more willingly to beleeve 

concerning himselfe," &c. Sir Robert le Grys. tr. 
< Paterculus ' (1632), p. 235. 

"All other arts are but ministerially to him." Sir 
Kenelm Digby, ' Two Treatises ' (1644), vol i. A 4 v. 
(ed. 1645). 

" No man can give a rational account why so great 
value should be set upon a Diamond, but because it 
looks prettily and is lasting." Bp. Jeremy Taylor. 
Ductor Dubitantium ' (1660), p. 226. 

" Things that look the most horridly and reproach- 
fully." Rev. Dr. Henry More, 'Divine Dialogues' (1668), 
vol. ii. p. 455. 

But, in later days, good writers have not ex- 
pressed themselves as below, unless off their 
guard : 

" The Highland girl made tea, and looked and talked 
not inelegantly." Dr. Johnson, ' Letter to Mrs. Thrale.' 
Sept. 21, 1773. 

' The eyes of people who read and write a great deal 
not only come to feel painfully, but vision is at length 
impaired." Dr. Thomas Beddoes, 'Hygeia ' (1802), v. 59. 

'The leather from the stiff old jerkin will look queerly 
in its patches on the frayed satin." W. S. Landor (1824) 
Works '(1846), vol. i. p. 155. 

For good reasons, possibly, Dr. Johnson, as just 
quoted, was not writing quite at ease. It may be 

that his aim was to be acceptably meiotic, and 
that his breach of idiom arose from a flurried effort 
to realize that aim. Provided his nose was more 
serviceable than his eyes, he would not have said, 
in an unperturbed mood of mind, of a rose, " It 
smells sweetly." F. H. 


At 3 rd S. viii. 6, under the heading ' Adverbs 
as Predicates,' a correspondent draws attention 
to the predicative use of " very rarely" in 
a sentence which he quotes from the Saturday 
Review of 10 June, 1865. It is unnecessary to 
repeat the opinions of the correspondent in ques- 
tion, but as a matter of fact there can be no doubt 
that in recent times the employment of certain 
adverbs in an adjectival sense has become a 
common practice, and thus affords a living illus- 
tration of the growth of language. This is espe- 
cially the case with adverbs of time, and, notwith- 
standing the logical solecism which is involved in 
the predicative use of an adverb, it may be doubted 
if it would have seemed peculiar to the most rigid 
grammarian if, instead of the sentence running 
" It is very rarely that one of them emerges," it 
had been written " It is not often that one of them 
emerges." The first adverb to be employed ad- 
jectivally was probably "well," when "I am 
well" was used elliptically for " I am feeling well," 
and as usage has now consecrated these and other 
equally ungrammatical expressions, it seems hope- 
less to expect a return to more circuitous forms. 


Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

MR. BAYNE lays down a rule of grammar and 
by it proves his contention. MR. BIRKBECK TERRY 
lays down the same rule, but admits some excep- 
tions, the case in point, however, not being one of 
them. Why not? I ask, if the form of language 
objected to is in general use, as is certainly the 
case. If we do not wish to be considered pedantic 
we must fall into line, and if rarely has by some 
mysterious process of evolution come to be gene- 
rally used, like often and seldom, in defiance of 
grammar, then, whatever regrets we may feel, it 
is waste of energy to beat the grammatical drum, 
for grammar will never prevail against custom. 


(8 th S. xi. 66). I published some remarks on this 
sphinx last year. If we knew her age at her death 
in 1771 something might be guessed. I do not 
think tbat Prince Charles called himself " Douglas " 
before 1744, at earliest, so a natural daughter of his 
would scarcely bear the name in 1745. If she was 
a young woman then, he was only twenty-five, and 
could not be her father. But James III. would 
never give his wife's names to a natural daughter 
of his own. Again, Charles solemnly denied that 

8"i S. XI. FEB. 6, '97. J 



he ever had any child at all, save the Duchess of 
Albany. The Duke of York is out of the question 
as a father. Probably the lady was either a 
harmless enthusiast, or a member, perhaps illegiti- 
mate, of a Jacobite family. Among such houses 
Clementina was a popular Christian name for 
girls. The owners of the medal bear, I believe, a 
very well-known Jacobite surname, and probably 
got the medal in the usual way. 


SIR HORACE ST. PAUL (8 th S. x. 356, 466, 500 ; 
xi. 53). The following remarks are an answer, in 
part, to the inquiries made by SELFPUC at the last 

1. The Northumberland estate of the St. Paul 
family was purchased by Robert St. Paul in the 
first half of last century ; he then acquired the 
adjoining estates of Ewart, Coupland, and Yeaver- 
ing, in Glendale, in that county. 

2. These St. Pauls were not the Scotch Pauls, 
but came from Worcestershire and Warwickshire. 

3. The first Sir Horace (1775 to 1840) was a 
personal friend of George IV. He was a colonel 
in the army, and took part in the Walcheren 
expedition. He was elected M.P. for Bridport 
in 1812, 1818, and 1820. He was made a baronet 
on 17 Nov., 1813. He inherited the title of Count 
of the Holy Eoman Empire from his father Horace, 
who fought in the Seven Years' War in the 
Austrian army, was colonel of horse, and was 
made count for his military services by the Em- 
peror Francis I. on 20 July, 1759. Sir Horace, 
the first baronet, his two brothers, and his sister 
were granted the privilege by George IV. of using 
their hereditary title of the Roman Empire in this 
country, and also their successors after them. The 
first Sir Horace was esteemed most effective and 
amuaing as a teller of stories, and very good com- 
pany generally. He was not born at Wooler, but 
in Paris, where his father was at the time secretary 
of the Embassy, and Marie Antoinette was his god- 

4. His granddaughter, Mrs. George Grey Butler, 
only child of the second baronet, now owns Ewart 

According to Debrett, Horace St. Paul, born 
1729, created Count of the Holy Roman Empire 
by patent dated Vienna, 1759, received R. L, 
to use title in this country, 1812. The present 
proprietor of Ewart Park, in right of his wife, is 
George Grey Butler (son of the late Canon Butler 
of Winchester and of the well-known Mrs. 
Josephine Butler), married 1893, Maria, daughter 
of Sir Horace St. Paul, second and last baronet. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

LAUNCESTON AS A SURNAME (8 tl1 S. vi. 348 ; 
ix. 78). Launceston as a title seems to be coming 
into favour with novelists and dramatists, for there 

can now be added to the instances already given 
at the above references the Duchess of Launceston 
and her son the Duke of Launceston as characters 
in Messrs. Woodgate and Berton's adaptation of 
Miss Marie Corelli's romance, l The Sorrows of 
Satan/ produced at the Shaftesbury Theatre on 
9 January. But the original query as to whether 
the surname of Phil Launceston, described in the 
Athenceum of 6 October, 1894, as " an Australian 
poet and a friend of Adam Lindsay Gordon's," 
was genuine or assumed, remains unanswered, and 
I should still be glad of a reply. DUNHEVED. 

11). Thanks. I refer not to a mere copy, but to 
a facsimile of the autograph letter ; see it in the 
book noted. P. S. P. CONNER. 

"Goo SAVE THE KING " (8 th S. x. 295, 417). 
The use of this phrase to express the " Vivat rex," 
occurs in Coverdale's version of the Bible in 1535. 
In 1 Kings (1 Sam. A. V.) x. 24, it is : " God 
save the new king." In the Geneva Bible and the 
Bishops' Bible this becomes " God save the King," 
with the marginal note, " Heb. , Let the King live." 
But in 2 Kings (2 Sam. A.V.) xvi, 16, it is, " God 
save the King, God save the King." Coverdale's 
use at 2 Kings (2 Sam.) xvi. 16, is, so far as these 
four versions are involved, the earliest use of the 
exact phrase ; in the former instance from the 
same book it is "the new king." 


Referring to MR. STILWELL'S reply, I am under 
the impression that the guard " presents arms" 
also to " Queen Victoria's keys"; or perhaps I 
should say, after having invoked a blessing on 
her most gracious Majesty. 


BLESSING THE FISHERIES (8 th S. x. 74, 143, 
226). The curious manner in which Heligolanders 
themselves bless their fishing will be found in 
Oetker's ' Helgoland : Schilderungen und Erorter- 
ungen,' Berlin, 1855. A buoy with a small anchor 
marks the beginning of the fishery ; to the anchor 
is attached the beginning of the fishing line ; as 
the buoy is thrown out by the Vorman, who is the 
youngest in the boat, he calls out, " Alleft !" an 
old untranslatable word, says Oetker, meaning to 
the fishers "urn, oder met Erlaubniss, von Gott 
den Segen zu erbitten," 

"Sobald der Schiffer oder erste Mann, der hinten am 
Ruder 1st, dea Vormanns Ruf hort, antwortet er : ' Liat 
skiitt un Gottea Namen ! d. b. lass scliiessen in Gottes 
Namen ! Zugleich Uberreicbt er den kleinen Anker, 
voran die Tonne mit dem Taue befestigt ist, dem 
zweiten Mann, welchem das Auswerfen der Angelleine 
obliegt, und ruft dabei : Anker ! Der zweite Mann 
antwortet ' Anker met Gott ! Ei komm wer met inoi 
Wer, en gudd Pang en gudd Skott, kloar Gesecht, en 
gudd Verstand, en gudd Verstand, en behiillen Gudd, en 
frei van Fasting, en frei van Mensken ! ' Das heisst : 
Anker mit Gott ! Ei komm wieder met schonen Wetter 



S. XI. FEE, 6, '97. 

und gutem Pang und gutem Stromzuge, mit klarem 
Gesicht, und guten Verstande und behaltenem Gut, frei 

von Festhaltung und frei von Mensclien ! Wenn der 

zweile Mann den Anker fallen Hisst, ruft er, Diar gungt 
er hen da geht er bin ! und der erste Mann liiftet den 
Hut oden Siidwester und betet : Herr, auf dein Wort ! 
Segn' Us Annernemmen ! "Pp. 202 et seq. 

This is only the beginning of the prescribed 
words hallowed by the associations of generations ; 
but to quote all would take too much space in 
'N. & Q.' Lindemann, in his 'Die Nordseeinsel, 
Helgoland,' 1889, gives his account in the same 
words. When all the lines are taken in, the 
skipper lifts his sou'wester, and says, "God be 
thanked for the take to-day ; to-morrow more "; or, 
in Frisian, "Gott sei Dank for dinnen dolleng ! 
maren mjiar." WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK. 

12, Sardinia Terrace, Glasgow. 

"PICKSOME" (8 th S. x. 516). The diction- 
naries of Halliwell-Phillipps and Wright give this 
word as used in Sussex, but with the meaning 
" hungry, peckish." Cooper's ' Sussex Glossary,' 
1853, however, has, " Pickish or Picksome^ dainty. 

" Picksome, hungry, Sussex " (Wright's ' Pro- 
vincial Dictionary '). ED, MARSHALL. 

This word, meaning " dainty," is given in the 
'Dictionary of Sussex Dialect.' Perhaps the 
woman came from that county, for the word is 
not given in the 'Dictionary of Kentish Dialect.' 

Wingham, Kent. 

I once heard this applied by a Welsh servant to 
an inmate of my own nursery, and well recollect 
being struck with the graphic word. 


OLD ARMINGHALL (8 th S. x. 473, 523). I see 
that MR. WALTER EYE queries the date on the 
door being 1487. I may have read it wrongly. 
He remarks that much of the work is old and 
removed from an earlier building, and that the 
added vine leaf and grape ornament is apparently 
Italian work of about 1600. According to Blome- 
field, 1600 was about the date of its erection by 
Nicholas Herne. If, therefore, this is the house 
that Herne built, may he not have added the 
Italian work 1 Since visiting Arminghall I found 
the following notice in 4 Excursions through Nor- 
folk,' vol. i. p. 47, published 1818 : 

"Arming Hall was built by the eldest son of 
Nicholas Herne, of Tibenham, in Norfolk, Clerk of 
the Crown. This seat was sold by Francis Herne, 
Esq., to Dame Elizabeth Pettus, who was the owner 
in Blomefield's time. Old Arming Hall, now a modern 
farmhouse, has a very curious doorway remaining 
which is worked in with the wall." 

Opposite is a view of the doorway of " Arminghall 
Old Hall, the property of the Earl of Rosebery," 
exactly as it atill exists. From these notices I 
concluded that Arming Hall and Old Arming 

Hall were two distinct houses, but from ME. 
HOOPER'S letter I infer that they were one and the 
same. A. M. EYTON. 

In my copy of ' Excursions through Norfolk,' 
the former owner has left a note concerning the 
ancient porch, which somewhat differs in the Latin 
inscription from that given by Miss EYTON on 
p. 473. That part of the note which differs is the 
following : 

" There is a Latin inscription on the door (unnoticed 
by Blomefield and Cotman) which would satisfy all 
enquiry, but there is much difficulty in deciphering it, as 
the words are abbreviated, and the letters not raised but 
sunk in the wood, having been formerly, I believe, inlaid 
with brass. From this inscription, however, have 
found a theory of my own, but as it is in issue with many 
of far greater pretentious, I shall offer it only as a sug- 
gestion. I would read the words thus : ' Orate pro 
anima Magistri Gulielmi Qui fecit fundari hoc monas- 
terium Anno Christi 1487.' The numerals of the date 
are peculiar, but are to be found in Dr. Wallis's 
' Algebra.' The 4 is represented by a part of the figure 

8, like the Greek abbreviation or (?) inverted, and 

the 7 resembles an inverted V (?)." 

I cannot make out the words or numbers to 
which I have put (?). Mr. Law, the owner, and 
first owner I should say, of my copy, made the 
note for his own satisfaction, for the writing is not 
very distinct. H. A. W. 

If MR. JAMES HOOPER will communicate with 
Mr. Thackeray Turner, the secretary of the Society 
for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, 9,Bucking- 
ham Street, W.O., London, giving him the facts 
of the case, the society will, I am sure, give him 
any assistance in its power, and will, if necessary, 
depute its local correspondent or some other 
competent person to examine and report upon the 
building, and advise what should be done. The 
society does not make any charge for its advice, 
but, as its means are limited, it expects to be 
repaid travelling expenses, which in the present 
instance would probably be insignificant. I may, 
perhaps, be allowed to observe that the society has 
been at considerable pains and expense in com- 
bating the proposed rebuilding of the west front 
of Peterborough Cathedral, and that the smallest 
donations to its funds would be peculiarly accept- 
able at the present time. The Dean and Chapter 
are touting for 11,OOOZ. for the purpose of pulling 
down the west front of the cathedral, and it would 
seem appropriate that some small sum should be 
subscribed towards the funds of a society which is 
endeavouring, at considerable sacrifice of time and 
money, to preserve this absolutely unique specimen 
of English art. JNO. HEBB. 

Willesden Green, N.W. 

BEAUMONT COLLEGE (8 th S. xi. 87). Near Old 
Windsor, and associated with Warren Hastings 
during two of the most anxious years of his life. 
In Rocque's map called '* Bowman Lodge." Origin- 
ally built by the Lord Weymouth who died in 

8i S. XI. FSB. 6, '97.] 



1705, it was afterwards the Duchess of Kent's. 
The Duke of Koxburghe bought it for his son Lord 
Beaumont hence its name (Tighe and Davis's 
' Annals of Windsor,' ii. 589). It was for a time in 
the possession of Mr. H. Griffiths, who purchased it 
in 1785 for Warren Hastings, and subsequently in 
that of Lord Ashbrook. In later years it has been 
occupied as a Catholic college, and has been recently 
reconstructed and enlarged. K. B. 


Beaumont College (on the property called Beau- 
mont Lodge) is near Old Windsor, Berks, and 
was founded by the Fathers of the Society of Jesus 
about 1860. Beaumont Lodge was purchased by 
the Jesuits first as a seminary or novitiate for 
their order, afterwards they changed it into a 
college for the education of the sons of gentlemen. 

159, Rue de la Pompe, Paris. 

Other replies are acknowledged.] 

"FEER AND FLET" (8 th S. x. 76, 166, 339, 
422 ; xi. 17). Solution of this question seems to 
be on the way, but still I am by no means clear as 
to the actual meaning of the passage to which I 
have previously referred and which I now quote in 
full : 

"At a Court Baron held on 18 April, 1429, it was 
presented that 'Avice, who was wife of Win. Opwyk, in 
pure widowhood, surrendered one cottage with curtilage 
in Burystret in Fulham parcel of Kerapes to the use of 
Robert Eyre, otherwise called Robert Jamys, on con- 
dition that the said Avice should have for her life her 
dwelling place at the east end of the house called fere- 
hous, with feer and flet in the same and part of the herbs 
growing iu the curtilage with free ingress and egress 
towards the same when she pleases.'" 

COL. PRIDEAUX'S timely reference makes it, I 
think, quite certain that " feer and flet " means the 
right of fire and water. MR. C. E. G. DICKINSON 
writes me, almost coincidentally with the appear- 
ance of the Colonel's note : 

;t From analogy I am able to say that ' feer and flete ' 
undoubtedly indicates the use of fire and water for the 
purposes of cooking, warmth, and cleanliness, allowed to 
a woman as appendant to what was called her ' widow's 
chamber,' being the use of one furnished room in her 
deceased husband's house during so long as she shall 
remain in pure widowhood, with free passing and re- 
passing to the fire and water." 

So far so good. But what is the full sense of 
the passage I quote ? Much hinges on the mean- 
ing of 'ferehous." I originally suggested in 

N". & Q.' that " ferehous "=ferryhouse. PROF. 
SKBAT, writing me privately, observes, "I dare say 
ferehous may mean ' ferryhouse.' The proper 
spelling was ferihous or feryhouse." 

MR. DICKINSON inclines to the view that " fere- 
hous " has nothing to do with the ferry, but means 

fire house. " Can any reader adduce evidence of 
use of the word in such a sense ? And, if so, 
what would a firehouse mean ? 

I may mention that there certainly existed in 
Bear Street, near the river, a small ferry-house, 
used by the ferry and boatmen. 

Another thought occurs to me. There was a 
small house for four poor widows, the origin of the 
charity known as Sir William Powell's Almshouses. 
Could " ferehous " = almshouse ? I do not under- 
stand from the grant that widow Opwyk stipulated 
for a room " with feer and flet " in the house which 
she conditionally sold, but " at the east end of the 
ferehous." CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

GOG AND MAGOG (8 th S. xi. 46). Gog-magog, 
both names in one, is a giant in the early fabulous 
history of England. See Holinshed's * History.' 
Gog and Magog were the sole survivors of a race 
of giants, and were brought to London in an ancient 
time to officiate as porters at the gate of the king's 
palace. According to an Eastern legend, Gog and 
Magog are two great races banished to the interior 
of the Caucasus, and kept there by supernatural 
means, In time to come they will issue from their 
prison and destroy the world. This may be the 
parent of similar legends concerning Boabdil, 
Ogier, Arthur, and other worthies, kept under- 
ground, and destined to come forth at a future 
time. E. YARDLEY. 

MANX DIALECT (8* S. x. 475). The latest 
publication issued by the Manx Society was the 
Book of Common Prayer, translated into Manx by 
Bishop Phillips in 1610, and the translation by 
the Manx clergy in 1765, printed iu parallel 
columns, with an appendix of nearly 200 pages, at 
the end of the second volume, by Dr. John Rhys, 
on 'The Outlines of the Phonology of Manx 
Gaelic. 1 In the preface Dr. Ehys says : 

" Let me, in conclusion, congratulate the Manx Society 
on having now made the earliest and longest MS. in the 
Manx language accessible to all. By so doing they have 
laid Celtic scholars under a lasting obligation, and have 
set an example worthy of being followed by many a mora 
numerous society in Great Brition and Ireland." 

It is certain that he himself has "laid Celtics 
scholars under a lasting obligation " by writing the 
clear and exhaustive essay to which I have referred. 
There can be no doubt that this is at once the 
latest and the best introduction to the " critical 
and historical study " of Manx. 


St. Thomas, Douglas, Isle of Man. 

WYVILL (8 th S. x. 336 ; xi. 37). Zerubbabel 
Wy vill, who composed and published several pieces 
of music, lived at Inwood House, Hounslow. I 
saw him there in my boyhood, and dimly remember 
him as an old man, short and thick, with a voice 
traditionally reported to have been good, but then 
decidedly the worse for wear. 

He was twice married. His second wife (who 
survived him) was Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 



, XI. FEB. 6, '97. 

Thomas Mountford, of Hill End, in the parish of 
More, Salop. 

In 1828 Wyvill was involved in Chancery pro- 
ceedings concerning the estate of his father-in-law, 
by whose will he had been appointed executor. 
The suit arose out of a family dispute, wherein 
harmony and the '* concord of sweet sounds " gave 
place, for a time, to "harsh discords and un- 
pleasing sharps." WM. UNDERBILL. 

72, Upper Westbourne Villas, Hove. 

S. x. 495 ; xi. 32). The words of Johnson quoted 
at the second reference show an error of punctuation 
which, though corrected by me on the proof, has 
still been allowed to stand, " Whitefield never 
drew as much attention. As a mountebank does, 
he did not draw attention by doing better than 
others but by doing what was strange." It should 
be, '* Whitefield never drew as much attention as 
a mountebank does." So in my one-volume 
edition, verified in Hill's and Napier's editions. 
When I copied the words they struck me as odd, 
and alien from Johnson's intention, which was 
not to record Whitefield's comparative failure, but 
to note the cause of his scarcely merited success. 
We desiderate something of this sort : " Whitefield 
would never have drawn so much attention but for 
posing as a mountebank." Perhaps the odd turn 
of the sentence may have struck the person (quern- 
cunque) who altered the punctuation. But we 
must take Boswell as we find him, and any way 
this alteration is impossible ; it would require a 
previous mention of some " performer " who had 
drawn greater attention ; but the words quoted are 
the beginning of what Johnson said. 


[The proof was received after publication of the 

EARLS OF HALIFAX (8 a S. xi. 65). MR. W. T. 
LYNN writes : " In the eleventh volume (recently 
published) of the English Historical Review there 
is an interesting article, by Mr. Foxcroft, on * The 
Works of George Savile, first Marquis of Halifax.'" 
As the article in question is said to be by " Miss 
Foxcroft " on the cover of No. 44 of the English 
Historical Review, October, 1896, it is well to 
let this lady have her proper title. 


Tyntesfieia, Bristol. 

HORSESHOE MONUMENTS (8 th S. vii. 109, 175, 
297, 392, 499). I regret that MR. BUTLER'S query 
of two years ago escaped my notice. If he is still 
interested in the subject, he will find much in- 
formation in Dr. Rau's ' Rock Sculpturings,' pub- 
lished by the Ethnological Department of the 
United States Government, in which the " horse- 
shoe" markings, graves, &c., are fully treated of, 
and the theories advanced by Dsor, myself, and 

others discussed. The volume is rich in engravings 
reproduced from various pamphlets, together with 
sketches of the markings found on the American 
continent. The last number of the Proceedings 
of the Royal Academy of Sweden, Historical and 
Antiquarian Branch, also contains some informa^ 
tion on this subject. 

J. H. RIVETT-CARNAC, Colonel, 

A.D.C. to H.M. 
Schloss Wildeck, Aargau. 

"To WORSEN" (8 th S. x. 393, 500). The in- 
transitive use of worsen, in the sense of to grow 
worse, is common in Yorkshire. Huntley's ' Cots- 
wold Glossary ' gives the word as equivalent to to 
make worse, and then quotes an intransitive use 
of the verb : " He might see his affairs had not 
suffered, or worsened there, by his acting hitherto 
in them " (' Autobiography of King James II.,' 
vol. i. p. 680). The transitive use is found also 
in Shropshire, cf. Miss Jackson's * Shrop8hire 
Word-Book.' D. M. R., at the second reference, 
says that "George Eliot is quoted in Annandale 
as using the participle." He is unfair to Annan- 
dale, who gives "worsening" as a noun, i.e., a 
verbal noun. In the quotation cited it could not 
be a participle. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

I am sorry I cannot help my friend GENERAL 
ROBINSON to the information he seeks. I may, 
however, say that during my editorship of ' The 
Local Antiquary,' published in the columns of the 
West London Press, Chelsea Hospital and its 
worthies were topics of frequent discussion among 
my readers, who were mostly residents of the parish 
named. On two or three occasions William Hise- 
land was the subject of debate. At that time I tried 
myself to ascertain the whereabouts of the picture, 
but without success. Mr. Alfred Beaver, whose 
* Memorials of Chelsea' I assisted to correct for 
the press, also failed in the same pursuit. Geo. 
Alsop was, I believe, a native of Wandsworth, 
quite an unknown artist. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

LAMB'S ' PRINCE DORUS ' (7 th S. ii. 387, 475, 518 ; 
v. 221 ; viii. 359 ; x. 520). No. 3 of the opuscula 
of the Nottingham S.O.V. is "The Tale of Prince 
Dorus : a Pendant to ' The Story of a Little Book,' 

related by J. Potter Briscoe With a Portrait 

I of Lamb, after Daniel Maclise, R.A Demy 

16mo. pp. 8." This is " put into prose after Charles 
Lamb's rhymed version." N. 0. V. 

THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON (8 th S. xi. 48). 
Prof. Wm. Selwyn, in 1865, published at Cam- 
bridge a poem * Waterloo, a Lay of Jubilee,' with 
notes. In his second edition, p. 86, this note 
occurs : " Old Etonians remember a saying of the 
Duke's when present at a cricket match in the upper 

I shootiog fields, ' The battle of Waterloo was won 


S. XI. FEB. 6, '97.] 



here.'" Selwyn was a very distinguished Etonian, 
and some one who was present and heard the 
remark made may have repeated it to him if, 
indeed, he did not hear it himself. In Rogers's 
* Table Talk,' p. 290, we find the Duke saying, 
" At Waterloo the young ensigns and lieutenants 
who bad never before seen a battle rushed to meet 
death as if they had been playing at cricket " (see 
Eraser's ' Words on Wellington,' p. 139). I have 
a list, still incomplete, of over fifty Etonians who 
took part in the Waterloo campaign ; and a noble 
list it is. It includes Lord Saltoun (" Now's the 
time, boys ! "), Sir Felton Harvey, Hon. George 
Cathcart (killed at Inkerman), Hon. Fredk. 
Soward (" the young, gallant Howard " of 'Childe 
Harold '), the handsome and much lamented James 
Lord Hay, Col. Stables, &c. Of the above number 
ten were killed and thirteen wounded. 


This is inserted, in a hesitating manner, in the 
1 Century of Anecdote,' " Chandos Classics," No. 57, 
p. 208, by J. Timbs : 

" It matters little whether it be a pleasing tradition, 
or an historical fact, but it was commonly said that after 
the Peace, which crowned the immortal services of the 
Duke of Wellington, that great general, on seeing the 
playing-fields at Eton, said, tuere had been won the crown- 
ing victory of Waterloo." 


SCOTTISH CLERICAL DRESS (8 th S. ix, 245, 358 ; 
x. 164, 319). I am much obliged by MR. NORTH'S 
communication on p. 319, but should be obliged if 
he would expand his reference " * The Nona- 
genarian,' by McLean." What is this book, and 
when was it published ? 


Louis PHILIPPE (8 th S. x. 495, 524 ; xi. 18). 
should not have thought that any one could 
seriously believe the story about King Louis 
Philippe being only the son of a gardener changed 
at his birth. Having resided for some years in 
Paris in the earlier part of his reign, I, of course, 
had frequent opportunities of seeing him ; and 
although he was certainly wanting in dignity and 
'* presence," he never struck me as having the air 
of an ill-bred man quite the contrary. I have, 
too, in my possession a photograph of his son, the 
late Duke de Nemours, taken more than twenty 
years ago, in which the duke's likeness to his great 
ancestor Henry IV. is most striking, and is almost; 
alone sufficient to disprove the scandalous tale that 
Louis Philippe was no Bourbon, but only a. 
gardener's son. These stories about kings and 
great nobles being only changelings are common 
enough, but, somehow or another, they are never 
proved. At the period to which 1 refer between 
30 and 1840 Louis Philippe had numberless 
detractors, who did not scruple to vilify him im 

every way and to accuse him of all sorts of crimes, 
from murder downwards to pecuniary meanness ; 
but I do not remember to have heard any people of 
average intelligence maintain that he was not the 
son of Philippe ifigalite. In fact, those who hated 
him most used to declare he was quite worthy of 
that father, as about the worst thing they could say 
of him. Whatever, then, may be the value of my 
appreciation as to the personal appearance and 
bearing of King Louis Philippe, the remarkable 
resemblance of the late Duke de Nemours to Henri 
Quatre has to be accounted for, and the most 
obvious explanation of it is that figalite fils was 
the son of Egalite* pere. As to Louis Philippe 
being a coward, as Dr. Macmillan asserts, I do not 
think that those who knew him best during the 
long years when he was constantly the mark for 
the bullet of the assassin will allow that his 
cowardice was one of the marks of a base extrac- 
tion ; and, at any rate, he begat sons who, what- 
ever may have been their failings, were certainly 
gallant gentlemen, as they proved on numberless 
occasions. E. M. S. 


As it has now been proved in * N. & Q.' that 
this king of the French was not a changeling, may 
we estimate the well-known report that his father 
Egalite was really the son of Louis, Comte de 
Melfort (said to have been one of the many 
lovers of his mother), also as a baseless fabric of a 
vision ? It has been recorded in * N. & Q.,' 6 td S, 
vi. 334, that 

" one of the lampoons against f^alite of the time of the 
French Revolution had a refrain ending with the words, 

II n'est pas le petit-fills de Henri Quatre, 
Mais le batard de Melfort." 

Clapham, S.W. 

S. x. 489). Though agreeing with your corre- 
spondent MR. W. J. GADSDEN that the Russell 
Court burial-ground is not the graveyard of 'Bleak 
House,' I consider that Dickens referred not to the 
burial-place in Ray Street, Clerkenwell, but to one 
in the actual district where so many of the other 
events described occurred : I allude to the grave- 
yard in Bream's Buildings, between Fetter Lane 
and Chancery Lane. The reasons in support of 
this view appear to me convincing, and were stated 
at length in a letter of mine in the Daily Graphic 
of 20 Aug., 1894 ; but the following is a summary 
of them : 

1. Locality. The last days of the wretched law 
writer's life were spent in the neighbourhood 
bounded by Fleet Street, Lincoln's Inn, Holborn, 
and Fetter Lane ; he died at the " rag and bottle 
shop," "in the shadow of the wall of Lincoln's 
Inn"; the inquest was held at the " Sol's Arms," 
generally identified with a tavern in the court at 



[8i S. XI. FEB. 6, '97. 

the end of Chichester Rents, not a hundred yards 
from Bream's Buildings ; and it is far more pro- 
bable that Nemo's remains would be buried in 
the Bream's Buildings graveyard than that they 
would be taken to a district so comparatively 
remote as Ray Street, or even to Russell Court, 
right away beyond the far side of Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. Snagsby, Nemo's chief employer, lived 
in " Cook's Court, Cursitor Street." Took's Court 
is but a few yards from Bream's Buildings, and a 
narrow passage, called Greystoke Place, communi- 
cating between Cursitor Street and Fetter Lane, 
by "devious ways" leads to the entrance of the 

2. General features. The level of the ground 
is raised, and it is reached by steps, as at Russell 
Court. The approach is by an " iron gate," at the 
end of a narrow court which once may have been 
a "tunnel"; and opposite to the entrance of the 
court is a gas-lamp projecting from a wall. Even 
now the graveyard is "hemmed in" by houses, 
which overlook it on all sides. It should be 
added that most of these are modern : a school 
building, publishers' offices, &c. Some railings 
intervene on one hand, and the ground has been 
turfed over, in part. But in spite of the changes 
effected of late years, the appearance, surroundings, 
and approaches still strikingly recall the place 
described by the novelist. Hablot K. Browne's 
illustration, 'Jo and Lady Dedlock,' shows an 
iron-barred gate, without woodwork. 

3. Charles Dickens's close acquaintance with the 
locality. From his previous residence in Furnival's 
Inn, just across Holborn, Dickens must have been 
familiar with this graveyard and every yard of the 
immediate vicinity. My memory may be at fault, 
but I do not recollect that in any of his works (not 
excepting * Oliver Twist') he showed such an 
intimate knowledge of either Clerkenwell or Drury 
Lane as that displayed in ' Bleak House ' of the 
Chancery Lane and Fetter Lane district. Cer- 
tainly in none of his works did he manage to 
introduce more local colouring. 

For reasons which cannot be given here, I am 
inclined to think that Dickens did not mean to 
describe with minute accuracy this graveyard (and 
many other places mentioned in his works) ; but 
on the whole I believe that probability is strongly 
on the side of the Bream's Buildings site, rather 
than of Russell Court, or Ray Street, Clerkenwell. 


Richmond, Surrey. 

May I refer your correspondent to 8 th S. v. 227, 
289, 417 ; vi. 213 ? Also to the following para- 
graph, taken from an article which appeared in the 
Pall Mall Magazine for July, 1896, entitled 
'Notes on some Dickens Places and People,' by 
the late Charles Dickens, jun. : 

"Two or three very striking illustrations occur in 

' Bleak House,' which contained, until the extensive clear- 

inces and demolitions which were necessitated by the 
>uilding of the Royal Courts of Justice, perhaps more 
recognizable neighbourhoods and houses, not being 
public places and simply described as such, than can be 
"ound in any of the books. But even these, except in 
one notable case, can only be identified (or could, for 
many of them have already disappeared) by reference to 
;he context as well as to the actual description of them. 
There is absolutely only one such place, that I ever saw, 
which would satisfy the sticklers for absolute accuracy. 
This is the horrible little burying-ground in which Capt. 
Hawdon was laid, and on the steps of which Lady Ded- 
lock died, ' a hemmed-in churchyard, pestiferous and 

obscene with houses looking in on every side, save 

where a reeking little tunnel of a court gives access to 
the iron gates.' So runs the description in the book, 
and so you will find the place to this day, on the left- 
band side as you go down Russell Court taking care of 
your pockets the while from Catherine Street to Drury 
Lane, the only difference being that the burying-ground 
bias been decently covered over with asphalte and is now 
used as a playground for the slum children of those 

I understand that this playground is about to be 
absorbed in the construction of a new thoroughfare. 

5, Capel Terrace, Southend-on-Sea. 

THE PRONOUN " SHE " (8 th S. xi. 48). This is 
indeed a difficult word, and it is merely as a stop- 
gap that lexicographers have accepted the hypo- 
thesis that the pronoun heo was confused with the 
article seo in Old English, so that the modern 
pronoun is derived from the ancient article. The 
objection to this is that modern see, and not she, 
would have resulted according to phonetic law ; 
and slight as this difference between s and sh may 
appear to the uninitiated, every reader of Prof. 
Skeat's magnificent 'Principles of English Ety- 
mology ' will recognize that it is fatal to the idea. 
My own explanation of the modern pronoun is 
more probable, and appears to have no weak points, 
but I must confess the evidence for it is slight. 
For the existence of the sound I have called the 
" quasi-guttural " in Anglo-Saxon, initially, we 
have only the comparison with the cognate Ice- 
landic. Of its existence medially there is, how- 
ever, direct proof in those spellings of Doomsday 
Book to which Prof. Skeat (without explaining 
them) has drawn attention in another of his works. 
Bristelmestune for modern Brighton shows that 
the Norman scribe heard Anglo-Saxon briht pro- 
nounced as modern German bricht. No other 
pronunciation could possibly have sounded like 
brist or brisht to a stranger, whereas the palatalized 
guttural, as I have elsewhere shown, is always 
liable to be replaced by 8 or sh. 


GOSFORTH (8 th S. x, 172, 224, 264, 300, 405, 
441 ; xi. 75). I am unable to understand the 
meaning of the communication at the last refer- 
ence. The statement that Gesemuthe must needs 
mean geese-mud is mere banter, having no bearing 
at all on the argument. The hard g in geese could 

8>" S. XI. FEB. 6, '970 



never have produced the j in Jesmond, and the 
word muthe, as it confessedly means "mouth," 
has nothing at all to do with " mud." 

Even a spurious modern ballad is right in con- 
necting Back-ton with Buck (which may, in the 
A.-S. form Bucca, have been a man's name), and 
Swin-hoe with Swine. It is not as if Swinhoe 
stood alone ; we have many names relating to 
swine, such as Swin-brook, Swin-coe, Swin-dale, 
Swin-don, Swine-fleet, Swines-head, Swin-fen, 
and Swin-ford. Again, as to goose, we have Gos- 
field as well as Gos-ford and Gos-forth, (probably) 
Gos-port, and certainly Goos-ey (Berks). Turn- 
ing to Kemble's * A.-S. Charters,' we find that 
there were also once a Goose-brook, a Gos-den, a 
Gos-ley, and a Goose-well. The shortening of the 
o before two consonants has been repeatedly 
explained, and occurs, obviously enough, in the 
common word gos-ling. 

The Northern suffix -forth corresponds to the 
Southern -ford. Hence, when we find Gos-forth 
in the North, we find Gos-ford in the South. It 
occurs in a charter of Eadweard concerning lands 
in Somersetshire, printed in Birch, ii. 270, where 
we find, " up on strem to Oos-forda," i.e., up along 
the stream to Gos-ford. The dative in -a is inter 
esting ; those who are acquainted, practically, with 
Anglo-Saxon are aware that long stems in -u, with 
a dative in -a, are not very numerous. 

I can only repeat that I see no difficulty what- 
ever in the derivation of Gos-forth, Gos-ford, Gos- 
field, and gos-ling from A.-S. gos, a goose. Before 
making cheap fun of the peculiar mode in which 
our ancestors evolved their place-names, it would 
be just as well to become sufficiently acquainted 
with their history to understand their habits. 
They made up plant-names in a similar way, hence 
our goose-bill and goose-foot, goose-grass and goose- 
tongue, and several others. I see no humour in 
the connexion of Gos-forth with Jesmond, because 
every one knows that the plural of goose is cer- 
tainly not jeese; and in the pronunciation of 
Gesemuthe the g was really a?/; though I suppose 
the y was later written as I, and then mispro- 
nounced as j. 

There is nothing recondite about this. If your 
correspondent, in his desire not to be a gosling, 
would only take the trouble to learn Anglo-Saxon 
pronunciation, he would discover that in words 
beginning with ge (the e being short and un- 
mutated) the g took the sound of y ; and then he 
would be more fitted to write about the subject 
than he appears to be at present. In the A.-S. 
gts, plural of gas, a goose, the g remains hard 
because the e is long and mutated ; it was origin- 
ally oe, and is spelt goes in some of the Canter- 
bury charters. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

At the last reference we are told that " if Gos- 
forth must be Goose-ford, and Jesmond (Gese- 

muthe), by parity of reasoning, Geese-mud, then 
the derivations of Hengrave and Ducklington are 
equally obvious." The truth will out, even in a 
jest ! However, in the sentence just quoted we 
bave not the whole truth, but only a part of it, 
for Gesmuthe means geese-mouth, and not geese- 
mud. " Mouth," as PROF. SKEAT shows in his ' Dic- 
tionary,' is A.-S. mw$, Dutch mond, Icel, munnr 
for winner, so that Jesmond, like Gesemuthe, is 
quite in order, the initial j representing the older 
g. Accordingly we may take Gesemuthe or 
Jesmond as *gd8a-mu^ ) geese-mouth, geese- 
outlet. The name is analogous to Cowmouth 
and Sowmouth. In former times geese, cows, 
swine, &c., were driven by gooseherds, cow- 
herds, and swineherds by different ways to dif- 
ferent portions of the common pastures. Such 
ways were sometimes called " outgangs," and it 
would seem that an " outgang " was also known 
as a mouth, i.e., an outlet. 

Evidently the commons about Newcastle have 
been stolen from the goose. The word Jesmond 
looks so pretty, and such a very proper name for a 
fashionable suburb, that it would have beenso much 
nicer if one could only have derived it from, say, 
the fragrant jasmine. The truth seems heartless, 
but, alas ! it does not mean jasmine mount, but 
geese mouth, and the story of its origin does not 
a little to confirm the opinion given by PROF. 
SKEAT that Gosforth, another suburb of New- 
castte, means goose-ford. S. 0. ADDY. 

LONDON DIRECTORIES (8 th S. xi. 9, 77). 
MESSRS. KELLY & Co., although for many years 
past the printers and publishers of the annual 
'Post Office London Directory,' are hardly the 
persons from whom one would seek information on 
this subject generally, requiring as it does some 
bibliographical, if not antiquarian, knowledge, and 
their reply at the latter reference has numerous 
errors both of commission and omission. With 
these I do not now propose to fully deal, but 
should be happy to furnish an exhaustive account 
of the various publications coming under the above 
head if called for. As having given considerable 
attention to the subject of the names of London's 
former inhabitants, and more particularly of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as the annotator 
for publication of the ' London Directory ' of 1677, 
as the editor of the * List of Principal Inhabitants 
of the City of London, 1640,' and the compiler of 
still earlier lists of the same, permit me, however, 
to at once state that such ' List ' of 1640 was not 
originally published in that year, but was first 
omraunicated by me to the Misc. Gen. et Her. 
in 1886, a few copies being subsequently separately 
printed in 4to. for private use, one of which I pre- 
sented to our Guildhall Library. There is no 
jdition of 1640, and therefore no copy of it in the 
ast-named or any other collection, public or pri- 



S. XI. FEB. 6, '97. 

vate, nor any reprint. It is not a directory, but 
was taken from such of the original returns as are 
extant in the Public Record Office, London, made 
by the aldermen of the several City wards, naming 
and classifying according to their ability those 
inhabitants, with their professions, trades, and call- 
ings, who were conceived able to lend the king 
(Charles I.) money upon security towards raising 
a loan of 200,000?. according to order of the Privy 
Council dated 10 May, 1640, the circumstances 
attending the making of which returns, as well as 
the forced loan, are dealt with by Dr. R. R. 
Sharpe, the Corporation Records Clerk, in his 
interesting work ' London and the Kingdom.' I 
would add that the earliest London directory, 
properly so called, is certainly that of 1677, en- 
titled 'A Collection of the Names of the Merchants 
living in and about the City of London,' which 
contains the names of some 1,876 merchants and 
fifty-eight goldsmiths (or bankers), of whom about 
fourteen were aldermen and thirty-eight knights. 
It is extremely rare, but was reprinted in fac- 
simile, with a short and erroneous introduction, 
by J. C. Hotten in 1863, and reissued by Chatto 
& Windus in 1878. W. I. R. V. 

" A NOTT STAG" (8 th S. x. 336, 381, 442, 506; 
xi. 51). See * Henry IV.,' " Wilt thou rob this 
leathern jerkin, crystal button, noM-pated agate 
ring?" &c. (Pt. I., II. iv.). Further on in the 
same scene the prince calls Falstaff a " knotty - 
pated fool." Round-headed or cropt-headed seems 
to be the meaning. R. R. 

429 ; 8 ta S. ix. 169, 239). 

I expect to pas?, &c. 

Mr. Moody tells me be is not the author of this fine 
saying. He secured it from a member of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature who is now dead. This gentleman 
used to carry it in his pocket, showing it on every possible 
occasion in the House to those with whom he came in 
contact. If it is quoted in ' The Greatest Thing in the 
World,' Prof. Drummond probably got it from Mr. 
Moody, as that popular tract was first delivered at one 
of the colleges in the little Massachusetts town of North- 
field where Mr. Moody holds forth. The controversy 
over the saying in ' N. & Q.' has stirred up, I notice, the 
United States press to get at the authorship ; but so far 
no one has hit the mark. Mrs. Sangster, the editor of 
one of Harper & Brothers' New York weeklies', has just 
produced a creditable lyric embodying its sentiments. 
There is another motto of a similar kind that Mr. Moody 
is very fond of. It is said to be inscribed on a tombstone 
in Shrewsbury in England : 

For the Lord Jesus Christ's sake, 

Do all the good you can, 

To all the people you can, 

In all the ways you can, 

As long as ever you can. C. 

(8" s. xi. 89.) 

It is an old belief, &c. 

These lines, with slight variations, were written by 

John G. Lockhart, and sent by him to Carlyle on 1 April, 

1842. They are quoted, with two succeeding stanzas, by 

Froude, in ' Carlyle's Life in London,' vol. i. p. 267 
(" Silver Library " edition). The whole six verses are 
given in Locker - Lampson's ' Lyra Elegantiarum,' 
No. ccxix. (" Minerva Library " edition). J. J. C. 

And didst thou love the race that loved not thee ? 
This is by Miss Jean Ingelow, and will be found in her 
' Poems,' vol. i. p. 30. It occurs in a poem entitled 
' Honours.' The stanza quoted and four following ones 
will also be found as Hymn 127 of the ' Congregational 
Church Hymnal,' edited by G. S. Barrett, set to very 
appropriate music by Dr. E. J. Hopkins, of the Temple 
Church. WM. H. PEET. 

If you wish in this world to advance, 
Your merits you 're bound to enhance ; 

You must stir it and stump it, 

And blow your own trumpet, 
Or, trust me, you haven't a chance ! 

W. S. Gilbert, ' Ruddigore.' 

W. G B. 


Four Generations of a Literary Family. By W. Carew 

Hazlitt. 2 vole. (Redway.) 

WITH some prescience, it may be held, of what is likely 
to be the reader's estimate of his work, Mr. Carew 
Hazlitt, on the last page of this ambitiously named book 
of gossip, expresses the hope that the "details" he 
supplies will " not too often strike " his " readers either 
as trivial or obnoxious." They are both. We were long 
exercised, while labouring through the mass of matter, 
disconnected and pointless, with which Mr. Hazlitt has 
padded one of the most notable instances on record of 
book-making, as to what adjectives to select in order to 
express our discontent and dislike. A whole vocabulary 
of reprehension was at our disposal. We are content to 
accept those given us by the compiler himself, and, resist- 
ing the temptation to the use of stronger phrase, add only 
that they are incorrect and unworthy. Throughout the 
volumes the writer shows himself splenetic, querulous, 
and indiscreet. Very many of those with whom he 
deals, including his father, were our own friend?, and 
it is inexpressibly painful to us to listen to the arraign- 
ment of these men, or to find the terrible visitations to 
which they succumbed matters which we, who were 
proud of their intimacy or friendship, left unmentioned, 
or mentioned only with "bated breath" dragged to 
light in a book intended for general circulation. We will 
not participate in Mr. Hazlitt's indiscretion by repeating 
after him any names whatever of individuals unfortunate 
enough to have inspired him with the notion of lugging 
them into his book. In the case of two worthy gentle- 
men, whose only offence can have been that they were 
judges of books, he speaks of the "physical bearing 
of one " as being "just as unprepossessing and unaristo- 
cratic " as that of the other ; and he then proceeds calmly 
to narrate the circumstances of a terrible suicide, of which 
we, who were intimately acquainted with the deceased, 
had but a dim knowledge, and to which, by a feeling of 
grief and respect, none of his intimates, " prepossessing 
and aristocratic or unprepossessing and unaristocratic," 
ever referred. Very, very far from being the worst 
offence is this. Here is a paragraph at which we stand 

astounded : " There was a creepy story about " (Mr. 

Hazlitt supplies the name) "and a mysterious affair 
which took place at his rectory in Suffolk. A dead child 
was discovered behind a chimney-piece." Concerning 
some of the greatest of Englishmen Mr. Hazlitt collects 
and repeats discreditable particulars which we will not 

8* S. XI. Fun- 6 . '] 



be the means further to disseminate. Mr. Hazlitt was 
two years at the War Office. Who must have been his 
colleagues we know. All be finds to say of them is that 
they "were individuals infinitely various in their ideas 
and qualifications, and the majority struck me as having 
little enough of one or the other. Many were grossly 
ignorant ; hardly one possessed a considerable degree of 
gentlemanly culture." If he has occasion to mention 
any one it is in terms of needless disparagement. Draw- 
ing a comparison between Mr. William Parren and Sir 
Henry Irving, he speaks of the latter as one "than 
whom any one more desperately hopeless at the outset 
probably never trod the stage." The statement is, of 
course, as inaccurate as it is gratuitous. Farren, how- 
ever, "has risen to his present position by unassisted 
ability and genius, while Irving seems to have owed hia 
triumph to collateral auspices "whatever these may 
be" and the happy (not new) idea of making his pieces 
spectacularly attractive and accurate accurate so far as 
his knowledge permits." Other portions of Mr. Hazlitt's 
book consist of cryptic stories concerning courtezans and 
others, all old and mostly spoiled in the narration. His 
carelessness in matters of fact is astounding. Whenever 
he mentions the name of the proprietors of the Daily 
Telegraph he calls them Levi, and he introduces us, both 
in the index and in the body of the book, to a Richard 
Woolner, R.A., a sculptor whom we commend to the 
care of Mr. Lee for the ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy,' and to the attention of Mr. Graves. 

In Mr. Hazlitt's family there was one great literary 
man, very cross, and genuinely inspired. It is distinctly 
disloyal to his memory to couple his work with that of his 
predecessors and successors, some of them equally cross, 
none of them approximately inspired. Of the William 
Hazlitt with whom the world is concerned little new is 
told. A diary of Miss Hazlitt represents the solid worth 
of the publication. "Splenetic acrimony" is a term 
Mr. Hazlitt applies to the William Hazlitt. It is well 
chosen. We will not seek to give it an application 
beyond what its author intended or, perhaps, desires. 

A Paradise of English Poetry. Arranged by H. C. 

Beeching. (Rivington, Percival & Co.) 
ANTHOLOGIES, except in the case of a dead language, are 
never final. New poets are discovered, a selection from 
whose work is indispensable, tastes undergo a revolution; 
a score circumstances, in fact, render the collections of 
one generation worthless to the next. What use to tbe 

K resent generation would have been a selection made by 
r. Johnson ? It would have been waste-paper on the 
bookstalls, like the collections of Dodsley and Pearch. 
Much was thought of the ambitious selection of speci- 
mens made by Thomas Campbell, yet where now is 
it? The 'Paradise of Dainty Devices,' and other 
works dealing wholly with poets of the day, stand on a 
different footing. These never lose their interest. 
Among recent anthologies Mr. Beeching's is the best, 
partly because it is the latest and so most up to date, 
it includes none but the works of poets in their fame or 
"in their misery dead," and it has been made by a 
man of excellent taste and judgment. Its first appear- 
ance was in a handsome and a costly form. We now 
rejoice to welcome it in a shape which is still very 
pretty and attractive, and at a price that puts it within 
average reach. Recent reissues of early poets, and 
notably Mr. Bullen's edition of the sorgs of Campion, 
have enabled Mr. Beeching to extend ins basis ami to 
enrich his collection with charming poems not long tgo 
unattainable. To any one anxious to possess in clear 
type, and in a lovely and convenient shape that may be 
slipped into the pocket for a summer jaunt, the sweetest 
lyrics of a literature richer in lyrics than any other, this 

book may be heartily commended. We will not join 
issue with the compiler on any point, but will be content 
to accept his catering. He elects to omit sonnets let 
them be omitted ; to include a few dramatic scenes let 
them be included. What could be better] His dramatic 
scenes are principally from Shakspeare, Fletcher, Milton. 
So be it. He might easily go further and fare worse. 
He selects largely as who would not 1 from the Cavalier 
poets. Milton and Keats are, as they deserve to be, very 
largely represented. We have Chaucer, Spenser, Surrey, 
Wyatt, Donne, Cowley, Wither. Some passages are even 
taken from Skelton and Sidney. Raleigh, Lodge, Greene, 
Webster, Jonson, Drayton, Herrick, Marvell are wel'l 
represented. Daniel is a favourite, and his 'Musophilus ' 
supplies a motto to the selection. Barntield, Beddoes, 
Breton, Carew, D'Avenant, Habington, Lovelace, Lyly^ 
Montrose, and others of like name and fame are laid under 
toll, and one, at least, of the lovely poems accessible only 
in the publications of the Early English Text Society is 
given. In fact, tbe only two poems that we miss are Mrs. 
Behn'g divine "Love in fantastic triumph sate" and 
Graham of Gartmore's "If doughty deeds my lady 
please," a belated lyric, worthy of Suckling or Montrose. 
An enthusiastic welcome is merited by this volume, 
which will last us well until new poets, now strangely 
loitering, come to claim their places. 

Boole-Prices Current. Vol. X. (Stock.) 
WE welcome the appearance of the latest number of this 
excellent annual, of which the compiler speaks as tho 
book-collector's Bible. Each succeeding year witnesses 
an increase in size and an improvement in arrangement. 
The volume for 1896 has 600 pages, against 534 in its 
predecessor. It present?, moreover, for the first time 
an index of subjects occupying twenty-eight pages, and 
constituting a very desirable addition. Other ga'in is 
perceptible. The general index has been augmented 
and further displayed, and the entries which have been 
commented upon, either bibliographically or by way of 
collation, are distinguished by means of an asterisk. 
Mr. Slater, the compiler, claims, indeed, that the work 
has practically three indexes, or, as he prefers to call 
them, " indices." It is pleasant to be able to announce 
that a General Index to the ten volumes, for which sub- 
scriptions are invited, is in contemplation. This will be 
a genuine boon. Its utility will be increased if, in the 
case of, say, Froissart, after the word ' Chronicles ' is 
put "trs.," lor translation of Johnes or Beruers, with the 
date of publication. This is in answer to Mr. Slater's 
invitation to supply suggestions. In his introduction 
Mr. Slater opines that tbe time has not yet arrived when 
it would be expedient to strike an average as to tbe 
prices at which important or costly books are sold. 
There is an upward tendency, on which possessors of 
books rather than purchasers are to be congratulated. 
The average price of the lots in 1893 was II. Qs. Id in 
1894 it was II. 8s. 5d., in 1895 II. Us. 4d., and Jast year 
it was II. 13s. IQd. The advance is not, it is held, wholly 
due to a general rise in price, but rather to the fact 
that some few books realized large sums. Two imper- 
fect copies of Chaucer's ' Canterbury Tales ' brought, 
one 1,020^., and the other 1,880^ Books " of a certain 
kind," it is said, "are selling rather better than they 
have done for some time past." That certain class, we will 
ourselves say, is best represented by good early editions 
of great English poets Chaucer, Shakspeare, Milton, 
Suckling. The price at which early Chaucers were gold 
some years ago was amazingly low. Among the books 
that have fallen on evil days are cited the manufactured 
"limited editions" of modern essayists and poets. A 
similar experience has been obtained by the French pub- 
lishers, showing that the causes at work are not purely 



S. XI. FEB. 6, '97. 

local. Now, even, the difference between the prices asked 
for books in London and in Paris is very striking, and 
French catalogues of books which are de luxe constitute 
to the bibliophile astounding reading. We have only to 
reiterate our welcome to a book of increasing value and 
interest. One of the most pleasant tributes to its excel- 
lence is found in the book itself, wherein is chronicled 
the sale of eight volumes of the book for 101. 5$. 

Scottish Poetry of ike Eighteenth Century. Vol. II. 

(Glasgow, Hodge.) 

MR. EYRE TODD'S "Abbotsford Series of the Scottish 
Poets " is now complete. It constitutes a well-executed and 
thoroughly representative series, in favour of which we 
may say that we have read through the consecutive volumes 
as they have appeared, familiar as we are with much of 
their contents. This latest volume gives selections from 
forty poets, among whom are included Beattie, Fergus- 
son, and Burns. In addition to these, whose merits have 
won general recognition, there are many minor minstrels, 
such as Robert Graham, Lady Anne Lindsay, Mrs. Grant 
of Laggan, and others, to whom the lover of poetry needs 
no introduction. The arrangement is happy, the glossary 
by the side of the text is to Southron readers most help- 
ful, and the biographical prefaces are in all respects 
adequate, The series is entitled to, and has doubtless 
obtained, a warm reception. 

Earl Rdgnvald and his Forebears. By Catherine Staf- 
ford Spence. (Fisher Unwin.) 

THESE glimpses of life in early Norse times in Orkney 
and Shetland are immediately intended for children. 
They are well and picturesquely written, and may be 
read by those of older years. 

Thomas Carlyle's Alhandlung uber Goethe's Faust aus 
dem Jahre 1821. Herausgeben und mit einer 
Einleitung verschen von Dr. Richard Schroder. 
(Braunschweig, Westermann,) 

CARLYLE'S first essay on Goethe appeared in the New 
Edinburgh Review for 1821. According to the practice 
of reviews, this article appeared anonymously, and Dr. 
Schroder complains that the essay has never been re- 
printed, and adds that when last year inquiries were 
made in the bookselling trade not a single copy could 
be obtained. He also regrets that the essay is not 
included in any collection of Carlyle's writings, not 
even in the ' Critical and Miscellaneous Essays,' and 
thinks that he is rendering a service to readers, English 
or German, by now reprinting the almost extinct little 
essay, which certainly does not belong to Carlyle's 
critical work of the first rank. It is easy to understand 
that Carlyle, who in later years did work so much finer 
in connexion with the greatest German, should not care 
to preserve his first opuscule about Goethe and about 
'Faust.' He evidently did not consider his somewhat 
juvenile and imperfect tentative as being worthy to be 
included among his more important efforts. Thanks to 
Dr. Schroder, those of our countrymen who may desire to 
possess this unfledged piece of criticism can now easily 
purchase it at a very cheap rate ; and it is pleasant to 
think there is still some demand in Germany for Carlyle's 
early effort in this department of literary criticism. " Dr. 
Schroder prefaces the work itself with an introduction 
which, as well as his general editing, is performed with 
German intelligence and German thoroughness. It is 
not necessary for us to-day to review Carlyle's neglected 
article, the chief attraction of which now is that it is a 
literary rarity and curiosity, and that it is by him. It is 
honourable to Germany that it should render such grate- 
ful honour to the great foreigner who did so much to 
make specially Goethe and Frederick the Great known 
and understood in England, and even, perhaps, to some 

extent, in France. Germany can never forget how Car- 
lyle understood the German spirit, and how, in thunder- 
tones resembling those of the Erdyeist, he expressed, 
with all the force of his individuality, his conviction of 
the meaning and the value of Germany's spiritual and 
warlike king hero. 

The Aurora Borealis. By Alfred Angot, Honorary 
Meteorologist to the Central Meteorological Olfice of 
France. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 

THIS is one of the " International Scientific Series, " and 
quite keeps up the standard of value maintained 'by its 
predecessors. All matters connected with the Aurora 
(which, by the way, in the body of the work is called the 
Polar Aurora, a more correct term than the older one 
of Aurora Borealis, since the phenomenon as much 
belongs to high southern as to high northern latitudes) 
are carefully discussed its forms, its physical character- 
istics, its frequency and periodicity, its relations with 
terrestrial meteorology and magnetism, and the theories 
which have been formed with regard to it. There are 
some good illustrations, and appended is a very useful 
catalogue of auroras recorded to have been seen in 
Europe below fifty-five degrees of latitude from the year 
1700 to 1890. The only fault we find with it is the 
failure to mention in the preface, where previous works 
are spoken of, the elaborate and splendidly illustrated 
volume of the late Mr. Rand Capron on the same sub- 
ject, which appeared in 1879. When the author says 
that since 1839 "no general work on the subject has 
appeared in this country," it is to be presumed that he 
means France. Still, especially in an international 
series, some reference should have been made to that of 
Rand Capron. 

MR. W. ROBERTS, well known for his literary and 
bibliographical works, promises shortly some * Memorials 
of Christie's.' The publishers are G. Bell & Sons. 

THE latest imitator of ' N. & Q.' is the St. Pancras 
Guardian. The first number of ' St. Pancras Notes and 
Queries ' to appear in that paper is announced for 
yesterday (Friday). 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 
ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 
To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the* 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

M. D. (" A bolt from the blue"). Consult 'N &Q ' 
7 th S. Hi. 388, 522; iv. 212, 333. 

RICHARD H. THORNTON ("Ruy Diaz"). Ruy is a 
Christian name. 

ERRATA. P. 90, col. 2, 1. 25 from bottom, for "melo" 
read malo; p. 98, col. 2, 1. 29, for 1794 " read 1894. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " Tae Publisher " at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8> S. XI. FES. 13, '97.] 





NOTES --Jerrold's Dramatic Works, 121 Mr. Ranby's 
House' at Chiswick, 122-Mary Stuart-Horace, 'Sat I. 
v 100 123 Parsley Troston, 124 First American Phar- 
macopoeia Peacock Literary Blunder, 125-Puritari Relic 
Squire's Coffee-House, 126. 

QUERIES :-" Breet " - " Tryst "- Lancashire Hornpipe- 
^ Court Martial -"Shott" -Prints of Milford Haven - 
"Peace with honour "Gallic Cock Objects in Use in 
Nineteenth Century, 127-" Halifax Shilling "-Vicomte 
de Courtivron Gilbert le Franceys Chaworth Henrietta 
Maria Medal of Mary II. Fullerton Pewter Ware, 128 
SS Cyriacus and Julietta Princess Mathilde Bonaparte- 
Author of Quotation Sir M. Costa, 129. 

REPLIES : Buckingham House, 129 Round Robin, 130- 
Sir Franc van Halen County Families Rev. Dr. Tunstall 
"Getting up early "Claudius du Chesne, 131 " Dia- 
mond Wedding" Wave Names Materials for Barrows 
Grosvenor, East Indiaman Cunobelinus Law Stationer, 
132 Divining Rod, 133 Hungate Letheringham Priory 
Ghost-Names, 134 Blanco White's Sonnet Church or 
Chapel " Facts are stubborn things "" Imperium et 
libertas" W. C. Bryant Author Wanted Olney, 135 
Galleries in Church Porches Ancient Cycling Clarel 
Colby Font Church Tower Buttresses Lady Almeria Car- 
penter, 136 Birchin Lane Royal Colleges Vergilius, 137 
Waterspout and Whirlwind Increase in Human Bulk 
" Come, let us be merry," 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Liddall's ' Place Names of Fife and 
Kinross ' ' Antiquary ' ' Reliquary ' ' Journal of the 
Ex-Libris Society 'Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents, 


The result of some years' research in connexion 
with * The Life and Letters of Douglas Jerrold 
and the kindness of several correspondents has 
made me acquainted with so many hitherto un- 
recorded plays from my grandfather's pen, that I 
have thought a useful purpose might be served by 
setting the complete list forth in chronological 
order. The total number of pieces I have brought 
up to sixty-eight. Some have never been published, 
and but thirty-four are to be found in the British 
Museum, while only forty-six are named in the 
'Life and Eemains of Douglas Jerrold,' published 
in 1858. Of many plays I have, so far, recovered 
but the title and date of production, with nothing 
to show whether they are comedies, dramas, or 

1. More Frightened than Hurt. A farcical comedy 
in two acts. Sadler's Wells Theatre, 30 April, 1821. 

2.* The Chieftain's Oath; or, the Rival Clans. A 
melodrama founded on an older one entitled ' Oscar and 
Malvinia.' Sadler's Wells, 30 July, 1821. 

3. The Gipsey of Derncleugh. A melodrama in three 
acts, adapted to stage representation from the novel of 
' Guy Mannering.' Sadler's Wells, 26 Aug., 1821. (' The 
Witch of Derncleugh,' by Planche, was produced at the 
English Opera-house a month earlier, and ' Dirk Hatter- 
aick ; or, the Sorceress of Derncleugh ' at the Coburg 
two months later.) 

4. The Smoked Miser; or, the Benefit of Hanging. 
An interlude in one act. Sadler's Wells, 23 June, 1823. 

5.* The Island; or, Christian and his Comrades. 
Founded on Byron's poem of the same name. Sadler's 
Wells, 28 July, 1823. 

6.* The Seven Ages. A dramatic sketch. Advertised 
for immediate publication early in 1824, but now un- 
obtainable. (Qy. if ever acted 1) 

7. Bampfylde Moore Carew. Sadler's Well?, 21 May 

8.* The Living Skeleton. Coburg, 15 Aug., 1825. 

9.* London Characters. A comic sketch in one act. 
Coburg, 21 Nov., 1825. 

10.* Popular Felons. Coburg, 5 June, 1826. 

11. Paul Pry. A comedy in three acts. Coburg, 
27 Nov., 1826. 

12. The Statue Lover ; or, Music in Marble. A vaude- 
ville in one act. Vauxhall, 2 June, 1828. 

13. The Tower of Lochlain; or, the Idiot Son. A 
melodrama in three acts. Coburg, 1 Sept., 1828. 

14. Descart, the French Buccaneer. A melodrama in 
two acts. Coburg, 1 Sept., 1828. 

15. Wives by Advertisement; or, Courting in the 
Newspapers. A dramatic satire in one act. Coburg, 

15 Sept., 1828. 

16. Ambrose Gwinett, a Seaside Story. A drama in 
three acts. Coburg, 6 Oct., 1828. 

17. Two Eyes Between Two. Coburg, 13 Oct., 1828. 

18. Fifteen Years of a Drunkard's Life. A melodrama 
in three acts. Coburg, 24 Nov., 1828. 

19. John Overy, the Miser of Southwark Ferry. A 
drama in three acts. Surrey, 20 April, 1829. 

20. Law and Lions. An original farce in two acts. 
Surrey, 21 May, 1829. 

21. Black-Eyed Susan; or, All in the Downs. A 
nautical drama in three acts. Surrey, 8 June, 1829. 

22.* Vidocq, the French Police Spy. Surrey, 6 July, 

23.* The Flying Dutchman. Surrey, 15 Oct., 1829. 

24.* The Lonely Man of Study. Surrey, 3 Nov., 1829. 

25. Thomas a Becket. An historical drama in five 
acts. Surrey, 30 Nov., 1829. 

26.* The Witchfirider. A melodrama founded on a 
novel of the same name by the author of ' The Lollards.' 
Drury Lane, 19 Dec., 1829. 

27. Sally in Our Alley. A drama in two acts. Surrey, 
11 Jan., 1830. 

28. * Gervase Skinner. Adapted from Theodore Hook's 
'Penny Wise and Pound Foolish.' Surrey, 25 Jan., 
1830. " 

29. The Mutiny at the Nore; or, British Sailors in 
1797. A nautical drama in three acts. Pavilion, 7 June, 

30.* The Press-gang; or, Archibald of the Wreck. 
Surrey, 5 July, 1830. 

31. The Devil's Ducat ; or, the Gift of Mammon. A 
romantic drama in two acts (and in verse). Adelphi, 

16 Dec., 1830. 

32. Martha Willis, the Servant Maid. A domestic 
drama in three acts. Pavilion, 4 April, 1831. 

33.* Paul Braintree, the Poacher. Coburg, 5 July, 

34.* The Lady Killer. Surrey, 15 Oct., 1831. 

35. The Bride of Ludgate. A comic drama in two 
acts. Drury Lane, 8 Dec., 1831. 

3tf. The Rent Day. A drama in two acts. Drury Lane, 
25 Jan., 1832. 

37. The Golden Calf. A comedy in three acts. New 
Strand, 30 June, 1832. 

38.* The Factory Girl. A domestic drama. Drury 
Lane, 6 Oct., 1832. 

39. Nell Gwynne ; or, the Prologue. A comedy in 
two acts. Covent Garden, 9 Jan., 1833. 

40.* Jack Dolphin. Apparently a nautical piece ; was 


NOTES AND QUERIES. cs s. xi. FEB. 13/97. 

acted in the provinces about 1833, Hg I learn from 
a letter which the dramatist wrote to T. P. Cooke. The 
letter has no year's date on it, and I have so far failed 
to trace the play. 

41. The Housekeeper. A drama in two acts. Hay- 
market, 17 July, 1833. 

42.* Swamp Hall. Haymarket, September, 1833. 

43. The Wedding Gown. A comedy in two acts. Drury 
Lane, 2 Jan., 1834. 

44. Beau Nash, the King of Bath. A comedy in three 
acts. Haymarket, 16 July, 1834. 

45.* Hearts and Diamonds. Olympic, 13 Feb., 1835. 

46 The Schoolfellows. A comedy in two acts. Queen's, 
16 Feb., 1835. 

47. The Hazard of the Die. A tragic drama in two 
acts. Drury Lane, 16 Feb., 1835. 

48.* The Man's an Ass. Olympic, 17 Feb., 1835. 
(The MS. of this piece, briefly inscribed " played once, 
and damned," is in the Forster Collection at South 
Kensington Museum.) 

49. Doves in a Cage. A comedy in two acts. Adelphi, 

21 Dec., 1835. 

50. The Painter of Ghent. A play in one act. Strand, 
25 April, 1836. 

51. The Man for the Ladies. A farcial comedy in two 
acts. Strand, 25 April, 1836. 

62.* The Bill-Sticker. Strand, 21 July, 1836. 
53. The Perils of Pippins; or, the Man Who " Couldn't 
Help It." A travestie drama in four acts. Strand, 

22 Aug., 1836. 

54.* The Gallantee Showman 
Home. Strand, 28 March, 1837. 

55.* The Mother. A drama. 

56. The White Milliner. A comedy in two 
Covent Garden, 9 Feb., 1841. 

57. The Prisoner of War. A comedy in three acts. 
Drury Lane, 8 Feb., 1842. 

58. Bubbles of the Day. A comedy in five acts. Covent 
Garden, 25 Feb., 1842. 

59. Gertrude's Cherries; or, Waterloo in 1835. A 
comedy in two acts. Covent Garden, 10 Sept., 1842. 

60. Time Works Wonders. A comedy in five acts. 
Haymarket, 26 April, 1845. 

61. The Catspaw. A comedy in five acts. Haymarket, 
9 May, 1850. 

62. Retired from Business. A comedy in three acts. 
Haymarket, 3 May, 1851. 

63. St. Cupid; or, Dorothy's_ Fortune. A comedy in 

or, Mr. Peppercorn at 
Haymarket, 21 May, 


three acts. Windsor Castle, 21 Jan., 1853, and Princess's 
Theatre the following evening. 

64. A Heart of Gold. A drama in three acts. Princess's, 
9 Oct., 1854. 

65.* Mammon. 

66.* Bajazet Gag ; or, the Manager in Search of a 

Nos. 65 and 66 are mentioned in the ' Life and Re- 
mains of Douglas Jen-old,' with no clue as to dates. 

67.* Rival Tobacconists. No clue as to date. 

68.* The Spendthrift. A comedy, as yet unacted. 

Should any reader of ' N. & Q.' be able to fill 
up any hiatus in my list, I shall feel indebted for 
the information. I have placed an asterisk against 
all those pieces of which I know no printed edition. 


noble mansion of red brick with stone dressings and 
a lofty roof of greenish slate, which, with its stately 
company of huge elms, for nearly two centuries 
gave repose and an incomparable grace to Chiswick 
Lane" had recently, trees and all, been com- 
pletely abolished. It hardly, perhaps, mitigates 
the regret which every lover of the past must feel 
at learning that this fine relic of an earlier and 
more reverent age has disappeared, to know that 
considerable doubt exists as to whether the house 
in question was that occupied by Mr. Ranby. 
Ranby was a personage of some importance in his 
day, as he was not only Serjeant-Surgeon to King 
George II., whom he is said to have attended at 
the battle of Dettingen, but was also the intimate 
friend of Fielding, who made a complimentary 
reference to him in the Man of the Hill's story in 
1 Tom Jones,' and of Hogarth, who, about the year 
1748, made an etching of his house and its sur- 
roundings. If this etching is carefully examined, 
it will be seen that on the right-hand margin is 
half of a dome-shaped building. This building can 
only be Lord Burlington's villa (now the Duke of 
Devonshire's), as none other possessed a cupola 
at that time. On the left is a large house which 
agrees with Corney House, and Mr. Ranby's, 
which, as we learn from the copy of the print in 
the British Museum, was taken from the window 
of Hogarth's house, is probably that which was 
built by Sir Stephen Fox as his residence. Under 
date 30 Oct., 1682, Evelyn says he 

"went with my Lady Fox to survey her building, and 
gave some directions for the garden at Chiswick; the 
architect is Mr. May ; somewhat heavy and thick, and 
not so well understood ; the garden much too narrow, the 
place without water, near a highway, and near another 
great house of my Lord Burlington, little land about it, 
so that I wonder at the expense ; but women will have 
their will." 

On the 16th of the following June Evelyn dined 
at the house, which must then have been com- 
pleted. Its subsequent history is given by Lysons 
('Environs of London/ ed. 1811, vol. ii. pt. i. 
p. 132), and after the death of its last occupant, 
Lady Mary Coke, the house and gardens were 
purchased by the Duke of Devonshire, the former 
pulled down, and the latter incorporated in his 
own magnificent property. On 1 June, 1813, the 
duke drove Miss Berry down to see the place, and 
she writes enthusiastically of the alterations which 

A paragraph appeared in the Athenwum for 
26 Sept,, 1896, p, 426, stating that this house" a 

he had effected (* Journals and Correspondence,' 
ii. 535). This, then, must, I think, have been the 
house occupied in 1748 by Mr. Ranby, probably 
as a tenant of the Earl of Northampton, who, as 
we learn from Lysons, was then the owner of the 
property. Its situation, as seen from Hogarth's 
house, will easily be recognized from the sketch 
map at p. 244 of ' Chiswick ' (edited by W. P. W. 
Phillimore and -W. H. Whitear). On this map N 
represents Hogarth's house, K Chiswick House, 
and R Corney House. Mr. Ranby's house would 

8 S. XI. FEB. 13, '97.] 



be visible from N as occupying an intermediate 
site between K and R, and I think there can be 
little doubt that it disappeared more than eighty 
years ago. 

Mr. Whitear, of Chiswick, whose high authority 
on all matters connected with that interesting 
suburb admits of no dispute, is of opinion that the 
building which, as stated in the Athenaeum, was 
lately in the hands of the housebreakers, was pro- 
bably Brad more House or College, Chiswick Lane 
(opposite Mawson Lane), and was in all likelihood 
the house formerly occupied by Dr. William Kose, 
the translator of Sallust, of whom a long account 
is given by Faulkner, in his * History of Brentford, 
Baling, and Chiswick/ ed. 1845, p. 349. Faulkner 
says Dr. Kose's house in Chiswick Lane adjoined 
the chapel. This chapel was destroyed some years 
ago, but there is a woodcut of it in Faulkner, 
p. 454, and it was close to the site in question. 

It is well known that Pope lived for some years 
with his parents in Mawson Kow then known as 
Mawson's New Buildings after their removal 
from Binfield till his father's death in 1717. The 
exact house is not known, and the rate-books 
throw no light on the subject, but it is popularly 
believed to have been the corner house, generally 
known as Mawson House. It may, therefore, be 
interesting to note, while I am on the subject of 
Chiswick, that I have lately learnt that plans have 
passed the vestry for the conversion of the house in 
question into a public-house. Comforting, indeed, 
it is for those who have spent the greater part of 
their lives in exile, to find on their return to their 
native land that they are still under the sway of 
practical bodies who tolerate no romantic nonsense 
about " boetry and bain ting." 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

SCOTS. In the year 1836 it was found that many 
Exchequer records were lying in a vault in Somerset 
House, the door of which was built up and entrance 
to which was gained by a ladder placed against a 
hole that had once been a window. No notice of 
the discovery was taken by the Treasury until 1838, 
when a fishmonger in Hungerford Market (Mr. 
Charles Jay) offered to buy the papers at 81. a ton. 
They were in 100 boxes, and many others were 
scattered loosely upon the floor ; they ranged from 
the time of Edward IV. up to 1788, and chiefly 
related to State expenditure. They were dirty and 
mouldy, and were first examined, then torn down 
the middle, and sold to the fishmonger. A few were 
afterwards reunited, the following document, though 
mutilated, being one of the saved. It concerns the 
expenses of Queen Elizabeth's Exchequer upon the 
Babington conspiracy and the trial of Mary, 
Queen of Scots, and it was authenticated by the 
signature of Lord Burghley : 

xxv die Octobris Anno Kegni D'ne n're Elizabeth 
El ne &c. xxix no . Allowed unto John Puckeringe one 
of her Maiestes Sergiauntes at the Law by waye of 
Uewarde for his travell out of the countrie and at- 
endaunce from the viii th of October Anno D'ne 158(5 
and for hya paynes in and about thexaminacions, indict- 
mentes and trial Is of Ballard, Babington and the rest 
of that Conspiracye. 

And for his travell, chardges and paynes taken in the 
matter of the Queen of Scottea at Fotheringay. 

And for his attendaunce, travell and paynea taken in 
;he Draught of the Com'ission and sentence and in other 
the proceeding against the same Q. of Scottes in the 
vacac'on and tearme. 

To the above no moneys were attached, but in 
another handwriting, partly torn away by the 
destroyers (but easily supplied), was the following : 

xxv jjmo October 1587. Allow and pay unto the said 
M r Serge (ante) Puckering in full satisfaction of) the 
said charges and expenses (the) some of one hundreth. 

To M r Ro. Pe(tre one of the) foure tellora of (the Ex- 
chequer) and to every of them. 

(Signed) W. BURQHLEY. 

The town accounts of Leicester contain an item 
for expenses incurred by Sir Amyas Paulett when 
en route for Fotheringay with Mary Stuart in his 
harsh keeping : 

Paid for two gallons of Gascony wine, one gallon of 
sack and three Ibe. of sugar given to Sir Amias Pollett at 
his being at Leicester then having there the Scottish 
Queen the three and twentieth day of September, 
11*. 4cZ. 

Paid to three men for two nights watching of Sir 
Amias Pollett's carriages at his being there with the 
Scottish Queen, 2s. 

Camden Lawn, Birkenhead. 

HORACE, ' SAT.,' I. v. 100. 

Credat Judaeus Apella, non ego. 

In his well-known humorous account of his 
journey to Brundusium Horace relates, among other 
things, that at Egnatia they showed him a temple 
where the priests pretended that the incense on the 
altar was ignited spontaneously without the appli- 
cation of fire ; whereon he exclaims, " The Jew 
Apella may believe this if he likes, not I. ' 

The question has often been asked, Who was 
the Jew Apella ? But nobody has ever answered 
it nobody knows nothing more is said about 
him in this passage, and there is no mention 
of him anywhere else. Commentators have never 
agreed about the point, or settled it in any way. 
Bentley seemed to think the reference must have 
been to some specially credulous Jew of that name, 
not elsewhere mentioned ; and various learned con- 
jectures have been made on the subject, without 
any conclusive result. 

But it is well known that, in the time of Horace, 
Apella was a very common name among Jewish 
freedmen in Transtiberine Rome ; see, inter alia, 
( Cic. ad Fam.,' vii. 25, " Ne Apellse quidem liberto 
tuo dixeris." Now, to a Roman, and especially to 



[8> S. XI. FEB. 13, '97. 

a sneering sceptic like Horace, all Jews must have 
appeared excessively credulous, by reason of their 
religious beliefs, and hence they doubtless became 
in the eyes of the Romans the very type of super- 
stition and credulity ; and since Apella was a 
common Jewish name in Rome, it would be 
natural enough for a Roman to say, regarding 
anything which he considered incredible, Let Apella 
the Jew believe that. 

Seamen think, or used to think, or to pretend to 
think, that the marines were very credulous and 
gullible ; and Joe used to be a common generic 
nickname for a marine. Hence it might easily 
happen that a sailor, speaking of something in- 
credible, might exclaim, "Joe the marine may 
believe that, not I"; and two thousand years 
hence learned commentators of a future nation, 
meeting the expression in some book or play, might 
launch out into futile speculations as to who this 
Joe the marine was ? 

Some have thought that Apella was not a personal 
name at all, but an adjective ; that it ought to 
commence with a small a ; and that it means cir- 
cumcised, being composed of alpha privative and 
TreAAa, skin a defectu prceputii but this inter- 
pretation has been rejected by all later criticism, 
and is absolutely untenable, since no such word 
exists in Greek, or is met with anywhere except in 
this passage. 

On the supposed superstitious and credulous 
character of the Jews see also * Woodstock/chap. xvi., 
where Bletson says to Markham Everard, " These 
Jews have always been superstitious ever since 
Juvenal's time, thou knowest." 

Qualiacunque voles Judaei somnia vendunt. 


PARSLEY: ITS FOLK-LORE. The following 
passage is from a poem by "Mr. Richard Barnslay" 
in 'Wit Restor'd,' 1658, p. 152, J. Camden 
Hotten's reprint, n.d. : 

Cast away Willow, Lady, then and choose, 
Dog-tree, or hemlock, or the mornfull yewes 
Tome from some church-yard side, the cursed thorne 
Or else the weed, which still before it 'a borne 
Nine times the devill sees ; if you command 
lie weare them all, compos'd by your fayre hand 
So that you '1 grant mee, that I may goe free 
From the sad branches of the willow tree. 

Is not the "weed" alluded to parsley, the seed 
of which, according to a Yorkshire saying, goes 
nine times to the devil before it comes up? It 
is needless to say that the seed remains a con- 
siderable time in the ground before it germinates. 


TROSTON. With reference to MR. F. T. HIB- 
GAME'S note at p. 8, ante, may I be allowed to 
correct a correction ? MR. HIBGAME wrote of 
Troton Hall, Suffolk, which the Editor corrected to 

Tra&ton, a small matter, but small errors sometimes 
breed greater ones. 

Troston is the correct name, and the village, 
some seven miles from Bury St. Edmunds and in 
the diocese of Ely, is a singularly isolated place. 
The story goes that in 1680 the parish was bought 
by one Robert Maddocks, 

"whose father was descended from the family formerly 
possessed of the sovereignty of Wales, and left that 
principality at the age of thirteen, on foot, friendless, 
and alone, in search of employment. Having arrived in 
London, he repaired to Cheapside, where, observing a 
merchant soil his shoe, in crossing the street, he im- 
mediately ran and brushed off the dirt. The merchant, 
struck with the boy's attention, inquired into his situa- 
tion, and, having heard his story, took him into his 
service. After some time he was employed in the 
counting-house ; and in the sequel became a partner in 
the firm, and acquired a considerable fortune." 

Mr. Maddocks was evidently of the same stock 
as Southey's Madoc. 

Edward Capel, who was deputy-inspector of 
plays, and edited Shakespeare, was born at Troston 
Hall in 1713, and the two Capel Loffts of Troston, 
who came after, were both men of considerable 
talent. Of Capel Lofft the younger Harriet 
Martineau was very fond ; she wrote of him : 

" He was one of the most striking of my occasiona 
visitors, the author of that wonderful book, the merits 
of which were discovered by Charlea Knight, 'Self- 
formation,' which should be read by every parent of 
boys. Those who know the work do not need to be told 
that the author was a remarkable man; and if they 
happen to have met with his agrarian epic, ' Ernest,' a 
poem of prodigious power, but too seditious for publica- 
tion, they will feel yet more desire to have seen him 

He was neat and spruce in his dress and appearance, 
with his glossy olive coat, and his glossy brown hair, 
parted down the middle, and his comely arid thoughtful 
face. He was as nervous as his father, and by degrees 
I came to consider him as eccentric, especially when I 
found what was his opinion of the feminine intellect, and 
that his wife, to whom he appeared duly attached, did 
not know of the existence of his poem. [The Quarterly 
Review put an end to the secrecy some time afterwards.] 
He died early, but not before he had left a name in the 
world by his 'Self- formation,' and an impression of 
power and originality by his formidable epic." Harriet 
Martineau's * Autobiography,' second edition, 1877, 
vol. i. pp. 416-7. 

Does anybody now read ' Self- formation ' ; and 
what has become of the formidable agrarian epic 
1 Ernest ' ? 

It should also be noted that in 1842 Troston was 
visited by Carlyle and his wife, who stayed with 
the Rev. Reginald Buller, then rector of the parish. 
Mrs. Carlyle gives a very comical account of her 
host, and of her own pranks in the church, reading 
French novels, stretching herself out for a nap, 
and so forth. In that church, too, she was diverted 
by the piping clarionet of old John Warren, who 
led the choir the clarionet is still in the village. 

The present squire is Mr. Robert Emlyn Lofft, 
who at one time was a great breeder of red-polled 

xi. FEB. is, w.] 



I may add that in no part of the United King- 
dom have I seen such lovely, far-stretching haw- 
thorn hedges as those which border on Troston 
Heath, the traditional site of a battle between the 
Danes and Saxons. These beautiful hedges are 
locally called "fences," which are a wonderful 
eight when the may is in full blossom. 


be of interest to note that the first Pharmacopoeia 
published in the United States was that issued by 
the Massachusetts Medical Society (8vo., Boston, 
E. & J. Larkin, 1808). A copy of the said work 
is preserved in the British Museum Library. 


PEACOCK. The following instances of the use 
made of the peacock as an ornament or an em- 
blem in various ways, at very different dates, may 
be worth recording. Story mentions that very fine 
peacocks and bulls were found near the Mole at 
Rome, and were considered as having been decora- 
tions for either the gates or statues (Blackwood, 

Sheehy (' Reminiscences of Rome,' 1838, pp. 49, 
114) mentions that in the Vatican are the two gilt 
bronze peacocks, and that they belonged formerly 
to Hadrian's tomb. He remarks that the peacock 
was the emblem of vanity and pride, and notices 
that St. Austin says, that owing to the fancied in- 
corruptability of its flesh, it was an emblem of 
the just man being proof against worldly cor- 

King John's father made him King of Ireland. 
Tbe Pope confirmed the grant, and gave him a 
crown of peacock's feathers in consideration of his 
poverty (Strickland, ' Queens of England/ viii. 
39). This rather singular Papal gift recalls to 
mind the great peacock feather fans borne on each 
side of the Pope as he is carried up the nave of 
St. Peter's. 

It appears by an inventory of the Queen of 
England of 1348 that she had possessed cloth 
of diaper with peacocks of gold on it. At Queen 
Margaret's wedding, 1468, was exhibited a peacock 
having a mantel of fleece of gold (Archceologia, 
xxxi. 354, 336). 

In sculpture the peacock is found on the 
Ravenna ambo, two on the screen of S. Vitale, 
one on the frieze of the ivory throne of S. Maxi- 
mian at Ravenna, one at Brescia, one at Torcello 
A.D. 1008, and one in the cathedral of Ancona. 
It was sacred to Juno and empresses, was carved 
on their tombs and on funeral lamps, was the 
symbol of their apotheosis, and came to be 
used symbolically by early Christians (Builder, 
No. 2808). 

In the magnificent Durbar room at Osborne is 
finely sculptured in white marble a large peacock 
with expanded tail, 1891. 

The Hebrew cherubim are described as being 
" full of eyes " (Ezekiel x. 12). 

Parkhurst (' Lexicon ') and Taylor ( { Oalmet's 
Dictionary') connect this expression with the 
so-called eyes of the peacock's feathers. 

Arabian astronomers, in the sign Gemini of the 
Zodiac, replaced the two boys by two peacocks t 
because of their law against the representation of 
the human figure (Archceologia, xlvii. 343). 

A medal of Mariana, wife of Valerian, has on 
the reverse a peacock, standing with expanded tail 
(Beger, ' Thesaurus Palatino,' 1685, i. 341). 

A medal of Domitia, wife of Domitian, has on 
the reverse a peacock, walking with closed tail 
(Beger, ' Thesaurus Brandenberg.,' vol. ii.). 

A medal of Julia Domna, wife of Severus, has 
on the reverse a peacock, standing with expanded 
tail (Beger, ' Thesaurus Brandenberg.,' ii. 696). 

A. B. G. 

LITERARY BLUNDER. I cut the following letter, 
headed "What Does It Mean ? " from the columns 
of the Bostonian's favourite tea-table sheet, under 
date of 5 Dec., 1896, as one of the oddest and 
most peculiar literary blunders, certainly the most 
careless, that ever emanated from the pen of an 
English writer in reference to the United States. 
Tbe death of the great statesman in question I, as 
a humble individual, can vouch for, inasmuch as 
I was one of the hundred thousand who witnessed 
in 1874 the public funeral tendered to his remains 
by the state of Massachusetts, whose interests he 
had guarded with rare genius during his long 
senatorial position at Washington. The pages of 
the elder 1)' Israeli may show a series of mistakes 
as curious as this, but I very much doubt it. Mr. 
Sumner died issueless, never practised in the courts, 
and it is not known that he ever crossed the 
American continent 01 was ever on the Pacific 
coast : 

" Dodd, Mead & Co. have just issued, in two hand* 
some volumes, ' Travel and Talk : 1885-93-95. My 
Hundred Thousand Miles of Travel,' by Rev. H. R. 
Haweis, M.A., incumbent of St. James's, Westmoreland 
Street, author of 'Thoughts for the Times/ 'Music and 
Morals,' &c. In the chapter on New York, pp. 93-5, 1 
read : ' Charles Sumner is one of those men who live 

for ideas Charles Sumner has always been a fighter 

of monopolies and jobs, and monopolists and jobbers 
have revenged themselves upon him by shutting him out 
of office when they could. But somehow there is a 
vitality about integrity and pluck, and only last year 
(1895) Sumner went to Washington and defeated a pretty 
little Southern Pacific job,' &c. At this point I began to 
be a little amazed, and turned to the preface, and there 
read : ' H. R. Haweis, M.A., Queen's House, Chelsea, 
1896.' Feeling satisfied that I was reading a recently 
written volume, I resumed. At the end of another page, 
concerning Mr. Sumner, I read the following : I still 
remember Sumner's warm grip and moist eye as he shook 
me by the hand in 1893. at Francisco after my sermon at 
the Golden Gate Hall. 'If we never meet again on 
earth, may we meet yonder, friend,' said he, with a ring 
of genuine emotion which deeply touched me. Sumner 
was in England in 1883, and before leaving he came to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. xi. F EB . is, '97. 

Si. James's, Westmoreland Street, one Sunday morning, 
but was unable to effect an entrance. He seems to have 
stood jammed up in the crowd at the door, and after 
several futile attempts to get through, wrote the follow- 
ing message on his card, which I only got after the 
service. (I have his characteristic card now) : 

10.50 A.M., Porch of St. James's, June 17, 1883. 

As I can obtain or retain neither seat nor standing- 
room, I will retire in good order. I am sorry that I could 
not hear you. I congratulate you on your crowded con- 
gregations. We sail Thursday, xxiv. Thanks for your 
courtesies. CHARLES SUMMER. 

To Rev. Mr. Haweis. 

Great Scott ! Am I awake, or am I dreaming 1 ? I 
aroused myself sufficiently to take down my ' Sumner 
Memorial.' There I read : ' Charles Sumner died at his 
residence in Washington, at thirteen minutes before 
three o'clock, on Wednesday afternoon, the eleventh day 
of March, 1874.' Has Mr. Haweis been exceptionally 
favored 1 Was Charles Sumner in England in 1883 ? Was 
he in San Francisco in 1893 1 Did he go to Washington 
in 1895, and defeat ' a pretty little Southern Pacific 
job ? ' Pray do enlighten a very much puzzled reader. 


Boston, U.S. 


A PURITAN RELIC. A few days ago, while 
turning over some old and forgotten books in a 
friend's library, I stumbled across a seventeenth 
century Book of Common Prayer. This relic of 
the past has a handsome leather binding, richly 
embossed with golden stamp and lettering, and silver 
clasps. On the fly-leaf is inscribed the words : 
"Susanna Pytt, her Booke." The printer was 
Eobert Barker, " Printer to the King's most Ex- 
cellent Majesty/' 1641. Susanna Pytt's name is 
engraved on one of its silver clasps ; and the fol- 
lowing lines, written in her own hand, appear 
below her signature on the fly-leaf. Whether they 
were her own composition, or copied from some 
contemporaneous work, I know not ; but, thinking 
that they may be interesting to the curious in such 
matters, I offer them to the readers of ' N. & Q.': 

Tis but a folly to reioyce and boast, 

How small a Price my well bought Pen'worth cost. 

Untill my death, thou shalt not fully know 

Whether thy Purchase be good cheape or no; 

And at that day, believ't, it will appear, 

If not extreamely cheape extreamely Dear. 

Tis not, what this man, or what that man saith, 

Brings the least stone toth' building of my faith ; 

My care may ramble, but my consciense ffollows 

No man : I 'me neither Paul's, nor yet Apollo's : 

When scripture gold lyes by me, is it just 

To take up my Salvation, upon trust 1 

My ffaith shall be confin'd to no man's lists ; 

I 'le only follow Paul, as Paul is Christ's. 


SQUIRE'S COFFEE-HOUSE. In vol. x. of this 
series various notes appeared on Fulwood's Rents, 
Holborn, and among them references to this coffee- 
house, whence so many papers in the Spectator 
are dated, and about whioh I am able to give 
further information. On 1 June, 1894, an old 
red-brick house, with a wide staircase, at the north 

end and the west side of Fulwood's Rents, and 
abutting on Field Court, Gray's Inn, was much 
damaged by fire, and in the course of the following 
September it was taken down. At that time I 
called on the owners, as I wished to find out if 
Timbs was correct in his statement that this was 
Squire's Coffee - House ; and they courteously 
allowed me to see the old deeds relating to it. I 
only had an opportunity of looking at them for a 
short time, but the following brief extracts of the 
documents placed before me may be relied on so 
far as they go. The earliest is Fulwood's title, 
date 1600. The next, dated 26 May, 1602, is a 
conveyance by " George ffulwood and Anne his 
wife" to William Quick, of this tenement, "now 
in the occupation of Francis Hartland Taylor." On 
19 Nov., 1628, there is an assignment by Quick. 
My other references, though comparatively late, are 
fuller and more explanatory. The first is an in- 
denture, dated 1 Aug., 1750, in which Edward 
Metcalfe, of Drayton, Oxfordshire, lets to William 
Whitaker, of the Middle Temple 

" All that messuage or tenement in ffulwood's Rents, 
parish of St. Andrew's, Holborn, heretofore in the tenure 
or occupation of George Squire, afterwards of Thomas 
Howe his under-tenant, and now of the said William 
Whitaker ; and now or late called Squire's Coffee-house, 
in part of which said messuage or tenement the said 
William Whitaker now holds the Sheriff's Courts of and 
for the said County of Middlesex. Which said messuage 
or tenement doth abut east on Fulwood's Rents, north 
on Gray's Inn, and south on a messuage or tenement late 
in the possession of Thomas E ersley [name illegible]." 

In 1751 this latter house was up for sale at 
Garraway's ; it was described as "formerly the 
Crown, and now the Swan, adjoining a messuage 
formerly called Squire's Coffee- House, but now 
used as the Court House, commonly called the 
Court of Requests." Again, I saw "Particulars 
of a freehold estate, comprising the Swan Public 
House, advantageously situate for business in Full- 
wood's Rents, adjoining the County Court House, 
which will be sold by auction on Thursday, the 
22nd Sept., 1785." Finally, under the date 1795, 
there is a description of "an eligible freehold estate 
in Fulwood's Rents, a substantial brick dwelling 
house called the Swan. The premises are situate 
adjoining south of the Court of Conscience." This 
Court House was undoubtedly the old brick build- 
ing destroyed in 1894. I have shown that it had 
been Squire's Coffee-House. Of its connexion 
with the house mentioned in Fulwood's title of 
1 600 I have not given direct proof. No doubt 
there are, or have been, intervening deeds, perhaps 
not now forthcoming ; but I understood from the 
solicitor connected with the property, who hap- 
pened to be present, that Squire's Coffee-House 
was on the same site, if not actually the same 
building, which he was inclined to believe, but 
which, from its style, seems improbable. 


8 th 8. XI. FEB. 18, '970 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

"BREET." This word is known in East York- 
shire in the sense of " a flood caused by excessive 
rains." Have any of your readers heard the word 
used in any other part of Yorkshire, or elsewhere 
in Great Britain ? THE EDITOR OF THE 

Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

"TRYST." What is the correct pronunciation 
of this word 1 As a Scotchwoman, I pronounce 
the y long ; but I am told by friends from the 
South it should be short. S. D. 

( (All Scottish authorities make the y long. In York- 
shire the practice is to make it short. Tryst, we have 
it on excellent authority, means in Scotland a fair for 
the sale of cattle, a meaning not given in Annandale's 
Ogilvie. Its connexion with trust is generally noticed.] 

A LANCASHIRE HORNPIPE. What special kind 
of hornpipe is this? Shelton, in a note on 'Don 
Quixote,' pt. ii. ch. xx., to a Zamora bagpipe, says : 
" Zamora, a town in Castile, famous for that kinde 
of musicke, like our Lancashire hornpipe" (ed. 
Nutt, vol. iii. p. 153). I have not the original at 
hand, to give the exact Spanish equivalent. 

H. T. 

COURT MARTIAL. Is it true that since the 
inception of the court martial only three persons 
have been sentenced and suffered death thereunder, 
viz., Admiral Byng, and Captains Wade and 
Kirkby ? The latter two were captains of the 
ships Defiance and Greenwich, respectively, in 
Admiral Benbow's expedition in the West Indies 
in 1702. They were tried by court martial at 
Port Royal, and sentenced to death for cowardice. 
The sentence was carried out on H.M.S. Bristol, 
at Plymouth, in 1702. There is said to have been 
a quarrel between Benbow and his captains. Is 
anything known of the details and evidence 
adduced at the trial? What were Capt. Wade's 
antecedents, and of what family was he ; also 
Capt. Kirkby ? NEWTON WADE. 

Newport, Monmouth. 

'SHOTT." Can you tell me the meaning of 
shott or shot, which is a component of many 
names of places in the district which stretches, 
roughly speaking, from Bagshot to Midhurst ? 
There are Aldershot, Bramshott, Greyshot, Shotter- 
mill, with innumerable other examples. The same 
affix occurs in the names of private domains, such 
as Heyshott, Cockshott, &c. And it extends to 
persons, Kingshott, for instance, being an extremely 
common surname in the district in question. 
Canon Taylor, in ' Names and Places,' says that shotf 

or shot is a corruption of holt, Anglo-Saxon for a 
wood ; but no authority is given for this statement, 
which appears to be a pure assumption, or, as 
might be said in the present connexion, a mere 
shot. Holt, by the way, appears, strictly speaking, 
to mean a grove, which is not quite precisely a 
synonym for " wood"; there is the same difference 
between the two words (and it is one which is 
quite appreciable) as between sylva and lucus. If 
Canon Taylor's supposition were well founded, holt 
would probably have survived in some one or more 
of the cases in which it was thus used. But, on the 
contrary, whenever some ancient form of spelling 
say, of Bramshott differs from that which is now 
in use, this variation, so far as I have been able to 
ascertain, does not tend to lead back towards holt, 
but in some other direction. Moreover, is it quite 
certain that the district in question ever was a 
vast and unbroken tract of wood, as would have 
been implied by the fact that a very large proportion 
of all the named spots within its limits was 
christened as a holt ? Is it not more likely to have 
been in the past what it is now, that is to say, a 
wild waste, with but a lean allowance of indigenous 
trees a forest, no doubt, in the technical sense of 
the word, but without much wood except where 
plantations have been made by the owners of the 
soil? T. W. ERLE. 

[See 5 th S. ii. 149, 235, 355.] 

more years ago I believe there was issued a print 
showing the port of Milford. Can you tell who 
the publisher was, and if there are any of the 
prints still in existence ? MARTIN W. WINN. 

" PEACE WITH HONOUR." In the ' Life of Sir 
Kenelm Digby,' recently published by Longmans, 
I was surprised to find this phrase quoted in a 
letter from Digby to Lord Bristol, dated 27 May, 
1625. The passage is as follows : " You shall then, 
without more adoe, kiss his [the King's] hands and 
lyve in peace with honour." Did Lord Beacons- 
field reinvent the phrase; or could he have seen 
this letter ? Or is it still older, and did Digby 
himself borrow it from some one else ? 


[The phrase is older, being used by Shakspeare, 
'Coriolanus,' III. ii. ; also by Pepys. See 5 th , 6">, and 
7 th S. passim.'] 

GALLIC COCK. What is the real origin of the 
Gallic cock ? E. P. B. 

CENTURY. I am assisting in the formation of a 
collection of objects which have been in common 
every-day use during the nineteenth century, but 
which are now obsolete or rapidly becoming so. 
I should be glad of any suggestions as to what 
ought to be included in order to make such a 
colleption a camprebensiye one, 41 f eady out p,f 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8*s.xi. FEB. 13/97. 

use : rushlight-holders, tinder-boxes with the flint 
and steel, coasters (the stands in which decanters 
of wine and spirits circulated round a dinner table), 
and flint-and-steel firearms. Going out of use : 
warming-pans, snuffers, cow-bells (still used in 
some of the southern counties), hop-tallies, stable 
lanterns of tin stamped with holes in various 
patterns to let the light through and with a horn 
window in the door. Out of the above-named the 
rushlight-holder, snuffers, flint pistols, warming- 
pan, and cow-bells have been already obtained. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

'HALIFAX SHILLING." Can any of your 
readers give me information regarding a " Halifax 
Shilling"? It was a current coin in the year 1828 
in Canada, value one shilling and threepence. 
Also I have a "Yorkshire halfpenny," date 1793. 
It has on one side a head of a man in a broad- 
brimmed hat ; on the other a coat of arms and the 
words " Payable in Sheffield." I shall be grateful 
for any information respecting it 

The Haye, Sherborne St. John, Basingstoke. 

VICOMTE DE COURTIVRON was an officer in the 
French army. He wrote one of the best treatises 
on the art of swimming, more especially in its 
military aspect. It passed through three editions 
the last and best being published in Paris in 1836 
According to the British Museum Catalogue his 
full name was Ludovic Antoine Francois Marie 
Le Compasseur de Courtivron, but he never calls 
by any name except " Le Vicomte L. de 
Courtivron." In Larousse (vol. v. p. 396) I find 
the Marquis de Courtivron (born Dijon, 1753 
died 1832), who I presume was the father of the 
Vicomte. Louandre and Bourquelot, in 'La 
Literature Frangaise,' vol. iii. p. 96, call him "le 
Compolleur," which I think is a misprint : they 
say he was bom "au chateau de Courtivron," 
4 August, 1786. He was a renowned swimmer 
and able to stop six hours in the water and swim 
in frozen rivers, and feared neither " cramp, waves 
weeds nor whirlpools." In 1894 I inspected a 
beautiful copy of his book at the Dijon Public 
Library given by him, the illustrations being 
coloured He was Mayor of Dijon. I shall be 
much obliged^for the date of his death and a refer- 

10 r'af j t i! ~ ' XvALPH J.HOMAS, 

Id, Clifford s Inn, E.G. 

is an unexplained interregnum in the Vernon line 
between the years (according to Duesbury) 1265 
and 1278, when the property was held by Gilbert 
le Franceys. Richard Vernon, who was married 
about 1195, had only one child, a daughter, who 
married a Gilbert le Franceys, and their son took 
the name of Vernon. Apparently these thirteen 
years would be the time when Richard Vernon's 

daughter and her husband held Haddon, yet there 
is a discrepancy in the dates, unless Richard 
Vernon lived for seventy years after his marriage, 
and his son thirteen years after that ! 

F. H, C, 

CHAWORTH. Burke, in giving, in his ' Extinct 
Peerage,' the lineage of the Barons Chaworth, 
states that " Thomas Chaworth died v. p., leaving 
by Joan Margaret, his wife, daughter of Sir Richard 
Pole,"&c. Was this Sir Richard identical with the 
Sir Richard Pole, K.G., who married Lady Margaret 
Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, executed in 
1541 ; or had this lady a second daughter, Joan 
Margaret, omitted in the account given, in which 
only one daughter, Ursula, wife of Henry, Lord 
Stafford, is mentioned ? DE LA POLE. 

HENRIETTA MARIA, I have a black-letter 
Book of Common Prayer, "Printed by Robert 
Barker, Printer to the King's most Excellent 
Majestie: And by the Assignes of John Bill. 
1636. " In the Litany (printed " Letnany ") and in 
the State prayer the name of the queen is given as 
Mary. Can any of your readers oblige by inform- 
ing me whether this is a peculiarity of this edition, 
or whether there are other instances of the queen 
of King Charles I. being designated Mary ? 


I have in my possession a medal struck on the 
death of Mary, wife of William III. The obverse 
has the queen's bust. On the reverse, to quote a 
MS. descriptive of the medal, 

"at the foot of a funeral pile erected after the 
manner of the antient Romans are seen three women, 
representing Wisdom, Piety, and Constancy, which were 
the virtues for which the Queen was particularly 
eminent : the legend containing these words : Ouando 
ullam invenient parem." 

Can any reader of N. & Q.' enlighten me as to 
the value of this medal, or give me any other 
information? W. D. OLIVER, 



How were they related? When did John 
Fullerton, captain 73rd Foot, die, and where ? 

A. C. H. 

OLD PEWTER WARE. A friend of mine has 
in his possession several pewter dishes, which 
tradition alleges to have belonged to an ancestor of 
the family in the year 1676. They are stampec 
below with the words "Made in London," ana 
with what I assume to be the makers' names, 
' Townsend & Compton." Can any one tell me 
at what date the firm of Townsend & Comptoi 
was in existence? I have ascertained that the 
books of the Pewterers' Company have not, at any 
rate subsequent to 1694, any entry showing 

fit* S. XI. FEB. 13, '97. J 



Townsend & Compton in partnership. Any advice 
as to the best way to find the date of this firm's 
existence, or which is the real point the age of 
the pewter dishes in question, will be gratefully 
received. B. P. SCATTERGOOD. 

Park Square, Leeds. 

wanderings in the West of England last summer 
I visited a little country church dedicated to these 
two saints, the local tradition regarding whose his- 
tory, and the Roman governor under whose auspices 
they suffered martyrdom, is curious ; but before 
giving further details, might I ask any of your 
readers to tell us what is authoritatively known of 
the history of these two saints ? J. B. H. 

again ask you to decide "where doctors dis- 
agree " 1 Reading Mr. Vandam's delightful book, 
* Undercurrents of the Second Empire,' London, 
Wm. Heinemann, 1897, I had occasion to look up 
the name of this princess (if, indeed, a Bonaparte can 
properly be called a princess, for their titles were 
all of their own making). I find in Oates's f Diction- 
ary of General Biography ' that she married, in 
1841, Anatoli Demidoff, Count of San Donate. 
The'Almanach de Gotha' considered, I fancy, 
the best authority says she married on 1 Nov., 
1840, Anatole Demidow, Prince de San Donato. 
' Men and Women of the Time ' says she married 
10 Oct., 1841, the Russian Prince Anatole Demi- 
doff. Which is correct ? J. B. FLEMING. 

Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

Can any reader supply me with title, authorship, 
date, and form of first publication, &c., of the 
stanzas below ? They are quoted to me by a friend 
in whose memory they have lived for many years, 
but who entirely forgets how he came by them : 

They met ; 'twas in the starry depths 

Of August's cloudless sky ; 
Fair Luna trod her silvery path 

In matchless majesty : 
The cricket chirped, the fire-fly 

Pursued his fitful dance, 
'Twas in the balmy slumbrous night 

That those two met by chance. 

With throbbing heart and beating pulse 

He spoke in accents low, 
And in her glancing eye there came 

A deeper, warmer glow : 
Then, up the apple-tree she swarmed 

And there vindictive spat, 
For " he " was "Jack " my terrier, 

And " she " our neighbour's cat. 

G. F. 0. 

SIR MICHAEL COSTA. What was the full name 
of the father of the late Sir Michael Costa (musi- 
cian), what was his nationality, and when did he 
die? J. T, THORP. 

Regent Road, Leicester, 

(8 th S. ix. 445.) 

I intended long ago to write a short note on 
this subject, to which I have given some atten- 
tion. Hatton, usually accurate, in his * New View 
of London,' 1708, tells us that this is " a spacious 
building on the east side of College Hill, now or 
late in the possession of Sir John Lethieullier " ; 
and as regards the position of the house he is fol- 
lowed by Peter Cunningham. On the other hand, 
Strype speaks of it as *' over against St. Michael's 
Church," and therefore on the west side. He also 
places it there in his map. He goes on to say that 
it is "so called as being bought by the late Duke 
of Buckingham, and where he some time resided 
on a particular humour"; and (writing in 1720) 
that "it is a very large graceful building, late the 
seat of Sir John Lethulier, an eminent merchant, 
deceased." From these conflicting statements as 
to the position of the house, I was doubtful on which 
side of the street it really was till the facsimile of 
Ogilby and Morgan's map (1677), lately published, 
decided the question, as I pointed out in a notice 
of the map (see Academy, 18 May, 1895), and as 
COL. PBIDBAUX has since shown in your pages. ^1 
now again introduce the subject, because I wish, if 
possible, to learn something more about the site 
hard by, where Hatton places Buckingham House. 
In the Christmas number of the English Illustrated 
Magazine for 1891 I gave a view of two fine gate- 
ways, with sculptured pediments, which might have 
been designed by Wren, still standing on the east 
side of College Hill, more or less opposite the site 
of the ducal mansion. These gateways form the 
means of access to two houses under one roof, that 
to the south, 21, College Hill, being a capital speci- 
men of a merchant's dwelling of the early part of 
the eighteenth century, with a handsome staircase, 
carved over- doors, and a finely panelled room on 
the first floor. They stand back some distance 
from the street, and seem to have no special rela- 
tion with the gateways, which are older in style. 
Moreover, these gateways are incorporated in a 
frontage (shown in my view) which is not without 
architectural merit, and which in old leases is 
spoken of as " the stable." I should add that under- 
neath both houses run very large cellars, connected, 
and that within memory there was a small garden at 
the back of No. 21. The owner of this house, who 
was born in it, and whose father and grandfather 
lived there before him, once kindly showed me an 
abstract of title, which, though not going back to 
the beginning, proved that in 1746 it belonged to 
Charles Lethieullier, and had in all probability 
been in the family for many years. It was then 
tenanted by Sir Samuel Pennant, the previous 
occupant having been Sir Robert Qodschall, The 



house afterwards passed by marriage to the Hulses. 
At the time, not having seen Ogilby's map, I 
thought that Hatton was right, and that these 
gateways had once led to a courtyard at the back 
of which stood Buckingham House, destroyed 
soon after Strypo wrote to make room for the 
present structures. Taking into consideration the 
fact of the property having belonged to the 
Lethienllier family, from its ground plan, and from 
the style of the gateways themselves, and of 
the building to which they belong, I now rather 
lean to the opinion that here were the stables of 
Buckingham House, with a garden at the back. 

[ ought to add that Ogilby's map shows only one 
entrance, where now are the gateways, which 
leads into a large courtyard, beyond that a 
garden ; Strype's map, on a smaller scale, is some- 
what similar. The Duke of Buckingham came 
to College Hill after he sold York House in 1672. 
The Lethieullier family, originally from Brabant, 
was of high standing in the City during the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Sir John was 
Sheriff of London in 1674. In the ' Little London 
Directory '(1677) he is described as of Mark Lane. 
There were besides, Samuel, William, and Abraham 
in Broad Street, Christopher in Turn-wheel Lane, 
and another in Bush Lane. PHILIP NORMAN. 

ROUND ROBIN (8 th S. x. 391). See also 1 st S. 
in. 353, 461 ; 2** S. x. 287, 376 ; 5> S. v. 267, 

!35 ; vi. 157 ; 6 th S. vii. 249. MR. ADAMS 
writes as if the subject had never before been 
treated of in ' N. & Q.' I therefore add the missing 
references, and I do this with the less scruple that 

feel sure that, if MR. ADAMS had consulted them 
he would not have written his note as it now 
stands. For his view seems to be that, because in 

L659 certain sailors sent a round robin, therefore 
the expression had its origin in the navy (in this, 
however, he seems to have the support of Mr .2* S. x. 376-and the Rev. A. S. 
Palmers 'Folk- Etymology >) and he proceeds to 
quote a naval word robandw a possible etymology. 
And no doubt, if the expression did not occur 
earlier than 1659, he would have some ground for 
ais opinion. Yet, if he had consulted only the 
first and the last of the references which I have 
added above, he would have found that the ex- 
pression was in use on land before 1659 For 
m 1 s * S. iii. 353 we are told that " in Dr Heylin's 
controversy with Fuller on his ' Chnrch History ' 
the following quotation occurs": " That the Sacra- 
ment of the Altar is nothing else but a piece 
bread or a little predie round robbin." 
And this "little predie round robbin" is reason- 
think, taken by another correspondent 
gWA, p. 461) to be "a small pancake," from the 
Devonshire use of the expression. Now Fuller's 

.hurch History' was published in 1655, and he 
himself djed in 1661, and Heylin in 1662, so that 

it is probable that Heylin's words above quoted 
were written before 1659. And we have a still 
earlier use of the expression given in 6 th S. vii. 249, 
where " the famous round robin presented to Par- 
liament" (in 1643) is spoken of. 

It is, therefore, by no means certain that "round 
robin " was first used by sailors. 

I myself once wrote a note on " round robin " 
(in 1886), but for some reason or other I never 
sent it to ( N. & Q.' From this note I shall take 
what I still have to say, for I have not since 
changed my opinion. 

I quite agree with MR. ADAMS in denouncing 
the ridiculous derivation from "rond ruban." I 
have not even been able to find that there is any 
corresponding expression in French, and certainly 
rond ruban was never so used, if ever used at all. 
As for my own opinion, I based it upon the fact 
that round robin is used for at least five different 

1. "A small pancake" (Halliwell), and this mean- 
ing, from what I have said above, may be 250 years 

2. "A sacramental wafer " (A. S. Palmer, 
op. cit.\ and see above. 

3. A petition with the signatures arranged in a 
circle, the meaning we are now dealing with and 
the only meaning known to most people. 

4. " A hood above the nave or hub of a vehicle, 
to prevent the street mud from falling upon the 

axle otherwise called a dirt-board [dirt-clout] 

or round robbin " (Knight's ' Diet, of Mechanics, 1 
Cassell & Co., no date, but not later than 1889, 
when I bought it s.v. " Cuttoo-plate," which 
seems to be a corruption of the Germ. " Koth- 

5. "A small ring or cylinder (now commonly 
lined with india-rubber), which serves to fix 
the back cross spring of a carriage to the side 
spring when this is fixed singly." This definition 
was given me by a coach-builder, who showed me 
one of these round robins and said it diminished 
the vibration of the carriage. He knew the term 
dirt-clout (see 4), and said that the object so 
designated was now only to be seen in country 
waggons ; but he had never heard it called a round 

When I first came across the meanings 4 and 5, 
it naturally struck me that, as the one keeps off 
dirt from the axle, and the other lessens the vibra- 
tion of a vehicle, and both these effects are partly, 
or chiefly, due to the roundness of the objects, so 
meaning 3 the one we have before us in which 
likewise roundness serves to prevent annoyance, 
might have been derived from, or have something 
to do with, these two meanings. But it is, of 
course, impossible to come to any decision with 
regard to this matter till one knows the respective 
ages of meanings 3, 4, and 5, and this, I am afraid, 
even the ' N. E, D. ; will fail to make out, as the 

8 th S. XI. FEE. 13, '97.] 



age of technical terms must commonly be shrouded 
in the greatest obscurity. 

In the mean time, therefore, I will content my- 
self with the suggestion that in all these five cases 
robin is merely the familiar double diminutive of 
Robert ( = Rob-f-in), and that, like other diminu- 
tives, especially Jack, which is applied to a number 
of objects* (not to speak of individuals and animals), 
this robin is merely a picturesque and euphonious 
substitute for thing or object, and was probably 
selected to follow round because it gave rise to 
some sort of alliteration or assonance, each word 
containing ro-n. This was the conclusion I came 
to in 1886, and this is my conclusion still. I 
base it chiefly upon the consideration that the 
only apparent connexion between the five objects 
called round robin is their roundness, and that it 
would be exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to 
find out any other derivation for robin which could 
suit all the five meanings. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

Wright's f Provincial Dictionary 1 has, "Round 
robin, a small pancake. Devon." A robin-roll 
is known in Oxford shops. ED. MARSHALL. 

SIR FRANC VAN HALEN, K.G. (8 th S. xi. 84). 
Permit me to inform the REV. A. W. CORNELIUS 
HALLEN that he is mistaken in stating that the 
pedigree of Hall to which he refers was foisted on 
the College of Arms at the Visitation of Salop, 
1623. No pedigree of Hall, fictitious or otherwise, 
is to be found in the official visitation in the college. 
To my certain knowledge the so-called visitations 
in the British Museum differ very materially from 
the official visitations in the College of Arms, and 
it is never safe to infer that pedigrees found in the 
one will be found in the other. 

Many erroneous statements concerning the 
College of Arms and its records have appeared in 
print during the last few years. As a case in point 
allow me to refer to p. 178 of ' A Treatise on 
Ecclesiastical Heraldry,' by John Woodward, 
LL.D., where it is stated that the arms of the see 
of Chichester are, by the authority of the College 
of Arms, blazoned, "Azure, a Presbyter- John, 
sitting on a tombstone, his right hand extended, 
all or, with a linen mitre on his head, and in his 
mouth a sword ppr." I have made reference to 
every entry of the arms in the College 1 books, and 
in no single instance do I find them so blazoned, 
but invariably are they represented as Azure, our 
Blessed Lord in glory, seated on a throne, His 
right hand upraised or, His left hand holding an 
open book ppr. (sometimes an orb), and out of His 
mouth a two-edged sword, point to the sinister, 
gules. It is a pity that persons before making 

* Comp. especially flap-jack in Halliwell, one meaning 
being, curiously enough, " a pancake," and so =round 
robin; and the other "a flat, thin joint of meat," which 
looks as if Hap in this expression ia taken flat, 

charges against the College records do not take the 
trouble to verify them. 

CHARLES H. ATHILL, Richmond Herald, 
College of Arms. 

COUNTY FAMILIES (8 th S, xi. 87). There is one 
work of a similar character to the * History of the 
Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland,' by John 
Burke, London, 1833, 4 vols., issued at an earlier 
date, but it only applies to Scotland, i.e., 'The 
Baronage of Scotland,' containing an historical and 
genealogical account of the gentry of that kingdom, 
by Sir Robert Douglas, Edinburgh, 1798. Before 
this date the information concerning the gentry 
was confined to visitations, lists or catalogues, and 
county histories. JOHN RADCLIPFE. 

No one has a better right than I to answer Miss 
THOYTS'S question. It was Sir Bernard Burke 
alone who about 1830 first published an account of 
the chief of our landed gentry. His book was in 
four volumes, and was called * Burke's Commoners.' 
I simply followed in his wake, and at a humble 
distance, in 1860 with my * County Families,' a 
much less pretentious book, and with no claim to 
originality. Nothingof the kind had been attempted 
previously to Sir Bernard Burke. 



85). To the particulars given by MR. HIPWKLL 
concerning Dr. Tunstall may be added that his 
father was an attorney of Aysgarth, in Wensley- 
dale, in 1739. He was instituted to the rectory of 
Sturmer, in Essex, and in 1744 collated to the 
rectory of Great Charte, in Kent. It is not quite 
correct to say that " Dr. Tunstall's biographers are 
in error regarding the dates of his birth and death," 
as both these are correctly recorded in my * History 
of Rochdale,' published in 1889. 


UP EARLY" (8 th S. xi. 86). LORD ALDENHAM 
remarks that he has never met with the slang 
phrase about getting up early " or its like in 
literature." What may be called the classical 
example occurs in Lowell's 'Biglow Papers, 1 

No. 1 : 

An 1 you 've gut to git up airly 
Ef you want to take in God. 

In the third of Swift's ' Polite Conversation ' 
dialogues Lady Answerall says, " Upon my word, 
they must rise early that would cheat her of her 
money.' 1 & L. APPERSON. 

CLAUDIUS DU CHESNE (8 th S. xi. 87). 
"Duchesne, Claude, in Long Acre (of Paris), 
admitted 0. 0., 1693 ; maker of a square full- 
repeating bracket clock, inscription on back- plate, 
'Claudius du Chesne, in Long Aker." Many 
other examples of his work are to be met with, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8tts.xi.FBB.ivw. 

1693-1720 (Britten's 'Former Clock and Watch 
Makers'). G. H. THOMPSON. 


"DIAMOND WEDDING" (8 th S. x. 508). Under 
this heading it may be worth while to record the 
circumstance that the Prince of Wales, on 5 Jan., 
in a speech delivered by him in the Town Hall of 
Fenton, one of the outskirts of Stoke-on-Trent, 
remarked : " We are glad to think that one of our 
first acts in this memorable year the Diamond 
Jubilee of the Queen is to take part in to-day's 
ceremony." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

WAVE NAMES (8 th S. x. 432; xi. 32). I 
readily accept MR. HALE'S disclaimer, and express 
my regret if anything in my former note was 
offensive to MR. HALE. It is clear that the 
Family Herald copied from the Globe without 
acknowledgment. The Globe article was not 
signed "turnovers " never are signed but I am 
not prepared to admit that the fact of an article 
being unsigned renders it "public property." That, 
however, as Mr. Kipling would say, is another 
story, and the present matter is too trivial to 
afford a foundation for its discussion. In reply to 
MR. HOOPER I may repeat that both " slog " and 
" home " are given (s.v. " Home ") in the list of 
' Sea Words and Phrases along the Suffolk Coast ' 
contributed by the late Edward FitzGerald, the 
translator of Omar Khayyam, to the East Anglian, 
vol. iii. (1869). G. L. APPERSON. 

BASKETS (8 th S. ix. 425, 513; x. 342, 361, 440). 
There are several references in Layard's * Nineveh 
and its Remains ' to this mode of removing the 
earth. The following is the earliest mention : 

"The soil when loosened, had to be removed in 

baskets and thrown over the edge of the mound. The 
Chaldeans from the mountains, strong and hardy men, 
could alone wield the pick ; the Arabs were employed in 
carrying away the earth." Edition of 1849, i. 35. 

Salterton, Devonshire. 

xi. 73). Your correspondent H. T. will find at 
first hand the original official papers of the late 
East India Company on the subject of the loss of 
this vessel, containing all the information he seeks, 
in the records at the India Office, Whitehall, 
London. I am a long distance from home (Lon- 
don), and consequently away from all my memo- 
randa, otherwise I would have given him the 
particulars he requires. 

I take this opportunity (with the permission of 
the courteous Editor of 'N. & Q.') of thanking 
your correspondent MR. RALPH THOMAS for his 
kindly mention of me ; also of saying, from ex- 
perience, as a subscriber to * N. & Q.' of thirty 
years'jitanding, that many of the queries therein 

appear to me to be those of idlers, who evidently 
have never given themselves the smallest trouble 
to look for the information they require, and which 
was, so to speak, right under their eyes at the time. 
They are just as if a man who has lived all his life 
in London, and is still living there, asked, Where 
is Nelson's Column 1 

Frequently I have measured the space occupied 
with a query and the replies, and have found it to 
be from two to eight inches, thus excluding the 
printing of other information really difficult to find. 
There are no fewer than three such queries in the 
number for 23 January. 

I, for one, protest moat strongly against this 
waste of valuable space. I consider that ' N. & Q.' 
should be used for that purpose only as a dernier, 
and not as a premier ressort. Again, very fre- 
quently a plain and specific question is asked, to 
which an equally plain and specific reply is sought. 
Instead of that, a reply on a side issue is given, 
which is no reply, and is of no use whatever to the 
querist. (An instance is supplied in the number 
for 23 January, p. 77, as to the South Sea Com- 
pany.) These always remind me of the schoolboy 
story : " Do you know Mathematics [Matthew 
Matics] 1 " Reply : " I knew his brother Jim," 
instead of the plain answer, Yes or No. 

0. MASON. 

Villa Byron, Monte Carlo. 


xi. 13). Let me refer MR. FOSTER PALMER to 
' Dio Cassius,' Ix. 20, where he will find " 6 ovv 

IIA,avTios ...... Trpwrov wev KaraparaKOV, 

ToyoSov/xvov, Kvvo/JcAtvov TraiSas, 
Cataratacus is evidently another form of the name 
more familiar to us under that, Caractacus, in 
which it appears in Tacitus ; he and Togodumnus 
are here both called sons of Cunobelinus. It was 
the rebellion and expulsion of another son, 
Adminius, which led to the Roman invasion of 
Britain in the reign of Claudius. 

W. T. LYNN. 

As I suppose that Prof. Rhys may be^ regarded 
as an authority on the history of Wales, it may be 
as well to quote the following passage from his 
1 Celtic Britain,' 1882, p. 35 :- 

"Cunobelinos had other sons [i. e,, besides Adminius 
or Amminus, previously mentioned], but the only ones 
known to history were Togodumnos and Caratacos, who 
ruled over their deceased father's kingdom when Claudius 
sent Aulua Plautius here." 


LAW STATIONER (8" 1 S. xi. 24). The description 
of a law stationer as given in the * Century Dic- 
tionary' would certainly be nearer the mark if 
altered as suggested by MR. RALPH THOMAS ; but 
I rather doubt if there ought to be any allusion to 
selling. A law stationer pure and simple does 
not keep a shop, and practically sells nothing over 

8* S. XI. FEB. 13, '97.] 



the counter, his stock of materials being kept for 
use by himself in carrying on his business of en- 
grossing and copying. I take it, when he opens a 
shop and sells stationery he becomes something 
besides a law stationer, and usually styles himself 
a Jaw and general stationer. 

With regard to engrossing wills on parchment 
for signature by a testator, the practice is, no 
doubt, uncommon, but it certainly has been, and 
I daresay is still, occasionally adopted. Since 
reading MR. THOMAS'S note, I have been shown, in 
the books of a law stationer in large business of the 
good old-fashioned type, entries of two wills so 
engrossed. These occurred in 1852, one of them 
being a will of great length and engrossed very 
closely on six large skins of parchment, the other 
on three skins. The law stationer informed me 
that further search in his books would certainly 
reveal a good many similar cases ; but he thought 
he had not engrossed a will on parchment for some 
considerable time, perhaps not since 1860. 

Possibly, after all, Swift knew what he was 
about when he wrote the passage quoted by your 
correspondent from the * Tale of a Tub.' 

C. M. P. 

Of course MR. RALPH THOMAS is right. From 
the modern law stationer, as a rule, you buy nothing 
but handwriting. This is specially the case in the 
provinces. In London, however, he still sells law 
stationery and printed law-forms. I remember a 
law stationer in York who had a shop-window 
wherein draft-paper and red-tape were exposed, 
but this was a rare exception (1865). Usually he 
has offices similar to those of a solicitor. For 
'Wills on Parchment,' see N. & Q.,' 6 th S. v. 
110, 237, 378. W. 0. B. 

The definition in the 'Century Dictionary,' as 
amended by Mr. Thomas, is exactly right if 
restricted to London. I do not think it applies 
to any American city. Mr. Snagsby, as seen in 
* Bleak House,' does not exist in New York. In 
Philadelphia, before the war, there were scriveners 
who made a business of preparing fair copies 
of papers for lawyers and conveyancers. In 
New York such copying is mainly, if not univer- 
sally, done by clerks in the various law offices. 
Some are copyists and nothing more; others are 
in training to become lawyers, acquiring practical 
familiarity with the forms of pleadings and other 
papers. The type-writing machine came into use, 
and its convenience as a means by which several 
copies of one document can be made at once led to 
its almost universal adoption in lawyers' offices, so 
that now few papers are presented to the court in 
other than type-written form. The court prefers 
such papers. It is the rule, and the New York 
statute requires, that transcripts of evidence and 
proceedings made by the shorthand writers shall 
be written or type- written in black ink on paper of 

a prescribed size and weight ; but they were 
formerly pen-written on legal cap. The type- 
writer permits more rapid production, produces 
more uniform work, and allows duplication of the 
matter when requisite. It is doubtful if the young 
men of to-day write as well as their fathers did, 
As one gentleman expressed himself the other day 
about a manuscript pleading, "Calligraphy is 
becoming a lost art." Those lawyers who do not 
keep a type-writing machine go to one near by, 
and have their papers fair copied, or dictate them 
to a shorthand writer who afterwards operates the 
machine. Here the law stationer sells stationery 
suitable for lawyers and anything that a penman 
or accountant requires, he deals in law blanks, but 
he does not keep an office for the copying of law 
papers. JOHN E. NORCROSS. 

Brooklyn, U.S. 

The curious fallacy which makes authors and 
other literary men refer to wills as being engrossed 
on parchment is specially referred to in Mr. Walter 
Rye's * Records and Record Searching,' second 
edition, p. 103 (note), in which he says : 

"It is most amusing how nearly every novelist 
(e. g., Kingsley in the Hillyara and the Burtons, where 
the terrier finds the missing parchment up the chimney) 
and playwright to this day, when in due course of events 
the original will which is to restore the wronged persona 
to affluence is discovered, describe it as 'parchment.' 
I never saw an original will on parchment, but the 
transcript or probate is always copied on it." 

46, Osnaburgli Street, N.W. 

Taking in drafts or writings to be fairly copied 
or engrossed for lawyers is no part of the law 
stationer's business in America. F. J. P. 

Boston, Mass. 

DIVINING-ROD (8 th S. x. 255, 302, 345). The 
divining-rod is in active use just now in North 
Devon, and is about to be tried here (Ilfracombe). 
The diviner goes on the principle of "no find, no 
pay." I heard from a clergyman, who employed 
him, that he stated that the rod was quite super- 
fluous ; the sensation of the presence of water was 
entirely in his own hands. 


Readers of De Quincey's 'Confessions' will 
remember the pedantic way in which (in a note, 
p. 84) he explains pa[38ofJLavTia and several 
cognate Greek terms, together with his cynical 
advocacy of the powers of the divining-rod. 

"In Somersetshire, which is a county the most ill- 
watered of all in England, upon building a house, there 
arises uniformly a difficulty in selecting a proper spot 
for sinking a well. The remedy is to call in a set of 
local rhabdomantists. These men traverse the adjacent 
ground, holding the willow rod horizantally ; wherever 
that dips, or inclines itself spontaneously to the ground, 
there will be found water. I have myself not only seen 
the process tried with success, but have witnessed the 
enormous trouble, delay, and expense accruing to those 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* a XL FEB. is, 'or. 

of the opposite faction who refused to benefit by this 
art. To pursue the tentative plan (i. e., the plan of try- 
ing for water by boring at haphazard) ended, so far as 
I was aware, in multiplied vexation. In reality, these 
poor men are, after all, more philosophic than those who 
scornfully reject their services. For the artists obey un- 
consciously the logic of Lord Bacon : they build upon a 
lone chain of induction, upon the uniform results of 
their life-long experience. But the counter faction do 
not deny this experience : all they have to allege is, 
that, agreeably to any laws known to themselves, 
priori, there ought not to be any such experience. Now, 
a sufficient course of facts overthrows all antecedent 
plausibilities. Whatever science or scepticism may gay, 
most of the tea-kettles in the Vale of Wrington are filled 

by rhabdomancy even if Mephistopheles should be at 

the bottom of the affair." 

Nothing need nor can be added. De Quincey 
locutus est, causa Jinita est. J. B. S. 


The following is a cutting from the Stamford 
Mercury of 15 Jan. : 

" Mr. William Stone, of Bolingbroke Hall, an exponent 
of the ' divining rod,' attended at Spilsby on Monday to 
discover water for u?e at the police-station. Mr. Stone 
had some two months previously found water upon the 
premises, but upon analysis it turned out to be impure. 
The first place selected was the garden in the occupation 
of the Superintendent of Police, on the north side of 
the police-station. Mr. Stone had not gone more than 
six or seven yards before the rod began to revolve in his 
hands, thus indicating that be had found water. Capt. 
Walker and others took the twig, but in their hands it 
was motionless, yet when Mr. Stone touched it it again 
began to move. An adjournment was then made to the 
gardens south of the police-station, where further ex- 
periments were made, which Mr. Stone stated to be 


HUNGATE : HUNSTANTON (8 th S. x. 171, 241, 
360, 418, 459). I have never found the surname of 
Hunstan or Hunston at Hunstanton, but a Richard 
Hunstan was Mayor of Lynn (not far off) in 1543, 
and there were Hunatons at Walpole. John Hun- 
deeson was implicated in the riot of Norwich in 
1272, and the name may have been corrupted from 
this, but in later years is almost certainly a corrup- 
tion of Hunsdon. The name of Hunn, though now 
at Hnnstanton, is not, I think, an old name there, 
but is fairly common in Norfolk e.g., Robert 
Hunne, of Wymondham, was party to a fine in 
24 Edw. I., and John Hunne to another as to 
land in Felt well in 7-8 Hen. V. In Norris's 
'Pedigrees,' pp. 1064-1205, the name is spelt 
Le Hune, but this is probably another and foreign 
family. Personally I have little doubt Hunstanton 
or Hunston means the settlement of the de- 
scendants of a person called Hunston or Hun, the 
latter being a shortening of the former. 

Frognal House, Hampatead. 

I do not quite follow PROF. SKEAT'S line of 
reasoning. Just as the sign of the genitive has 
fallen out of the second part of Hunstanton, which 

was once Hunstanes-ton, so may the same process 
have taken place with the first part of the word. 
Domesday Book is no authority for word-spelling, 
but it is curious to note that four out of the five 
variations of Hunstanton commence with Hunes, 
and if the 8 is not reduplicated that is no more 
than we should expect. I object to the word 
"guess" where evidence is adduced in support of 
argument. The weight of PROF. SKEAT'S name 
does not remove his conjecture from the same 
category. I must also object that I did not refer 
stan to cliff, or even rock, but to the great 
boulders lying at the foot of the cliff ; nor did I 
merely state that "there are no families of 
Hunstan in Norfolk at present" but that to the 
authority quoted it was not known that there had 
ever been such a family name in East Anglia. 
In the absence of proof, therefore, on this point, ib 
seems to me that PROF. SKEAT'S positive assertion 
is out of place. 

By reference to Bishop ^Elfric's will I see that 
the stream that skirts the old town is referred to 
as jEstan-broke. Having regard to the Domesday 
spellings Hunestanestuna and Hunestanesteda, one 
cannot disregard the possibility of connexion 
between the two. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY. 

I cannot help inclining to the opinion that the 
derivation from hund, a hound, as applied to, at 
all events, some of the place-names in question, is 
better supported than the one from hun, a foreigner. 
Not only was the Cardiff Womanby spelt Hounde- 
manneby in the earliest known occurrence of the 
word (early fourteenth century), but, in the will 
of Alderman Christopher Mathews, of Cardiff, 
dated 25 February, 1717, it is called Howmanby, 
showing that the diphthongal sound was then still 
surviving ; but it is certainly strange to find the 
termination by in South Wales. 


Town Hall, Cardiff. 

LETHERINGHAM PRIORY (8 th S. xi. 26). The 
slip to which MR. F. H. GROOME refers as 
occurring in the ' Letters of Horace Walpole ' (ed. 
1891, vol. ii. p. 463), and as being endorsed by 
Cunningham, is due not to Horace Walpole, but 
to Cunningham himself, who has interpolated the 
name (Wingfield) in the body of the letter. In the 
4 Private Correspondence of Horace Walpole ' 
(4 vols., London, 1820) this letter to Bentley is 
printed without the interpolation. Cunningham's 
constant practice of making insertions in the text 
of Horace Walpole's * Letters ' is most misleading. 


Dorney Wood, Burnham, Bucks. 

GHOST-NAMES (8 th S. xi. 64). " Orris," as a 
Christian name, ought, I think, to be classed with 
these. I know two men who bear this name, and 
spell it in this way. Surely they are named after 
the Latin poet, not from the rhizome of the Iris 

S* s. XI. FEB. 13, '97.] 



In Belton Churchyard, near Doncaster, there is a 
sfcone to the memory of Knathia Sarah Maw. Is 
the first name a real one, or a ghost-name ? May 
I also ask under this head for information respect- 
ing the female name Khail or Khale ? I formerly 
knew a Cornish lady who bore it, and I am told it 
is not uncommon in Cornwall, but Miss Yonge 
knows nothing of it. The unlearned, by the way, 
are not the only people who make mistakes in 
names. A former vicar of Long Clawson, in Lei- 
cestershire, refused to christen a relative of mine 
Kezia, because there was no such name ; and the 
Bible had to be produced before he was convinced 
of his error. 0. C. B. 

45). May I be allowed to draw attention to the 
note on p. 182 of the "Golden Treasury Series" 
edition of Sir Thomas Browne's ' Hydriotaphia,' 
where the origin of the leading idea in the sonnet 
is pointed out. 



The analogy or main thought of this great 
sonnet is to be found in other writers, of whom 
Sir T. Browne, in his ' Religio Medici/ is one. 
He says something like this : 

" Light which makes some things visible, hinders others 
from being seen, and aa darkness reveals the noblest 
part of creation, so death is the beginning of the true 

I read Sir T. Browne through last winter (not for 
the first time), and although I omitted to note 
the passage, I am sure it is either there or in 
some other of his works. E. K. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

CHURCH OR CHAPEL (8 th S. x. 473; xi. 76). 
What your correspondents say is quite correct ; but 
the curious thing, as it struck me, was that the 
Catholic Bishop of Limerick should feel aggrieved 
at Protestants employing the terminology which is 
universally used by Catholics around them. When 
I was a boy the Episcopal churches in this county 
were always styled " chapels," and by the mass of 
the people are called "English chapels" to this 
day. Not long ago I heard a passenger in a train 
telling a friend that, in Dundee, he had experienced 
great difficulty in finding his way to a certain 
Anglican church. At length some one to whom 
he had spoken said, "Oh! I know. You want 
the English chapel"; and directed him accordingly. 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

1 FACTS ARE STUBBORN THINGS " (8 tb S. x. 357, 
498). One form of this saying is so prominent, and 
I am so far away from ' N. & Q./ that I made no 
attempt to send it, feeling sure that I should be 
forestalled. However, your set of replies does not 
include it. In 'A Dream,' by Kobert Burns, 

Kilmarnock edition of his poems, p. 81, these 
lines occur : 

Facts are cheels that winna ding, 
An' downa be disputed. 

This is the original spelling, and is continued in 
the first Edinburgh edition, and again repeated in 
the William Scott Douglas edition of 1891. 


"IMPERIUM ET LIBERTAS" (8 th S. x. 453; xi. 
53). When I sent the reference to Spenser for 
this sequence, I was not aware of the following, 
which is more prominent as well as earlier : 

" The first was Nerva : the excellent temper of whose 
government is by a glance in Cornelius Tacitus sketched 
to the life : Postquam divus Nerva res olim insociabiles 
miacuisset imperium et libertatem ('Agric. Vit.,' c. iii.)." 
Bacon, ' Adv. of Learning," I. vii. 4. 

The occurrence in such an author as Bacon is suffi- 
cient to account for the prevalence of the form. 


WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT (8 th S. x. 254, 321). 
Although the query asked at the former refer- 
ence has been answered at the latter, it has been 
only by way of inference or probability. It may 
be well to settle the matter decisively by quoting 
from Mr. Bryant's autobiography, wherein he says : 
" I was born in Cummington, in the State of 
Massachusetts, on the 3rd of November, 1794." 
Allibone is in error, as is frequently the case. 
The impliedly correct statement in the supplement 
is the work of another, so that MR. FLEMING'S 
apologetic expression "in justice to Allibone" is 
not applicable. GASTON DE BERNEVAL. 


AUTHOR WANTED (8 th S. x. 436, 504; ix. 33). 
I do not know what to make of Punch's " Humpty 
Dumpty" line. It is plain prose. But the real 
"Humpty" is, I think, as "Mica, mica," certainly 
is, in ' Arundines Cami.' Here it is, if my memory 
serves me rightly : 

Humptius in muro requievit Dumptius alto, 
Humptius e muro Dumptius, heu ! cecidit. 
At non Regis equi, Beginae exercifcus omnia 
Humpti, to, Dumpti restituere loco. 


OLNEY (8 th S. xi. 5). The only place of this 
name in England mentioned in Lewis's 'Topo- 
graphical Dictionary ' and similar works to which 
I have referred, is the town of Cowper in North 
Bucks, which was at one time written ^ Oulney ; 
and I know of no other, except an island in 
the Severn the scene of a duel between Canute 
and Edmund Ironside. The former I have heard 
pronounced by Northampton people as Only, and 
by others with the sound of the oul as in the word 
soul ; but the present local pronunciation so Mr. 
T. Wright, a resident there and author of 'The 
Life of Cowper,' kindly informs me is Oney, as 



[8MS. XI. FEB. 13, '97. 

rhyming perfectly with pony. Cowper playfully 
says somewhere, *' The news at Olney is little or 
noney," which would, however, appear to indicate 
a pronunciation as oney rhyming rather with money 
or honey. W. I. R. V. 

xi. 9). The Koman Office for Holy Week has 
the following rubric for the procession on Palm 
Sunday : 

'Praecedit thuriferarius cum thuribulo fumigante; 
deinde Subdiaconus paratup, deferens crucem, medius 
inter duos Acolythoa cum candelabris accensis : sequitur 
Clerus per ordinem, ultimo Celebrans cum Diacono a 
ainistris, omnes cum ramis in manibus : et cantantur 
sequentes Antiphonae vel omnes, vel aliquae, quoueque 
durat Proceesio. 

"Ant. 'Cum appropinquaret Dominus Jerosolymam,' 

" In reversione Processionis duo vel quatuor cantores 

ntrant in Ecclesiam, et claueo ostio etantes versa facie 

ad ProcesBionem, incipiunt V. ' Gloria, laus,' et decantant 

duos primes versus. Sacerdos vero cum aliis extra 

Ecclesiam, repetit eosdem. Deinde qui sunt intus, 

cantant alios versus sequentes et qui sunt extra, ad 

quoslibet duos versus respondent ' Gloria, laus,' sicut a 

"Postea Sabdiaconus hastili Crucis percutit portam, 
qua statim aperta, Processio intrat Ecclesiam, cantando : 
'Ingrediente Domino in sanctam civitatem,' &c." 

Apparently the only respect in which the old 
English uses diverged from the Roman, as regards 
this ceremony, was in providing a "locus eminens," 
"in altum supra ostium Ecclesigs," in which the 
cantors who remained within the church were to 
sing the verses of the hymn " Gloria, laus," alter- 
nately with the chorus chanted by those outside the 
closed door. As in this touching and dramatic 
piece of ritual the material church represents the 
'Ccelestis Urbs Jerusalem," the imagery of its 
angelic inhabitants greeting their earthly brethren 
from the ramparts, as it were, of the heavenly city 
is carried out with mediaeval fidelity by the old 
English rite, with its gallery over the south porch 

Town Hall, Cardiff. 

ANCIENT CFCLING (8 th S. x. 373, 441; xi. 30). 
Is anything known about the wheel alluded to 
in the following passage from Evelyn's 'Diary,' 
4 August, 1665 ? 

" On my returne I call'd at Durdans, where I found 
Dr. Wilkins, Sir Wm. Petty, and Mr. Hooke, contriving 
chariots, new rigging for ships, a wheele for one to run 
races in, and other mechanical inventions; perhaps 
three such persons together were not to be found else- 
where in Europe, for parts and ingenuity." 


CLAREL (8 th S. xi. 28). Sir Richard Fitzwilliam 
of Aldwark married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of Thomas Clarell of Aldwark, co. York (brother of 
Margaret, wife of Sir John Fitzwilliam of Sprot- 
borough), and Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress 
of Sir John Scrope of Upal and Masham his wife. 

Sir John Fitzwilliam of Sprotborough and Emly, 
Knt., married Margaret, daughter of Thomas 
Clarell of Aldwark (sister of Thomas Clarell, father 
of Elizabeth, wife of Sir Richard Fitzwilliam of 
Aldwark) and Matilda, daughter of Sir Nicholas 
Montgomery of Cubley and Marston his wife. 


COLBY FONT (8 th S. xi. 8). The carving pro- 
bably represents not St. Giles, but the man in the 
moon, a favourite mediaeval subject. See Mr. 
Baring- Gould's 'Curious Myths of the Middle 


In Husenbeth's ' Emblems of Saints/ London, 
1860, there is : " St. Willibold B. 0., Woodman 
before him, felling a tree. Burgraaier." 


x. 61). Your correspondent at the first reference 
wrote as if it were a peculiarly English custom 
to place buttresses at the angles of towers. A 
second letter this year, p. 51, I hoped would prove 
the incorrectness of that letter, but its title was 
misleading. I have been expecting some one of 
more experience than myself to give the denial to 
the clause about "English custom." I have 
looked over hundreds of drawings of foreign 
churches, and find the towers, if Norman or 
Gothic, strengthened by pilasters or by buttresses 
just as in England. 

The theory propounded goes far toward sup- 
posing that naves and chancels, both here and 
abroad, were built with pilasters or buttresses, and 
the towers very frequently not so, till the ringing 
of bells necessitated the putting of such adjuncts 
to the towers. There is no evidence in the 
structures themselves of such a proceeding ; if 
additional buttresses have been used in a church, 
they can be found alike in chancels, naves, aisles, 
and towers, just where circumstances demand 
their addition. HERBERT HURST. 

6, Tackley Place, Oxford. 

These peculiarly English abominations, which 
give the tower the air, as Ruskin says, of a " child 
held up in the nurse's arms," instead of a giant 
standing alone, seem to have originated in the 
belfry of Salisbury, whose stone part was only 
about 75 ft. high, with twelve huge buttresses 
occupying more ground than the walls themselves. 
There was also a central pillar to carry the bell- 
frames, which were in the wooden structure, above 
all the stonework. Sir Christopher Wren avoided 
buttresses in his towers at Westminster Abbey, 
and all his other towers, classic or Gothic, I think, 
where they were not mere repairs of old ones. 


xi. 56). Lady Almeria Carpenter's connexion 

8. XI. FEB. 13, '97.] 



with the Packes was through her mother's family, 
the Cliffcons. Her great - great - uncle Robert 
Clifton married a Packe. Robert Clifton's grand- 
daughter Catherine married Charles Packe, of 
Prestwold. Also Jane Clifton married Christo- 
pher Packe, of Coates in Leicestershire. 

H. S. V. W. 

BIRCHIN LANE (8 th S. x. 153, 221). It may 
perhaps be useful, in connexion with the interest- 
ing discussion as to the origin of this name, to put 
on record the following early spellings of the name 
given in Dr. Sharpe's ' Wills, Court of Husting,' 
1889-90 : 

Berchervereslane, 1260, will of Thomas Travers. 

Bercherverelane, 1285, will of William Kelwedon. 

Berchernerelane, 1320, will of Robert Motun. 

Bercherverelane, 1326, will of Stephen ate 

Berchereslane, 1332, will of Henry de Gloucestre, 

Bercherverlane, 1348/9, will of Stephen atte 

Berchervereslane, 1349, will of William de 

Bercheverlane, 1349, will of Robert de Hole- 

Berchevereslane, 1358, will of John de Drayton. 

Bercherlane, 1372, will of Thomas Mokkyngge. 

Birchenlane, 1386, will of William Fryth. 

Byrcherslane, 1400, will of Robert Louthe. 

Birchenlane, 1413, will of John More. 

Birchenlane, 1445, will of Ralph Stoke, 

From this date the spelling remains fixed as 
Birchin, Birchen, Byrchen, &c. 

49, Edith Road, W. Kensington, W. 

THE ROYAL COLLEGES (8"> S. xi. 68). It is 
most likely that colleges in the universities are 
not included, otherwise the number would be much 
larger. The Act of Uniformity, 14 Charles II., 
applies to " the Colleges of Westminster, Win- 
chester, and Eton," but in the orders about the 
State services the Queen is made to speak only 
of "our colleges of Eton and Winchester." In 
the Commonwealth period the Committee for the 
King's Revenue counted Westminster, Eton, 
Christ Church, and Winchester as within their 
scope. In 1643 and 1649 orders were made touch- 
ing " Westminster, Eton, Winchester," and " Eton, 
Winchester, Westminster" (Barker, 'Life of 
Busby,' 1895, pp. 4-14). It is not clear why 
Winchester is reckoned a royal college. 

W. C. B. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that, so far as 
the Election dinner is concerned, the three royal 
colleges are Trinity, Christ Church, and Westmin- 
ster. In College Hall, where the dinner takes 
place, the arms of these three colleges are displayed 
oa the wall above the dais. They were associated 

together by the founders in the constitution of the 
School, and the Dean of Christ Church and the 
Master of Trinity remain " Electors " to this day. 

G. F. R. B. 

At Cambridge, Trinity, King's, and Eton are 
reckoned as such. A. T. SPANTON. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Dean Stanley writes : 

" The collegiate character of the institution was still 
further kept up by the close connexion which Elizabeth 
fostered between the College of Westminster and the two 
great collegiate houses of Christ Church and Trinity, 
founded or refounded by her father, at Oxford and 
Cambridge. Together they formed ' the three Royal 
Colleges.' " ' Memorials of Westminster Abbey,' p. 419. 


VERQILIUS (8 th S. xi. 9). The following ex- 
tract from Hofman's * Lex. Univ./ s. v. "Anti- 
podes," supplies the information in brief : 

" Subtilis et diversa apud veteres fuit disquisitio 

Fuere vero nonnulli, qui credebant fabulosa ease omnia 

quae de Antipodibus referuntur Praecipue vero 

Christian!. Vide Lactantium, iii. 24, Augustinum 'de 
Civ. Dei,' xvi. 9. Bonifacius inprimis, Episcopus 
Moguntinus, qui sic ratiocinatus est : ' Si essent Anti- 
podes, alii homines, adeoque alius Christus introducere- 
tur,' Nancel., c. 1., et Aventinus ' Annal. Bojor.,' 1. iii. Cui 
cum Virgilius, sanctimonia et eruditione Celebris in 
Bavaria episcopua, adversaretur, Bonifacius apud 
Zachariam pontificem tantum effecit, ut ille ad Utilonem, 
Bavariae R. literis missis Virgilium Episcopali sede eji- 
ceret. Zacharise ad Bonifacium Rescriptum babes in 
Marci Antonii de Dominis, 1. vii. de ' Rep. Christ.,' c. v. 
num. xlviii. Ac Libertus Fromondus quidem in ' Ant- 
Aristarcho ' historiam hanc longe aliter, quam hactenus 
relata fuit explicare conatus est ; habet tamen eandem 
Claud. Faucherus, * Historicus Gallus,' torn. i. fin." 

Zachary was Pope A.D. 741-752 ; Virgilius, an 
Irishman of a noble family, died Bishop of Salz- 
burg, A.D. 784. ED. MARSHALL. 

According to Bouillet, Vergilius, who was of a 
noble Irish family, was censured by Pope Zacharius 
for teaching that beneath the earth there are 
another world, other men, another sun, and 
another moon. That he rejected the opinion that 
the earth was a plane appears to be a mis- 
apprehension. Summoned to Rome, he retracted 
his teaching, and was shortly afterwards con- 
secrated Bishop of Salzburg. He established the 
faith in Carinthia, and died in 784. Gregory IX. 
canonized him. He is honoured on 27 November 


ME. HYDE will find information concerning this 
bishop, saint (d. 780 ?), and Irish missionary to the 
"rude Karinthian Boor," who was canonized in 
1234, five centuries after his decease, in Pertz, 
* Monum. Germ, Hist.,' xi. 84-6 ; Mabiilon, 
' Acta Ss. Bened.,' iii. 2, 308 ; Raderus, ' Bavar. 
Sancta,' i. 129-32 ; Pagi, ' Grit. Annal. Baronii, 1 



. XL ^3.13/97 

1689, 746, 6-7, 748, 1-2, and 780, 10 ; and Bar- 
tbe'lemy (Cb.), ' Erreurs Historiques,' 1875, i. 
269-86. His opinions concerning the Antipodes 
seem to have attracted some attention at head- 
quarters in the days of Pope Zachary, suppressor of 
angel worship. Perhaps it is necessary to mention 
that he should not be confused with the fantastical 
grammarian Vergilius Maro, of the previous cen- 
tury, whom Clement of Ireland seriously quotes. 


The reason why the Russian peasant hurls his 
hatchet at the whirlwind is because iron is sup- 
posed to be a protection against spirits. In Lane's 
4 Arabian Nights ' we read that a pillar of sand in 
the desert is thought to be an evil Jinnee, and that 
the Arabs cry to it, " Iron ! iron ! " because they 
believe the Jinn to have a great dread of that 
metal. The Irish peasantry believe whirlwinds of 
dust to be raised by the fairies. Iron is supposed 
to be a protection against the fairies. See Keight- 
ley's ' Fairy Mythology.' E. YARDLEY. 

In Southey's ' Commonplace Book,' edited by 
John Webb Warter, B.D. (1849), MR - BADDELEY 
will find, at p. 380, an interesting note on * Water- 
spouts.' Southey's extract is from Thevenot, and 
contains an account of a curious superstition, which 
will no doubt interest MR. BADDELEY. 

0. P. HALE. 

INCREASE IN HUMAN BULK (8 th S. x. 395). 
With reference to this query I find the following 
in * Athletic Sports of Scotland,' by W. M. Smith, 
1891, p. 15 : 

" When preparations were being made for the great 
Eglinton tournament in 1839, one of the difficulties to 
be surmounted was to find armour large enough for the 
degenerate descendants of the great heroes of the Middle 

Then follow several pages showing that the pre- 
sent race is stronger, bigger, and able to perform 
greater feats than the most renowned of ancient or 
mediaeval days. KALPH THOMAS. 

The late Prof. Richard Partridge, F.R.S., in his 
annual winter session's course of lectures on 
anatomy at King's College, London, was wont to 
refer to the difficulty experienced in fitting the 
jousters at the Eglinton tournament with ancient 
armour, in proof that the men of the age of chivalry 
were wiry, and not brawny men, and that human 
bulk had increased in modern times. 


' COME, LET us BE MERRY " (8 th S. x. 456, 500). 
Was Mr. Pecksniff thinking of this part-song 
when, on the night of welcoming Martin Chuzzle- 
wit the younger to his home as a pupil, he 
exclaimed, " Let us be merry," and accompanied 
the convivial ejaculation by taking "a captain's 
biscuit"? A, F. R. 


The Place Names of Fife and Kinross. By W. J. N. 

Liddall. (Edinburgh, Green & Sons.) 
A TOPOGRAPHER who sets himself to elucidate the place- 
names of a well-defined locality, with which he is per- 
sonally acquainted, and the natural features of which he 
bus studied, is likely to arrive at more correct results 
than one who tries to cover a wider field where he does 
not enjoy the same advantages. Mr. Liddall has selected 
one definite district, and devotes this thin volume to the 
explanation of its nomenclature, which he finds to be of 
distinctly Goidelic origin, having affinities with the Irish 
branch of the Celtic family rather than with the Welsh. 
We know that the Scoti were originally Irish, and Fife, 
so far as its place-names are concerned, may almost be 
regarded as belonging to ancient Ireland, since, as a 
rule, they exhibit a more archaic type than Irish names, 
as having been petrified or stereotyped at an earlier 
period, through the dying out of the spoken dialect. 
We should have expected that the author, when once he 
recognized this affinity, would constantly have consulted 
Dr. Joyce's standard work on the 'Irish Names of 
Places ' (two series) ; but, strange to say, we fail to find 
a single reference to that valuable treatise. Mr. Liddall 
thus places himself at an unnecessary disadvantage, and 
many points remain obscure which might have been 
made plain. The element bolg, e.g., in Blebo (Blath- 
bolg), Bogie (Bolgyne), and Dunbog (Dunbolg), which 
baffles his investigation, he would have found explained 
by Dr. Joyce as bolg, a bellow?, often used as indicative 
of a gusty or windy locality (Second Series, p. 242). Not 
unfrequently Mr. Liddall in his interpretation of names 
is at variance with his brother Scots, Sir H. Maxwell 
(' Scottish Land-Names,' 1894), and Mr. J. B. Johnston 
(Place-Names of Scotland,' 1892), to neither of whom 
does he vouchsafe an allusion. They, e.g., understand 
Anstruther to be Gael, an sruthair, "the stream," 
whereas be, with less probability, takes it to be Tout. 
andar, other, and sruthair. Cameron, which they 
explain as cam sron, " crooked nose," he, misled, appa- 
rently, by the by-form Camberone, interprets as cam, 
beam, "crooked gap." Curiously enough, Kinross, 
though appearing in the title, is omitted from the body of 
the book, where it should find a place, meaning " head 
of the promontory (ceann ros). We are glad to note that 
the all-importance of the historical method is recognized, 
and that in many instances the early forms of the names 
are given, though further research would have supplied 
many more of these. Of the Gaelic etymons suggested 
a large number are confessedly conjectural, and some 
(e. g., Cornceres and Goatmilk) are far from convincing. 
A wide gap seems to separate Nakedfield from Cnoc- 
tarbh (Knock-tarf), which Mr. Liddall has the courage 
to identify. On the other hand, the connexion which 
he proposes between Poffle and bachille, a farm, finds 
some support in the similar relationship existing between 
baffle and Scot, bauchle. " Bleau," in the list of autho- 
rities is a misprint for Blaeu, and " Fib " (s.v. "Fife ") 
would be better printed Fibh. 

The Antiquary. Vol. XXXII. (Stock.) 
WE have received the volume of the Antiquary for last 
year, and find it remarkably good. We do not call 
to mind any other antiquarian magazine that has im- 
proved so much of late. One of the most interesting 
features of the volume is ' The Account-Book of William 
Wray,' contributed by the Rev. J. T. Fowler, and em- 
bellished with many learned notes and explanations of 
I passages which are not likely to be understood. The 

8* S. XI. FEE, 13, '97.] 



original manuscript belongs to the Dean and Chapter of 
Ripon, and Wray was a draper, farmer, and haberdasher 
there during a portion of the sixteenth century. These 
accounts throw great light upon the daily life of the 
period by illustrating the kind of materials that a shop- 
keeper of good position then dealt in. They would, 
however, be well-nigh incomprehensible to most readers 
were it not for the erudite notes ; and we trust that 
Dr. Fowler will see his way to reprinting the whole, 
diary and notes, separately. It is impossible to specify 
in the space at our disposal all the features of this well- 
edited magazine ; but we feel obliged to draw attention 
to the illustrations, which are far above the average of 
those ordinarily to be met with, and we are glad to find 
that sufficient interest is taken in the subjects here dealt 
with to justify the issue of a monthly magazine devoted 
to the study of the past. Magazines that are published 
quarterly do not keep up the interest of their readers in 
what is passing in the antiquarian world in the same 
manner that a monthly publication does. 

The Reliquary. January, 1897. (Bemrose & Sons.) 
THIS number of the Reliquary is of more general 
interest to a wide circle of readers than the magazine 
has been of late. We must, however, say that we think 
valuable space is wasted by giving a reproduction of the 
Devil at Notre Dame. We are quite aware of its great 
interest, and the illustration here given is very good; 
but we think that in a magazine of the nature of the 
Reliquary it would be wiser to give representations 
of less well-known objects. Mr. Edward Lovett contri- 
butes a most interesting paper upon ' Hop Tallies.' We 
were not aware that in this branch of agriculture the use 
of the tally still remained, and Mr. Lovett tells us that it 
is rapidly dying out even in it, Worcestershire being 
the county in which this method of keeping accounts is 
the most frequently to be met with. The article is 
illustrated with some very clear representations of 
tallies. ' The Graves of Ardkeiling,' by Mr. Young, 
gives an account of the contents of several grave mounds 
in Moray, and should be read by all those who are in- 
terested in the Stone Period, and from the discoveries here 
made it appears probable, as Mr. Young points out, that 
in this part of Scotland the Stone Age and the Iron Age 
mingled, without an interval during which bronze 
weapons and ornaments were used. It would be of great 
interest if this point could be definitely settled ; but we 
think it seems probable that in the North of Scotland 
there was no intermediate period. There are several 
other articles, all of more or less value, and we consider 
that the Reliquary has given us a very good number at 
the beginning of 1897. 

THE Journal of ike Ex-Libris Society, edited by Mr. 
W. H. K. Wright, supplies index, title-page, &c., to 
vol. vi. The editor deals with the recent sale of book- 
plates, which he holds does not justify the anticipations 
formed concerning it, the prices realized being far above 
market value, and the lots going mostly into the hands 
of dealers. Among the illustrations are the book-plate 
of Cardinal York, with the royal arms of England, and 
the pretty piscatorial plate of F. Gosden. 

IN the Fortnightly Mr. Louis Garvin writes on 
1 Coventry Patmore : the Praise of the Odes.' Very 
warm is the praise bestowed. Mr. Garvin is of the 
"heterodox minority" which, maintaining Mr. Patmore's 
greatness, believes his " 'St. Valentine's Day ' to be not 
unworthy of comparison with the ' Ode to the Nightin- 
gale ' in Keats and with Shelley's 'Skylark." The 
extracts he supplies fail to carry conviction to ourselves, 
who claim in this regard a respectable amount of catho 

tion to form a fairer opinion. In ' The Child in Recent 
English Literature ' Prof. Sully draws attention, among 
other works, to ' The Golden Age ' of Mr. Kenneth 
Grahame, a work for which we have unbounded admira- 
tion. The principal subject of his comments is 'The 
Children,' by Mrs. Meynell, from which he quotes some 
delightful instances of child speech, objecting only to 
the comment. The treatment approaches the scientific 
in eome respects, but the general tone is amusing. Mr. 
W. S. Lilly contributes a lecture on ' The Mission of 
Tennyson,' delivered at the London Institution. It is 
good in its way. Lectures should, however, be corrected 
before they are printed. Mr. Lilly may, perhaps, in 
speaking of Wordsworth, talk of " depths of desultory 
drivel " ; he should not, however, print such word?, 
even with the comment, " I had almost said." Another 
reprinted lecture is that of the Right Hon. Max Miiller 
on ' How to Work.' ' The Girlhood of Maria Josepha 
Holroyd' deal?, of course, with the correspondent of 
Gibbon. Mr. Grant Allen writes on 'Spencer and Dar- 
win,' and Mr. Wells on 'Morals and Civilization.' 
Prof. Courthope continues, in the Nineteenth Century, 
his lectures, delivered in Oxford, on 'Life in Poetry,' 
dealing in the present paper with " Poetical Expression." 
What is said concerning metre is worthy of attention, 
though not always convincing. Here, for instance, is a 
theory which we leave to work out its effect. The pro- 
fessor holds that " though metre can only properly be 
used for the expression of universal ideas, there is in 
modern society an eccentric or monastic principle at 
work which leads men to pervert metre into a luxurious 
instrument for the expression of merely private ideas." 
Mr. Herbert Paul supplies an analysis of ' Gibbon's Life 
and Letters,' recently reviewed in our columng, and 
expresses an opinion concerning the editorial proceed- 
ings of the first Lord Sheffield more favourable than we 
find ourselves able to hold. A curious paper, the like 
of which we do not recall, is that of Mr. Davidson 
Palmer upon ' The True Nature of " Falsetto." ' Timber 
Creeping in the Carpathians' is an article that may 
beget as much pleasure in some minds as it inspires 
aversion in ours. Mr. J. Horace Round communicates 
some striking opinions on what he calls ' The Elizabethan 
Religion.' To deal with these would be, however, to 
enter the domain of controversy. To the New Review 
Mr. Charles Whibley contributes one of the quaint, 
piquant sketches he is accustomed to send of eccentrics. 
His present subject is 'Barbey d'Aurevilly/ whom he 
describes as " a mediaeval knight driven by a destiny 
hapless for himself, thrice blessed for us, into the literary 
life of the nineteenth century." Sufficiently striking ia 
the picture drawn of this most combative of writers. 
Students of anthropology may be glad to have their 
attention drawn to Mr. Frederick Boyle's 'Contemporary 
Human Gods,' a good many of whom he describes. His 
paper throws much light upon the continued worship of 
the harvest deity, and may be studied by the light of the 
opening chapters of Frazer's 'Golden Bough.' Count 
Liitzow writes on 'Ancient Bohemian Poetry,' and 
translates many curious specimens. As in the case of 
the works of Ossian, the genuineness of these early poems 
has been, and still is, keenly disputed. On this point 
the Count expresses no opinion. The Century opens 
with portraits of ' Lincoln as [a] Lawyer ' and ' Grant as 
[a] Major-General.' Both portraits are eminently Ame- 
rican and characteristic. General Horace Porter's 'Cam- 
paigning with Grant ' remains what may be called the 
chief item in the feast. ' Places in New York ' supplies 
some brilliant representations of scenes, characters, and 
faces in that city. Capt. Mahan sends an elaborate 
account of 'The Battle of Copenhagen,' and Mr. Kelly 

ii\j victim in tiiin J u^icV'i v.i c* i copcu tauic muvuuv v vii/i-v- aww*t vm j.*i- ^ * \^* v^wj^wmjAiw^vij/j 

licity. We hope before long to put ourselves in the posi- 1 some pictures of ' In the Desert with. 



s. xi. FEB. 13/97. 

Some recollections of Samuel Lover, by his daughter, 
may be read with much interest. 'A Tropic Climb,' by 
Mr. Julian Hawthorne, and Mr. Coffin's ' Monotypes ' are 
contributions to which we gladly draw attention. A 
description, in Scribner's, of ' A Great Hotel,' with its 
profuse illustrations, conveys an impressive idea of the 
immense life, like that of a swarming ant-hill, that goes 
on in such places. It is, naturally, an American hotel 
that is depicted. In these days, however, London can 
probably supply institutions no less huge. A short but 
pleasant paper on ' London Streets' is, we hope, to be con- 
tinued. ' The City Magistrates' Courts ' shows how closely 
life in New York resembles that in London. ' The Minia- 
ture Portrait ' has some delightful reproductions. ' The 
Last of the Plantagenets ' deals, of course, with Richard 
Crookback, whose defence is to some extent attempted. 
The more serious among the contents of the Pall Mall 
include ' The Representative of Bernadotte,' dealing with 
the difficulties environing the position of the present 
King of Sweden; 'The Story of 1812,' an historical 
sketch of great value, by Col. Hutchinson, which, 
happily, is to be continued ; and an excellent and admir- 
ably illustrated account of 'Chatsworth,' by the Rev. 
A. H. Malan. There is also a good account, illustrated 
from photographs, of ' L'Ecole de Saint Cyr.' A fine 
engraving of A. Morton's ' Cruel Sea ' serves as frontis- 
piece. JlfacwuWan's has two contributions upon books, 
the more important being an interesting account of ' The 
Coldstream Guards'; the second, 'From Far Cathay,' 
dealing with Hugh Clifford's 'East Coast Etchings,' 
Singapore, 1896. ' Vanishing Paris ' echoes an old wail. 
Of ' The Flying Bishops,' which is not at all in our line, 
we may say that it is screamingly funny. Temple Bar 
gives a good paper on ' Thomas Hood,' partly biographical 
and partly critical. A personal experience of ' A Hurri- 
cane in Mauritius' is a telling sketch of tropical life. 
'Swaledale,' according to a description now sent, has 
altered a little since we knew it half a century ago. 
There was more life then than now seems to exist. We 
have seen rustic dances under Richmond Castle. * Gold- 
smith's Country ' may be read with pleasure. In the 
Cornhill General Maurice tells correctly the stirring and 
noble story of ' The Loss of the Birkenhead.' The second 
part of ' Duels of all Nations ' deals with duelling in the 
United States. It gives some good and some grim stories. 
Mrs. Murray Smith sends a suggestive contribution on 
'Two Centuries of National Monuments.' A stirring 
account is Mr. Gwynn's of ' The Youth of the Napiers.' 
In a lighter vein is 'A Serious View of Love.' Mr. 
E. H. Parker describes, in the Gentleman's, ' The Em- 
peror of Annam and his Capital.' The Rev. P. H. Ditch- 
field writes on ' Women as Book-Lovers,' and Mr. Percy 
Fitzgerald on ' Pickwickiana.' The English Illustrated 
is principally fiction. Mr. Clark Russell continues, how- 
ever, his account of Nelson, and we have ' A Pilgrimage 
to Byron's Land,' ' Some Newgate Episodes,' with quaint 
designs, and ' Advance Australia.' Mr. Andrew Lang is 
once more at his best in Longman's, the contents of 
which are agreeably varied, A. K. H. B. writing on 
' Archbishop Magee of York,' and Mr. Pardepp giving 
4 Pages from the Diary of Parson Parlett.' Chapman's 
is wholly occupied by the serial story and by an account 
of 'Captain Kid's Millions.' Belgravia, describes 'A 
Month in the Latin Quarter.' 

CASSELL'S Gazetteer, Part XLL, extends to Notting- 
ham, giving a good view of its celebrated market-place. 
Norwich Cathedral is also depicted, as are Newlyn, 
Newmarket, and other spots of interest. 

WE have received No. 1 of Z' Archaeologia de Paris 
(Greville), a monthly work likely to be of great interest 
to antiquaries. 

WE hear with regret of the death, on the 5th inst., in 
his eighty-ninth year, of Mr. Hugh Owen, a well-known 
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and a not very 
frequent contributor to our columns. 

OOR readers may be interested to know that the indis- 
creet and ill-natured work of Mr. W. C. Hazlitt, in con- 
demnation of which we wrote ante, p. 118, has been 
withdrawn by Mr. George Redway, the publisher. 

VOL. III. of "The Centenary Burns," edited by 
Messrs. Henley and Henderson, will be published imme- 
diately. The notes, extending to over two hundred 
pages, will contain much novel information about the 
origin of Burns's songs, from authentic and hitherto 
unknown MSS. (in the possession of the Earl of Rosebery, 
the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, and others), and 
various important sources wholly unutilized by earlier 

THE travels and explorations of the early French 
Jesuit missionaries among the Indians of North America 
are recorded in reports, documentp, letters, and rare 
books, chiefly found in the libraries and monasteries of 
Canada and the United States. The narratives have 
been collected and edited by Reuben G. Thwaites, and 
will be published in England by Mr. Elliot Stock and 
in the United States by Messrs. Barrows & Co., under 
the title ' Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents.' The 
work, which will contain information concerning the 
ethnology, geography, customs, folk-lore, and natural 
history of the country in the seventeenth century, will 
consist of fifty or more 8vo. volumes. It will present 
the text of the original documents as well as the English 
translation, and will be copiously illustrated by portraits, 
maps, facsimiles, &c. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." 

Contributors will oblige by addressing proofs to Mr. 
Slate, Athenaeum Press, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

RICHARD HEMMING (" Average Height and Weight of 
Englishmen"). The query suits better a scientific 

HUNOT (' The Age of Travel '). A fifth edition of this 
book was published by Mr. Murray, of Albemarle Street, 
in 1876, price 7s. 6d. 

ANDREW HOPE ("The long arm of coincidence"). 
First used, we believe, by Mr. Haddon Chambers in his 
drama of ' Captain Swift,' played at the Haymarket. 

CORRIGENDUM. P. 41, col. 1, 1. 10 from bottom, for 
"1830 "read 1837. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8" S. XI. FEB. 20, '97.] 




CONTENT S. N 269. 

NOTES : Salmon Fishing, 141 Latin Litany, 142 The 
Caul, 144 Arbitration The Juxon Medal Midsummer 
Fires in Scotland 'The Ship of Fools,' 145 Pearls "All 
my eye and Peggy Martin" The Longest Reign Chloro- 
form, 146. 

QUERIES : St. John Baptist's Abbey, Colchester Capel- 
lanus Rowen ' Middlemarch ' George Herbert Arms 
Sir G. Page Bridge, 147 Haddon Hall Hole House 
Bardsleys Steam Hughes of Trostrey R. Perreau 
Joseph Neeld Jessamy Horfield England, the Virgin 
Mary's Dower, 148' Menestho's Daughters ' Keck Family 
Baptisteries Abergaveuny Parish Registers Hymn 
" Horse sense," 149. 

REPLIES: The Particle "With," 149 Chinese Playing 
Cards Hayne Early Steam Navigation Pope's Epitaph 
on Mrs. Corbet, 150" Di bon ! "Prime Minister Meth- 
ley_Dr. Radcliffe, 151 "Vivit post funera virtus" 
Episcopal Deans " Gnoffe" Arms, 152 Jeanne d'Arc 
Evening Services in Westminster Abbey "Born days" 
Foubert's Riding Academy, 153 "Rigmarole" Early 
Mentions of Lift, 154 Shelta, 155-Sir W. Grant Hert- 
ford Street, Mayfair Heraldic Supporters The Gros- 
venor, East Indiaman Quotation of Dickens's Shrine of 
St. Cuthbert, 156 Portrait of Lady Nelson Wayzgoose 
"Non sine pulvere" Clementina J. S. Douglass, 157 
" She "Holy Water Moses Horton, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS . Shelton's ' Don Quixote 'Maxwell's 
' Dumfries and Galloway' Bax's 'Cathedral Church of 
St. Asaph' 'Quarterly'' 'Edinburgh' 'English His- 
torical Review.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



Considerable dissatisfaction has for some years 
existed in regard to a dam dyke across the river 
Earn, with cruives therein for taking salmon, erected 
near Dupplin. The proprietors on the upper reaches 
of the river complain that the effect of this dyke is 
to prevent the fish going up, and thus injurious to 
their rights of property. Remonstrances by public 
bodies and private proprietors have been made, 
but the dyke remains. 

In introducing the subject, I wish to draw atten- 
tion to the fact that the alleged grievance is not 
of modern origin, but of very ancient date. The 
predecessor of the present proprietor of Dupplin 
and Aberdalgie estate was Lord Oliphant of Gask 
and Aberdalgie, the Glenvarloch of the novelist. 

Ou 7 Aug., 1610, a complaint was made to the 
Privy Council by John, Earl of Montrose, John, 
Earl of Tullibardin, and Sir James Cunynghame, 
of Gleugarnock, setting forth that divers Acts of 
the Scottish Parliament were passed, ordaining all 
cruives or dams made in fresh water for rivers that 
are " corst or set within the flood mark " to be 
destroyed, as tending to the destruction of sniolts 
and fry of salmon fish (1581, ch. xv.) ; and the late 
Laurence, Lord Oliphant, first in 1566, and again 
in 1583, having set up certain cruives and dams 
on the water of the Erne, be-east the coble of 
Forteviot to the "grite spoyll" of all kinds of 

fish in the said water charges had been given to 

the Sheriff of Perth, in both those years, to cast 

down the said dams. The said charges having been 

executed, and Lord Oliphant having duly obeyed 

the same, there had been no violation of the said 

Act on the said water till lately, when Laurence, 

now Lord Oliphant, had resolved to set up a new 

dam on the said water between the complaiuers 

and the water mouth, and so not only to spoil 

them of their fishing in the said water, wherein 

they are heritably infeft, but also to destroy the 

whole fish, young and old, within the said water, 

thereby making the said river, which was " verie 

ritche and plentifull of fischeis," to become " alto- 

gidder barren and void of fischeis, to the grite hurte 

of the commonwele." Lord Oliphant appearing, 

and the Earl of Tullibardin, but neither of the 

other complainers, the lords, in regard that the 

decision of this matter will depend on the heritable 

right claimed by the defender to the erecting of a 

dam of the said water, continue the case till 

15 March next, and, meanwhile, discharge the 

defender from setting up any dams, cruives, or 

yairs on the said water. 

On 10 Aug., 1610, Lord Erskine became bound 
by Act of Caution for John, Earl of Tullibardin, 
in 3,000 merks, and for William, Master of Tulli- 
bardin, in 2,000 merks, not to harm Laurence, 
Lord Oliphant, 

On 1 Aug., 1611, a complaint was made to the 
Privy Council by Laurence, Lord Oliphant, and 
Sir Thomas Hammiitoun of Bynnie, for His 
Majesty's interest as follows. Lord Oliphant, 
having resolved to build a mill on his lands of 
Dipline, " first causit cast the lead and wattergang 
for the said mylne and biggit ane dam, weill and 
substantiouslie gairdit with fourty tua cupplis of 
aik," for holding in the water of the mill, and ex- 
pected to have finished the work without any 
trouble, " now in this tyme of universall obedience 
and quietness under his Majesteis most happie and 
blissit governament." But, in July then last, Wil- 
liam, Master of Tullibardin, Sheriff of Perth, Sir 
Mungo and Robert Murrayis, sons of Johune, Earl 
of Tullibardin, with others to the number of 100 
horsemen and 300 footmen, of whom many were 
the said earl's men, and the rest broken High- 
landers, including fugitives of the Clan Gregour, 
armed with bows, habershons, targs, pole-axes, two- 
handed swords, and with hagbuts, and pistolets, 
came about 3 o'clock in the morning to the said 
dam and destroyed it, cutting with axes his whole 
forty-two cupples of oak with twelve other pieces 
of " grite treis " lying beside the dam. Charge had 
been given to the defenders, including the said earl, 
to answer, and now pursuers appearing personally, 
and the Earl and Master of Tullibardine being 
present for themselves, and the other defenders 
being also present, the lords find the convocation 
of the lieges in arms and with hagbuts and pistolets, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. cs* a xi. FEB. 20. *w. 

nd the destroying of the dam and cutting of the 
cupples and timber thereof, to be clearly proved 
against the said master, and that it was done 
with the foreknowledge of the earl, and therefore 
ordain both to enter in ward in the castle of Edin- 
burgh ; but they assoilzie the defenders from 
having some of the Clan Gregour in the company 
at the time libelled. 

Oa 16 Aug., 1611, Sir Thomas Hammiltoun of 
Bynnie, for His Majesty's interest, and John, Earl 
of Tullibardin, as landlord to Thomas Mitchell and 
Johne McEwne, his tenants, complained that on 
15 July last Laurence, Lord Oliphant, accompanied 
by a number of his men, all armed with certain 
weapons and with hagbuts and pistolets, set upon 
the said tenants in the highway at Dalcharrocbie, 
wounded them, and then led them as prisoners to 
the place of Duplene, where he would have hanged 
them but for the "grite entreatie" of Sir John 
Lindsay, fiar of Kynfawnis. Lord Oliphant then 
cast them in the " pit and thevis hole n of Dipline, 
and detained them there divers days and nights 
without meat, drink, or other necessaries. After 
nine days he brought them " fetterit and bundin 
thair handis behind thair back to Edinburgh." All 
this the said tenants being free subjects j taken for 
no recent crime, and the defender having no power 
over them. Both parties appearing, the lords find 
that Oliphant has violated the laws in so far as he 
had pistolets in his company the time libelled, and 
therefore ordain him to keep ward in the burgh of 
Edinburgh till relieved. His defence for taking and 
warding the said tenants having been that, fore- 
gathering with the said tenants and with Symone 
Loutfute and Robert Quhite, and seeing hagbuts 
and pistolets in their company, he had apprehended 
Mitchell and McEwne and committed them to 
ward, as required by Act of Parliament made in 
1597. The lords, having considered this defence, 
assoilzie Lord Oliphant from all pain for his taking 
of the said tenants. A further complaint was 
lodged for the Earl of Tullibardin by Sir Thomas 
Hamilton for His Majesty's interest, setting forth 
that the barony of Gask, with the right of fishing 
on the water of Erne from the mouth thereof on 
both sides up to the said barony, belonging to the 
said earl heritably, he and his predecessors past 
memory of man had been in the peaceable posses- 
sion thereof, the late Laurence, Lord Oliphant, 
goodsire of the present Lord Oliphant, having been 
discharged by the ordinary courts of justice, first 
in the time of Queen Mary and since then in His 
Majesty's own time, from erecting dams on the 
said water, that matters have rested now for thirty 
years. Lately, however, Laurence, the present 
Lord Oliphant, had resolved to renew his grand- 
father's attempt to erect dams on the said water ; 
and the Lords of Secret Council having discharged 
him from building his dam till the question between 
him and the said earl had been decided by the 

ordinary judge, the said lord, impatient of having 
to prosecute his right according to law, had re- 
solved by strong hand to build a dam on the said 
water, and with " grite diligence pat the same up." 
Knowing the said earl was thereby " bavelie pre- 
judgeit in his right/' and that it was, therefore, 
necessary that the work should be prosecuted with 
force, he and certain of his servants, viz., Niniane 
Oliphant, Johnne New, Henry Oliphant, Johnne 
Miller, Richard Dae, Johnne Duncane, William 
Keir, Thomas Feinzies, Thomas Sword, and Wil- 
liam Baxter, had, on the fields of Dupline and at 
the mill from 11 to 15 July last, borne hagbuts 
and pistolets, ridden " athorte the cuntrey " there- 
with, and to the " forder contempt of law brought 
certain hagbuts of found to Lord Oliphant's work 
at Dupline, plantit the same in a little house neir 
by, maid murdreis hoillis within the same house of 
purpois to schote and slane all such personis as 
sould have interruptit the said worke." Both parties 
appearing, the lords assoilzie the defender from the 
charge of having had hagbuts and pistolets in his 
company, and remit the matter of the dam to be 
pursued before the judge competent. 

On 24 Feb., 1612, the Lords of Privy Council, 
who had been nominated by John. Earl of Tulli- 
bardin, and William, Master of Tullibardine, and 
by Laurence, Lord Oliphant, on the other side, 
for settling the dispute, remitted it to the Lords of 
Council and Session, and in the mean time ordained 
the parties to suffer the dams to rest as they were 
till decree be given in the case. 

We do not know the ultimate result of the con- 
tention between the parties. The extracts above 
given from the Privy Council Records should 
prove interesting at the present time, when the 
question as to the obstruction of the salmon fishing 
on the Earn is again raised. They are also curious 
as giving a graphic account of the manner in which 
great proprietors at the time endeavoured to assert 
their rights. A. G. REID. 



As an almost necessary sequel to my paper on 
the translations of the Book of Common Prayer 
into the Latin language (ante, p. 101), it may be 
well to add a further note upon the Latin Litany 
recited at the opening of Convocation. I possess 
four modern editions: those of 1826, 1847, 1869, 
and 1880. These all have the following title- 
page : 

" Forma Precum in utraque Domo Convocations, give 
Synodi Praelatorum et caeteri Cleri, seu Provincialis seu 
Nation alis, in ipso statim cujuslibet Sessionis Initio 
solenniter recitanda." 

Then follow two texts: " Adjutorium nostrum" 
(Ps. cxxiv. 8) and "Ubi duo vel tres" (St. 
Matthew xviii. 20). 

8th g. xl. FEB. 20, '97. J 



The form contains the Litany, to which are 
added the prayers "Tempore Belli ac Tumultuum," 
" Oratio pro Suprema Curia Parliament!," "Oratio 
pro prsesente Convocatione sive Synodo," and five 
collects, namely, those for SS. Simon and Jude, 
Good Friday (the second collect), St. Peter's Day 
(with the variation of "Sanctis Apostolis Tuis" 
instead of "Thy Apostle St. Peter"), Fifth 
Sunday after Trinity, and the Prayer for Unity 
from the Office for the Accession. On the last leaf 
is added the " Benedictio," which, however, does 
not appear in the editions of 1826, 1847, or 1869. 

I ought also to mention a modern edition of this 
Litany with music : 

" Litania seu Supplicatio Generalis numeris musicie 
aptata ad usum Ecclesias Cathedralis S. Pauli Londinen- 
eis ex opera Johannis Stainer, A.M., Mus.Doc., et 
Gulielmi Russell, A.M., Mua.B." 

This edition is not dated, but it was first issued 
in 1888, and is published by Messrs. Novello, 
Ewer & Co. 

I have expended a good deal of labour lately in 
the endeavour to ascertain the exact date at which 
the Convocation Litany was first printed, and to 
determine to whom the translation is to be assigned. 
I think that I have been able to settle the first 
point but the second is at present uncertain. I 
may say at once that I shall be grateful to any one 
who may be able to decide this question for me. 

In the Lambeth Library, the natural home for 
such a book, the earliest edition is that of 1689, 
printed " Londini, Typis Car. Bill & Tho. New- 
comb, Kegise Majestatis Typogr. M.DC.LXXXIX." 
There is a copy of this edition in the British 
Museum (press-mark 3406, c. 31), where are also 
to be seen editions printed in 1700, 1702, 1741, 
1747, 1807, 1833, 1837, and 1847, together with an 
edition printed in Dublin in 1704, adapted to the 
circumstances of the Irish Church (press-mark 
3407, c. 29). 

I am disposed to think that the edition of 1689 
is the first issue of the * Forma Precum.' Lath- 
bury, in bis * History of the Convocation of the 
Church of England' (second edition, note top. 325), 
pays only that " in 1689 the form of prayer used in 
Convocation was printed by the royal printer " ; 
but he does not say, though probably he implies, 
that it was so printed for the first time. 

It seems highly probable that the translation 
was executed by some member or members of the 
Convocation which assembled on 21 November, 
and which, after several prorogations, was dissolved 
with the Parliament soon after 24 January next 
ensuing (Lathbury, ib., p. 325 and p. 332). 

Mr. Cardwell, in his * History of Conferences,' 
p. 433, gives an account of " the particular Acts 
and adjournments of the Convocation from 4 De- 
cember, 1689," commencing with the words : 

' The Litany was read by a bishop for some days in 
Latin, there being only this supplication added after the 

prayers for the bishops : ' That it may please Thee to 
inspire with Thy Holy Spirit this Convocation, and to 
preside over it, to lead us into all truth which is accord- 
ing to godliness.' ' 

He proceeds to supply a translation of the 
prayers for Parliament and for the Convocation as 
they stand in the edition of 1689, and he adds a 
nominal list of the members of that particular 

In the Convocation of 1664, Sessio cxxv., 

" Die Mercurii 18 Maii, inter horas 8 et 10 ante 
meridiem ejusdem die etc. introducto libro precum in 
Latina concept', relatum fuit curse et revision! reverendi 
in Cbristo patris Johannis permissione divina Sarum epis- 
copi [that is John Earle, Bishop of Salisbury, Septem- 
ber. 1663, to 17 November, 1665], et Johannis Dolben 
S.T.P. decani Weetmonasteriensie." Cardwell, 'Syno- 
dalia,' ii. 683. 

Probably this refers not to the special Con- 
vocation Office, but rather to the matter treated of 
in Session Ixxx., in which the care "de transla- 
tione libri pnblicarum precum " was committed to 
Dr. John Earle, Dean of Westminster, and to 
Dr. John Peirson (ibid. , p. 671). The twenty-fifth 
session had ordered the " liber precum publicarum 
in Latinum versus" to be reprinted (ibid., p. 628). 
These three entries in all probability relate to the 
translation of the whole Book of Common Prayer. 

The ceremonies observed at the opening of Con- 
vocation had varied from time to time. In 
January, 1562, 

"on the second day of meeting, the Archbishop 
[Matthew Parker] came to St. Paul'?, where, after the 
Litany in English, Day, Provost of Eton, preached the 
opening sermon." Lathbury, p. 162. 

In the Tenison MSS. is a directory for the first 
day of Convocation : 

" A Directorie for orders to be observed by my lord of 
Canterbury his grace the first day of the Convocation, 
To St. Paul's. To put on their robes in the vestry. 
The ministers of the Church to say the Litany, and 
afterwards ' Veni Creator ' in English. The preacher to 
preach in Latin. The archbishop to make an oration to 
the bishops and clergy. The archbishop sends the clergy 
to the accustomed place to choose a prolocutor." Lath- 
bury, p. 163. 

On 14 April, 1640, the archbishop, William 
Laud, came from Lambeth to Paul's Wharf " in 
naviculo dicto vulgo a barge," where he was 
received by the proctors and other ministers of 
his Court of Canterbury of the Arches. Thence 
he passed "in curru sive vehiculo"to the epis- 
copal palace, which adjoined the north-western 
tower of the cathedral. A little later, vested 
"amictu et habitu," he was conducted " ad 
ostium boreale ecclesiaa Paulinee juxta palatium 
episcopale," through which he passed into the 
cathedral. Here the archbishop was received by 
the dean, Thomas Wynnyff, two canons resi- 
dentiary, and other ministers, robed in surplices, 
who conducted him to the choir, and placed him 
in the dean's stall. Suffragan bishops of the pro- 
vince of Canterbury accompanied him in their 



habits, and sat in the stalls of the prebendaries on 
either side of the choir. The " Te Deum " was then 
sung in English, and Dr. Turner preached a Latin 
sermon. (Card well, ' Synodalia,' pp. 595-6.) 

On 8 May, 1660, " Te Deum " was sung, and a 
Latin sermon preached. (Lathbury, pp. 279-81.) 

On 31 December, 1701, the new Convocation 
was opened, " the Latin service having been read 
by the Bishop of Oxford, and the sermon preached 
by the Dean of St. Paul's," Dr. William Sherlock. 
(Lathbury, p. 363.) This "Latin service" is 
beyond all doubt the* 'Forma Precum " still in 
use ; perhaps this is the first occasion of its public 
recitation, as, although the form was printed, as 
has been already stated, in 1689, Convocation did 
not meet from that period till 1700. 

The question which remains to be determined is 
that proposed at the commencement of the present 
paper : Who were the persons by whom this Latin 
version was made? Whoever they were, they did 
not take any of the existing translations. The 
Litany of the "Forma Precum" is not that of 
the Elizabethan Prayer Book ; nor is it that 
of Dr. Durel. (Parsell's version was not issued 
till 1706, and Dr. Harwood's was still later.) It 
is much to be regretted that the familiar language 
of the Elizabethan book was not retained, the 
false taste of the age preferring a quasi-classical 
rendering to the old ecclesiastical Latinity. The 
same spirit, as every liturgiologist knows, is to be 
discerned in recensions of the French breviaries. 
It was the fashion of the age. It may be permis- 
sible to give a few examples of the older Latin, 
contrasted with that now in use. In these 
parallel passages, the first is taken from the Latin 
Prayer Book printed by Thomas Vautrollier in 
1574, the second from the ' 'Forma Precum " in 
use to-day : 

1. "Ab omni peccato, malo, et infortunio, ab insidiis 
diaboli," &c. 

"Ab omni malo et afflictione, a peccato, ab insidiis et 
incursibus diaboli," &c. 

2. " A caecitate cordis, Superbia, Ambitione, Hypocrisi, 
Ira, Odio, Malitia, et Discordia." 

" Ab omni caecitate cordis, a superbia, vana gloria, et 
hypocrisi ; ab invidia, odio, malitia, et ab omni affectu 
caritate alieno." 

3. "A fornicatione, et aliis omnibus peccatis mor- 
talibus, et a tentationibus carnis, mundi, et diaboli." 

" A scortatione, omnique alio peccato mortifero; et 
ab omnibus dolis mundi, carnis, et diaboli." 

4. " A fulgure et tempestate, a plaga et pestilentia, 
fame, bello, latrocinio, et morte subitanea." 

" A fulgure et procella ; a lue, pestilentia, et fame; a 
bello, caede, et ab improvisa morte." 

6. " Ab omni seditione et conspiratione," &c. 

" Ab omni seditione, clandestina conjur'atione, et per- 
duellione," &c. 

6. " Ut peregrinantibus terra marique." 
" Ut omnea terra marique iter facientes." 

7. "Ut pupillis et orphanis, viduis prospicere 


' Ut orphanis et vidula opitulari et providere 


It must be confessed that " ab improvisa 
morte" is to be preferred for many reasons to "a 
morte subitanea"; and it must be remembered 
that some of the other variations were rendered 
necessary by the revisions of the English Prayer 
Book. At any rate, the Convocation translators 
escaped the " Te quassumus, exaudi nos, Jova " of 
the first edition of Parsell. 

It may be well to give the special petition 
peculiar to the " Forma Precum " : 

" Ut prgesenti buic Convocation! [vel synodo] Spiritu 
Tuo Sancto aspirare, et praeesse digneris; qui nos^ducat 
in omnem veritatem, quae est secundum pietatem." 

I have collated the editions of 1689, 1700, 
1702, 1741, but the results of the collation have 
no general interest. And I may add that I have 
referred to Wilkins's 'Concilia,' but without gaining 
any fresh light. W. SPAKROW SIMPSON. 

term is sometimes applied to the amnion or caul, 
that natural membrane which now and then 
happens to be on the head of an infant when it comes 
into the world, and is then supposed to possess 
supernatural qualities, whereas in ordinary cases^it 
remains unnoticed. " A child's caul for sale " is, 
or was, no uncommon subject for an advertisement, 
and readers of Dickens will remember that David 
Copperfield " was born with a caul, which was 
advertised for sale in the newspapers at the low 
price of fifteen guineas." I have lately heard of some 
notions which are quite new to me, and^ are not 
nil mentioned in the section on the caul in Ellis's 
Brand, iii. 114, where, in accordance with the 
meaning of silly-hood, i.e., happy or lucky hood, 
it is said to be supposed that, if treated with due 
respect, it will secure good fortune to the original 
wearer, or bring it to any one who gets posses- 
sion of the article. Especially was it supposed to 
make it impossible for any ship that carried one to 
go down at sea, hence the advertisements addressed 
to sailors, such as those quoted in * Brand/ and, 
for anything I know, a caul may still fetch its 
price. If so, a dishonest midwife might soon grow 
rich, for there are as many cauls as babies, and it 
would not be necessary to explain that the caul 
which was being disposed of had not been seen on 
an infant's head ; for what difference could it 
possibly make ? Caveat emptor. 

What I have heard is this. A middle-aged 
domestic in Lincolnshire, lately told a lady of 

"who had web-feet, she had seen them, and it was all to 
do with when he was born he was born with a Billy-hood, 
a sort of a veil over his head. And if they don't take 
care of it, the child will grow up a wanderer. They 
stretch it out, real thin it is, like tissue paper, and they 
put it on paper. And they always know by it if the person 
is ill. My aunt at K said it, and showed it to me, 
like the thin part of a pig's apron, midgin some folks 
calls it, where it's finest, and she said it'll go damp 

8* S. XI. FEB. 20, '97.] 



always if he ails anything (see Grose, quoted in Brand 
115). And I says one day to my mother, about a son 
brother of mine, that was always upon the wander about 
and never settled, I says, I wonder what makes him do 
that a-way. Why. she saya, it's all along of his being 
born in a sillyhood. He can't help it, for we never kept 
it, as we ought to have done." 

So, then, it would seem that one particular good 
fortune which the silly-hood brings is that of living 
a quiet, settled life. Which reminds me of the 
local proverb attributed to Mother Shipton : 
"Happy is the man that's born between Trent 
and Ancholme, and there abides." Questioned as 
to shipwreck, our informant said, " Oh, yes, I know 
they are a fine thing against storms, they say." It 
appears that the superstition came originally from 
the East, and that there are several words in 
Arabic for the caul. St. Chrysostom inveighs 
against these foolish notions in several of his 
homilies. The French saying, " II est no" coiffeV' 
means " He is a lucky man. " See further in 
Brand. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

treaty between this country and the United States 
is an almost accomplished fact, the following 
cutting from the Morning, 20 August, 1896, will 
be read with interest : 

" The editor of the New England Magazine recalls a 
prophecy uttered by Edward Everett Hale when preach- 
ing in 1889. It reads curiously in the light of the last 
eight months : ' The twentieth century will apply the 
word of the Prince of Peace to international life. The 
beginning will not be made at the end of war, but in 
some time of peace. The suggestion will come from one 
of the Six Great Powers. It will be from a nation which 
has no large permanent military establishment ; that is 
to say, it will probably come from the United States. 
This nation, in the most friendly way, will propose to 
the other great Powers to name each one jurist of world- 
wide fame, who with the other five shall form a 
permanent tribunal of the highest dignity. Everything 
will be done to give this tribunal the honour and respect 
of the world. As an international court, it will be 
organized without reference to any especial case under 
discussion. Then it will exist. Gradually the habit will 
be formed of consulting this august tribunal in all ques- 
tions before States. More and more will men of honour 
and command feel that an appointment to serve on this 
tribunal is the highest human dignity. Of such a tribunal 
the decisions, though no musket enforce them, will be 
one day received of course.' ' 

C. P. HALE. 

acquirement of the Juxon gold medal of Charles I. 
by the Trustees of the British Museum follows 
curious antecedents. It is believed to have been 
proposed for a five- pound gold piece which was 
never struck ; on one side, a bare-headed bust in 
armour with lace collar, reverse, a fine boldly struck 
garnished shield with the royal arms inscribed 
' Florent Concordia Regna." It was said to have 
been presented to Bishop Juxon by Charles I. on 
the morning of the execution. The bishop devised 

it by will to Mrs. Mary Gayters, from whom it 
descended to her grand -daughter, who married a 
clergyman, the Rev 4 James Commeline, whose 
grandson, the Rev. Mr. Commeline, of St John's 
College, Cambridge, sold it to Lieut-Col. Drum- 
mond, who disposed of it to Mr. Till, a coin dealer 
in Russell Street, Co vent Garden, for 50Z. By 
him it was offered for 80Z. to the Trustees of the 
British Museum, who refused to purchase, and Mr. 
Till at once sold it to Mr. J. Dodsley Cuff for 6(M. 
In July, 1854, Mr. Cuff's coins were offered for 
sale by Messrs. Sotheby & Wilkinson, when the 
agent for the British Museum contended for the 
medal at thrice the sum for which the Trustees 
previously rejected it. Mr. Brown, of the publish- 
ing firm Longman & Co., however, acquired it for 
260Z., the largest amount that up to then had ever 
been paid for a single coin. At the recent sale the 
Trustees of the British Museum acquired the 
medal for 770Z. which at one time they might have 
purchased for SOL HILDA GAMLIN. 

Camden Lawn, Birkenhead. 

LAND. Various have been the traces of archaic 
sun-worship in our land, both in mediaeval and in 
modern times. Vestiges of the cult were to be 
found in the North of Scotland in the seventeenth 
century in the form of Midsummer fires, still to be 
seen in Norway. There are allusions to the 
custom in ' Records of the Presbyteries of Inver* 
ness and Dingwall,' 1643-1688 (Scottish History 
Society, 1896), where we read (p. 268) : 

" Dingwell, 26 Junij, 1655. It is ordained that the 
severall brethren intimate to thair congregates that they 
desist of the superstitious abuses vsed on St. Johnes day 
by burneing torches through thair cornee, and fyfes in 
thair townes, and thaire-efter fixing thair staicks in 
thair Kaileyeards." 

Again we read (p. 323) : 

"Dingwall, 13 June, 1671. The Brethren were 
ordained to make publique intimatione to there severall 
congregationes of the act passed in Synod against Midde- 
summer fires." 

With reference to the former extract, Mr* 
William Mackay, the editor of the work, observes ' 

" The minute of July, 1655, shows that the oft-repeated 
statement that kail was not known in the Highlands 
until recent times is incorrect. In that year, evidently, 
kailyards were common, and were, along with the corn- 
fields, made the object of the blessing that came through 
the ancient sacrifice of the Midsummer Fire." 




' THE SHIP OF FOOLS.' A comparison 
Ascensius's * Nauis Stultifere Collectanea/ 
1513, with Barclay's 'Ship of Fools,* London, 
1509, leads to the conclusion that the various 
translators of this popular work took the largest 
possible liberties with the text. The original 
blocks, one of which is dated 1494 (the fool and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8^s.xi.FEB.2o, 97. 

the dandy), seem to have been sent from Germany 
to England and thence to France, perhaps without 
full accompanying letterpress. The eleventh pic- 
ture represents the fool leaning on a club and 
talking with a woman (?) of half his size, who is 
seated on a board. Each of his feet rests on a 
book. The heading is "De Incredulis," but 
Ascensius* adds four caustic lines against over- 
credulity : 

Sunt qui pneuma sacrum cornigero eirigula principi 
Dictauisse putant verba : nee hinc demere litteram 
Audent vel minimam : stultitiam quorum ego maximam 
Sic taxo vt vetulae qua superoa narrat & inferos. 

The " princeps corniger " is Moses, Barclay has 
nothing of this. I regret that I have not access to 
the ' Narrenschiff.' A comparison of editions might 
lead to interesting results. 

Portland, Oregon. 

PEARLS. In an old newspaper cutting which 
came under my notice a few days ago I met with 
the statement that shortly before the assassination 
of Henry IV. of France, in 1610, his Queen, Mary 
de Medicis, dreamed that all the jewels in her 
crown were changed into pearls, and pearls, she 
was told, betokened tears. I was reminded of a 
passage in Webster's ' Duchess of Malfi ' acted 
for the first time within a decade of the occurrence 
which may have been suggested by it : 

Duchess. I had a very strange dream to-night. 
Antonio. What was 't? 

Duchess. Methought I wore my coronet of state, 
And on a sudden all the diamonds 
Were cbang'd to pearls. 

Antonio. My interpretation 

Is, you'll weep shortly; for to me the pearls 
Do signify your tears. 

The ill omen of pearls as bridal adornments has 
doubtless been referred to already in ' N. & Q.' 
The duchess's reflection, 

The birds that live i' the field 

On the wild benefit of nature live 

Happier than we ; for they may choose their mates, 

was, if I be rightly informed, either quoted or un- 
consciously repeated at an interesting crisis by an 
English princess of onr own day. 


Variant of " All my eye and Betty Martin " is new 
to me, though it may not be so to yourself or to 
some of your readers. It is used in the * Clock 
Almanack ' for this year, p. 39, in a short sketch 
called 'The New Woman 7 : "They can tak big 
enuff strides and dress daycently at the same time. 
But it 's all mi-eye-an-peggy-martin ! " In Mr. 
E. Edwards's * Words, Facts and Phrases,' pp. 376-7, 
it is stated that CUTHBERT BEDE recorded in the 
columns of C N. & Q.,' 17 December, 1859, that 

[* Qy. Brandt? Is not Ascensiua the printer of the 

he had found the expression "All my eye and 
Betty Martin" in an old black-letter volume, 
without date, entitled, ' The Eyghte Tragycall 
Historic of Master Thomas Thumbe.' "This 
shows," says Mr. Edwards, " that the phrase has 
been in use for something like three hundred years." 
Is it so ? I do not wish to be referred to Grose, 
Brewer, &c. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. 

of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee, it may perhaps 
not be altogether out of place to recall to recollec- 
tion the fact that Her Majesty's reign, although 
"already longer than that of any anointed 
monarch of England " (as Mr. Andrew Lang 
reminds us in his article * Victorian Literature,' 
in this month's Good Words), still falls short of 
"that of an uncrowned king, James III." 
James II. died at St. Germains, 6 September, 
1701, and the Prince of Wales (James Francis 
Edward) was acknowledged by Louis XIV. as 
James III. the same day ; he died in 1765, 
having been king de jure (at any rate in the 
opinion of some of our great-grandfathers), if not 
de facto, for sixty-four years. No doubt Her 
Majesty will easily beat even this record ; but we 
must wait until 1901 for her to do so. 


LAND. The following is a cutting from the 
Slough t Eton, and Windsor Observer of 2 January, 
and is an extract from the speech made by Dr. 
Buee of Slough, when thanking the Board of 
Guardians for a presentation on resigning the 
appointment of medical officer. Dr. Buee says : 

" He began his career in Bath in 1834, when things 
were very different from what they were now. Then it 
was customary to bleed, cup, blister, leech, apply 
seatons as counter irritants, moxa, and he could not tell 

them how many varieties of torture Then, again. 

with regard to surgery, anaesthetics and antiseptics had 
completely altered the character of surgery, and opera- 
tions could be performed now which years ago were 
absolutely impossible. Cutting off a leg without chloro- 
form was a most terrible affair, but now under chloro- 
form the patient was like a log. With regard to chloro- 
form, if they would turn to Haydn's ' Dictionary of 
Dates,' they would find [it there stated] that chloroform 
was first used in England in December, 1848, and 
[that] it was given by a Mr. Robinson, a dentist in 
London, in a case of tooth drawing. In 1848 there came 
into this neighbourhood [Slough] a Mr. Irvine. He 
bought that property which belonged at one time to 
Mr. Grote [historian of Greece], at East Burhbam. He 
had just come from Edinburgh, and his sister with him, 
and he was not only a patient, but a great friend of Sir 
James Simpson. He (Dr. Buee) happened to go there 
one day in January to see his sister, and Mr. Irvine had 
just received a letter from Sir James Simpson, who was 
describing his success in giving chloroform. As he had 
been so successful with chloroform he (Dr. Buee) did 
not see why he should not try it. He said to Mr. 
Irvine, ' How shall I get the chloroform ? ' Mr. Irvine 
replied, ' If you write to Duncan & Flockhart, of Edin- 
burgh, and use my name, they will send it down imme- 

8. XI. FEB. 20, '97.] 



diately.' He (the speaker) wrote the same day to 
Edinburgh for the chloroform, and in three days he got 
it. On the following morning, 10 January, 1848, he 
used it at the birth of a person he saw only a few days 
ago, so that there was no mistake about it whatever, and 
he firmly believed he was the very first person to use 
chloroform in England," 

Here we have a specific claim made, and the date 
given as 10 January, 1848, If this be correct the 
* Dictionary of Dates ' might be corrected. 


We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Can any of your readers tell me of the whereabouts 
of a document which contains a contemporary 
drawing of the martyrdom of Blessed John Beche 
(alias Thomas Marshall), last abbot of St. John 
Baptist's, Colchester, on 1 Dec., 1539 ? It is an 
account of the possessions of the abbey, drawn up 
(apparently) for the use of the Royal Commissions 
who seized the property as that of a convicted 
traitor. In 1850 the MS. was in the hands of a 
Mr. Finney, of High Street, Leicester, and a copy 
of the drawing (now in my possession) was made 
by Miss Gresby. The drawing represents (appa- 
rently) the abbot being led out to execution from 
the abbey gates, the procession being headed by 
the sheriff, or Royal Commissioner, riding on a horse 
and bearing a wand of office. In the distance, on 
a hill-top, is seen the execution of the abbot, who 
is hanging on a gibbet. 


CAPELLANUS. What is the precise meaning of 
capellanus as used in a document dated 1375 ? 
Among the records of the parish of Hartington I 
find in a list of the vicars one at this date so 
styled. Is the word properly applicable to a vicar 
or other officiating priest of the parish ; or does it 
necessarily mean a chantry priest or chaplain of 
any kind ; and does it imply the existence of a 
chantry 1 What is the best book to refer to for 
an explanation of words used in English mediaeval 
ecclesiastical documents ? WILLIAM FTLDES. 


[See Ducange's ' Glossarium,'] 

ROWEN FAMILY. --My grandfather William 
Rowen married Catherine Evans in Scotland 
about 1825 or 1830, and died about 1850 or 1852, 
when his wife and family came to this country. In 
ascending the Mississippi River, en route to Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, the boat capsized and all the family 
were drowned except my mother. She was only 
a child floating in, tb,e wrepfcage ? but tpld where 

she was going, and that she had a brother Thomas 
in Cincinnati, who subsequently died ; so that my 
mother knows nothing of her family. I think the 
wreck was of the John Adams, on 27 Jan., 1851, 
spoken of in the * Annual Register ' (British), but 
have no means of knowing. I am not aware of 
the locality of Scotland where they lived, but seek 
information. Perhaps the official death record 
of Scotland will show. Information concerning 
this family would be much valued. 

Cambridge, Maes,, U.S. 

speaking of Mr. Casaubon's limitations, asks, " Did 
not an immortal physicist and interpreter of hiero- 
glyphs write detestable verses ? " Who is here 
referred to ? The famous discoverer in physics and 
in the reading of Egyptian hieroglyphics is, no doubt, 
Dr. Thomas Young ; but did he write verses ? If 
not, can it be that the learned George Eliot mixed 
up Thomas Young, born 1773, with his namesake, 
Edward Young, of the * Night Thoughts,' who died 
in ] 765 ? It seems hardly possible, so I ask, Was 
Dr. Thomas Young a verse- writer ? 


South Woodford. 

GEORGE HERBERT. In 'A Priest to the 
Temple,' chap. x. , occurs the expression, singular 
enough from the author, " His children he first 
makes Christians, and then Commonwealth's men." 
Is there any means of knowing whether these are 
the words of the original manuscript? For the 
book was written in 1632, but not published until 
1652, when the de facto state of affairs made 
"Commonwealth" only too realistic. But Bar- 
nabas Oley was an editor whom we might expect 
to have been faithful to his author's own words, 
even at the risk of losing life and liberty, and no 
alteration appears in later editions. 



COAT OP ARMS. Azure, a chief or (?), over all 
a lion rampant ermine. Impaling Argent, six 
flower-heads (qy. columbine, not, however, drop- 
ping ?) purpure (?), three, two, and one, and on a 
chief sable three castles or. The owner of a book 
after or about the year 1480. Can any one en- 
lighten me ? 0. S. 

SIR GEORGE PAGE. Can any of your contri- 
butors give me information regarding a Sir George 
Page, said to have been a military officer ? He 
lived about 1680. SIGMA TAU. 

BRIDGE. There is between Bothwell and 
Motherwell, Lanarkshire, an old Roman bridge 
over the river Calder. I visited it quite recently, 
and it seems to be in a good state of preservation. 
This, I am informed, was on Watting Street, which, 



[8" 8. XI. FEB. 20, '97. 

seems very probable, as it lies directly in that 
route. Can any reader inform me by whom this 
bridge was built? Does it belong to the days of 
Antonius Pius"; or is it of an earlier date ? 


HADDON HALL. We are told that the whole 
manor of Haddon was given by William I. to 
William Peverell. But the name of Henry de 
Ferrars is also mentioned (I believe in * Domesday 
Book ') as that of the owner of Haddon. I should 
be glad of more light on this point. I can find very 
scant record of the Peverells and Avenells. Can a 
complete list of these early lords of Haddon be 
compiled? F. H. 0. 

HOLE HOUSE. I shall be very glad if any 
reader can inform me whether the name " the 
Hole House," which occurs in a deed of 
5 Henry VIIL, refers to any particular kind of 
house as, for instance, Wood House or if it would 
be simply a given name, such as, say, Red House, 
Bleak House, &c. CHARLES DRURY. 

BARDSLETS, CHURCHMEN. Can any of your 
correspondents give a complete list of the Bardsleys 
and their relatives who have been ordained 1 I 
refer to the present Bishop of Carlisle's relations ; 
and think they will almost all be found in the 
northern province. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

STEAM. Lombroso says, in the English edition 
of The Man of Genius, 1 1891, p. 18, " Napoleon 
rejected steam, and Richelieu sent Salomon de 
Caus, its first inventor, to the Bicetre." On what 
ground is the assertion that Salomon de Caus dis- 
covered steam-power based? At p. 156 of the 
same book Lombroso himself remarks, " In 1543 
Blasco de Garay appears to have propelled a vessel 
by steam and paddles in the port of Barcelona." 
Where is a list to be found of the men of all ages 
and countries who foresaw the employment of 
steam as a motor-force ? M. P. 

HUGHES OF TROSTREY. Who is the present 
representative of the ancient family known as 
Hughes of Trostrey, who may also be described 
as of Cilwch and Moyne's Court, all in the county 
of Monmouth ? On the extinction of Hughes of 
Brecon, towards the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the sole remaining line was said to be the 
branch which somewhat later was called Hughes 
of Cheltenham, who intermarried with Brydges of 
Keynsham and St. John Lucas of Bath. Mr. 
Robert Hughes, of Cheltenham, is named in 
Burke's ' General Armory,' ed. 1879, as represent- 
ing Hughes of Trostrey ; but inquiries at Chelten- 
ham have failed to elicit any trace of the family. 
Most of the authorities (apparently following 
Jones's ' Brecknockshire') assert that the Hugheses 
were extinct except at Cheltenham ; but I have 
proof that a junior branch remains in Hughes of 

Monmouth, which, if the Cheltenham line has died 
out as appears to be the case is now solely 
representative of this historic offshoot of the great 
Silurian race of Herbert. Jones's mistake is 
easily explained. JOHN HOJJSON MATTHEWS. 
Town Hall, Cardiff. 

ROBERT PERREAU. Dr. Charles Brown, who 
went to Berlin in 1778, and resided there for 
several years as chief physician to two kings of 
Prussia in succession, Frederick William II. and 
Frederick William III., served an apprenticeship 
to a surgeon in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and is said 
to have afterwards gone to London and actually 
been " assistant to the unfortunate Robert Perreau, 
who at that time kept a carriage and moved in 
high sphere as to practice and society." Who was 
Robert Perreau, and why styled " unfortunate " ? 


was he ? He resided at a house in the High Street 
from 1807 to 1813. Was he related to Neeld, the 
eccentric character who left his fortune to the 
Queen ? Two or three years ago a correspondent 
of * N. & Q.' mentioned a Neeld of Fulham, but 
though I have tried to find the reference I have 
failed. CHAS. JAS. FERET. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

JESSAMY. Was the pretty epithet " Jesaamy 
Bride " invented by Goldsmith to apply to Mary 
Horneck ; or was the word " Jessamy " in previous 
use 1 If simply an inspiration of Goldsmith, it 
would, of course, be useless to seek for its deriva- 
tion. " Little Comedy " seems to speak for itself 
as a playfully descriptive nickname. 



HORFIELD. This manor is in Gloucestershire, 
and was given to the Abbey of St. Augustine, 
Bristol, and is now out on lease to the trustees of 
Bishop Monk. The Court Rolls or books go back 
to about 1652. The manor was sold by the Com* 
missioners in the time of the Protectorate in 1649, 
Where are the Court Rolls or books prior to 165S2 
likely to be found ? Is anything known of the 
history of this manor, or of the parish of Filton in 
which the manor is partly situate, beyond what ii 
to be found in the county histories ? 


Newport, Mon. 

year His Holiness Pope Leo XIII. wrote an 
( Apostolical Letter to the Englishmen who seek 
the Kingdom of God in the Unity of Faith," and 
he added to this letter a prayer to the Virgin Mary 
for our English brethren (" Ad sanctissimam Vir- 
ginem pro Anglis fratribus deprecatio "). This 
prayer begins with this sentence : " beata Virgo 
Maria, Mater Dei, Regina aostra et Mater dul- 



cissima, benigne oculos tuos converte ad Angliam 
quae dos tua vocatur." Probably it is intended by 
the Pope as an ancient, and perhaps trite, compli- 
ment to England. But, in this case, what is its 
history, and who is its author ? H. GAIDOZ. 
22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

' MENESTHO'S DAUGHTERS.' In the Paris Salon 
Catalogue for 1893 mention is made of a picture 
by F. le Quesne entitled 'The Daughters of 
Menestho.' What is known about them ? There is 
no legend mentioned in any classical dictionary or 
in any Egyptian books which I have been able to 
consult. W. E. S. 

KECK FAMILY. I should be grateful for re- 
ferences to pedigrees of this family, or any parti- 
culars as to Nicolas and Thomas, sons of Anthony 
Keck, of Sanford, and as to Anthony, son of Nicolas 
Keck, of Brome Court. And where is Brome 
Court? All named above were living in 1678. 

A. T. M. 

BAPTISTERIES. I am informed that there is a 
baptistery attached to Cranbrook Church, Kent, 
and that there is only one other baptistery in 
England. Is this so ; and where may this be ? 
Also I am told that over the baptistery is a room 
called Bloody Baker's Tower, where persecuted 
Protestants were confined in the time of Queen 
Mary, by, I suppose, either a dignitary of the 
Church or a magistrate named Baker. I am 
told this man's garments are, or were not long ago, 
to be seen in a tattered condition hanging in the 
church at Cranbrook. Can you tell me anything 
further about these statements 1 E. A. C. 

going through these registers during this month I 
found the marriages and baptisms between 1707 
and 1719 had been most carefully cut out. Can 
any correspondent suggest a reason for this very 
scandalous act ? Was it to conceal some dis- 
agreeable entry ; or was any property in dispute ? 

Constitutional Club, Northumberland Avenue. 

HYMN. In what collection of hymns occurs that 

I 'm not a little Protestant, 
So call me what you will ? 

Castle Ward, Downpatrick. 

' HORSE SENSE." -This expression, common all 
over the United States, is applied conversationally 
in referring to any individual noticeable for com- 
mon sense, and knowing, by a sort of instinct, 
when and how to set about an action without 
waiting for or seeking the advice of friends and 
neighbours. Has it a local habitation in Great 
Britain ? PENTUCKET. 

Longwood, U.S, 

(8 th S. x. 472 ; xi. 93.) 

MR. BIRKBECK TERRY'S comment on my note 
is not what I expected. He admits that the 
phrase "It, with its copy, were put into the same 
cover," is ungrammatical, but thinks "it may be 
defended on the ground of synesis." If this is, in 
Dean Farrar's diction, a "sense construction,"* it 
is not a common-sense one. The meaning of with 
is "accompanied by," and by the principle of sub- 
stitution it would be as correct to say " it, accom- 
panied by its copy, were put," as "it, with its 
copy, were put." It is usual, however, to treat 
the adjunct, "with its copy," as an enlargement 
not of the subject, but of the predicate ; we prefer 
to write " it was put with its copy." But suppose 
G. L. G. had written "with its copy it were put 
into the same cover," would any of your readers 
have thought that construction defensible " on the 
ground of synesis"] The obvious conclusion is 
that in the composition of a sentence an encum- 
brance or enlargement of the subject tends to 
obscure the syntax, whence the error exemplified 
in such sentences as 

The posture of your blows are yet unknown, f 
an error to which Victorian writers are addicted 
as well as Elizabethan, and with more frequency. 
The construct ad synesim had free play in the 
classical languages, and an imitation of Latin 
syntax would yield the phrase, "I, with my brother, 
are ordered to Capua," or, more briefly, "I, with 
him, are ordered." The term is unknown in 
English grammar, though the thing exists in a 
small way therein. Our sense construction affects 
only verbs and pronouns connected with nouns of 
multitude and nouns of money, measure, or pro- 
oortion examples of syntax usual with the latter 
class of nouns being, "Five shillings was paid for 
it," "four yards is the distance," "three-fourths 
of the wall is yet unbuilt." MR. TERRY adduces 
a passage from Thucydides which might have 
served as a model to G. L. G., as it has apparently 
done to Dean Farrar. Jelf (' Grammar/ 380) 
who also cites the passage, says that this construc- 
tion, so common in Latin, is very rare in Greek, 
but he does not notice that the reading o-TrevSeTcu 
has been proposed for <nrev$ovTai on account of 
the participle /SovAo/xevos which follows. MR. 
TERRY'S quotation from Dean Farrar " a propos 
of this use " is amusing from the fact that a corre- 

* The Dean's examples of " sense construction " do not 
include sentences of the pattern under notice. 

f Shakespeare, ' Julius Caesar,' V. i. 33. Dr. Abbott's 
Shakespearian Grammar ' contains a long list of similar 

J Not (TTrsvdovTai, as in MR. TERRY'S note, where the 
accentuation ukra should, algo be corrected. 



[8 th S. XI. FEB. 20, '97. 

spondent of the Saturday Review (Dec. 6, 1896, 
p. 590) smartly castigated the Dean for perpetrat- 
ing a similar anomaly of speech in an article entitled 
* Two Archbishops,' in the Contemporary Review 
for November, wherein he speaks of "Samuel 
Wilberforce, whom, together with John Bright 
and Mr. Gladstone, I would call the three most 
truly eloquent speakers whom I have ever heard.'' 
Here we observe the Dean exemplifying in his 
mother tongue the superiority of "the logic of 
thought to that of grammatical forms/' as he had 
previously done with no less success in his * Syntax' 
(eighth ed., p. 103), when he remarked that "suc- 
cession in place and time are constantly confused." 
Yerily the Oantuarian deanery is not likely to lose 
under its present occupant the repute for queer 
English which it acquired under one of his pre- 
decessors. How far this kind of syntax, for all 
its rarity, could be carried in Greek is shown by 
the following morsel of Lucian ('Dial Deorum,' 

xii. 1) :^ Kivi] [scil. >} Pea] 7rapa\a/3ov(ra 

KCU TOVS Kopi'/3aj/Tas avo) /cat KCITW T^V 

"IStiv TrepnroXov&iv, uev oAoAvfovcra ITJ-I rw 

*A v to s" \ i_- u * 

A.TTy t 01 J\.o/ovpavT? oe, K. T. A. which is 

almost beaten in English by Crabbe's 

Pain mixed with pity in our bosoms rise.* 

I can only regard this particular kind of syntax 
as a vice of speech, and my object was to illustrate 
its antiquity, which, but for your space, I could 
further prove by Italian quotations. Its rarity in 
Greek on Jelf's testimony shows that Greek 
writers did not favour it. Whether educated 
persons now using it consciously copy classical 
models is questionable. Whoever does this foists 
an ugly and needless barbarism into the language. 
But a long observation of the failings of writers 
induces me to ascribe the use of preposition for 
conjunction in sentences like G. L. G.'s to haste 
and forgetfulness ; besides, such a use is not con- 
fined to the educated. F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

CHINESE PLAYING CARDS (8 th S. viii. 467 ; xi. 
76). I bought a few packs of these for a trifle in 
Penang some years ago ; and on looking at them 
so far as I can make out I have, firstly, 84 
cards in one packet ; but these appear to be four 
duplicate sets of 21 each. They certainly represent 
the 21 possible throws with two dice. The ones, the 
fours, and the sixes are in red, except double-six, 
which is half red, half black. Secondly, I have a 
single set of 70 cards, viz., 35 blacks, 35 reds. 
Each set of 35 is made up as follows : 1 single 
card, which a native told me was Chinese ghin, 
Malay maas=gold ; 10 of one suit (? Chinese pin. 
Malay salalu) ; 24 more, divided apparently into 
four sets of six, each set of six including a court 
card. Lastly I have four duplicate sets. Each 

* 'Tales of the Hall,' ii. 13. 

set contains 30 cards, which may be divided 
into three sets of 10, i.e., 9 plain cards and 1 court 
card. I suspect these are the "white cards" 
which your correspondent refers to in paragraph 4. 
I could send your correspondent my duplicates to 
look at, if he likes ; if so, will he please let me 
know his address ; but can he lend me the article 
in the Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde, Batavia, 1886, 
to which he refers ? I can read it. 

17, Victoria Avenue, Harrogate. 

HAYNE : HAYNES (8 th S. x. 515 ; xi. 37).- 
Haynes is another form of the name. As a 
Christian name it occurs thus, " Sans-Culotte 
Haynes," on p. 86 of * Etudes et Documents sur 
la Ville de Saintes.' It is extracted from the 
municipal registers, and is given as an instance of 
the new nomenclature, extended even to personal 
names when the Reign of Terror was at its height. 



" The first actual attempt at Atlantic steam navigation 
was made by Colonel John Stevens, of New York, in 
1819. This far-seeing gentleman despatched what would 
now be called an auxiliary steamship, called the Savannah, 
which was built by Crocker and Fickett at Corlears 
Hook, New York, as an ordinary barque, but was soon 
afterwards fitted with engines and boilers, and steamed 
from the city of Savannah, on the 25th of May, 1819, 
arriving in Liverpool, after a passage of thirty-five days, 
on the 29th of June. Steam power was used eighteen 
days, the paddle-wheels being so designed that they 
could be unshipped, so as not to interfere with the 
vessel's sailing qualities. This operation required over 
half an hour's time to effect. Her bunker capacity was 
but limited, as she could only carry eighty tons of coal 
besides a quantity of wood fuel. Notwithstanding her 
successful trip across the Atlantic, her machinery was 
afterwards taken out, and she continued to trade for 
some years as a sailing vessel, until, like so many other 
famous vessels, she came to an ignominious end by being 
wrecked on Long Island, in 1822. The engines of the 
Savannah consisted of an inclined direct acting cylinder 
of 40 inches diameter and 6 feet stroke, and the boiler 
pressure used was 20 Ib. per square inch. Her speed 
under steam alone averaged six knots." 'The Atlantic 
Ferry,' by Arthur J. Maginnis (Whittaker & Co., 1892). 

Marton House, Skipton. 

(8 th S. xi. 28). Although there is the prefix of 
1 'Mrs." before the name on this monument, there 
is nothing to show that Elizabeth Corbet was a 
married woman, there being no mention of her 
husband ; and I believe that it was formerly the 
custom for women, after arriving at a certain age, 
to be so designated. I think perhaps a copy of 
the whole of the inscription may be acceptable, as 
it clearly shows that she was a native of Shrop- 
shire. It is as follows : 

" In memory | of Mrs. Elizabeth Corbett, who departed 

| this life at Paris, March y e 1 st 1724 after a long | and 

Painfull Sicknesp, she was daughter | of S r TTvedale 

S. XI. FEB. 20, '97.] 



Corbett of Longnor in the County | of Salop Bar* By 
the Right Hon ble ye Lady Mildred | Cecil who Ordered 
this monument to be | Erected. 

She was a woman good without pretence 
Blest with plain Reason & with sober Sense 
No Conquests she, but o're her Self, desir'd ; 
No Arts essay'd, but not to be admir'd ; 
Passion & Pride were to her Soul unknown, 
Convinc'd that Virtue only is our own, 
So Unaffected, so compos'd a Mind, 
So firm, yet soft, so strong, yet so refin'd, 
Heav'n as its purest Gold, by Torture's try'd 
The Saint sustain'dit, but the woman dy'd. 

Here Lieth also inter'd the Body of | the Right Hon ble 
the Lady Mildred Hotham | daughter of James Cecill, 
late Earl of Salisbury | who died January 18'h 1726-7. 
She was first mar | ried to S r Uvedale Corbett Bar' her 
2 nd husband | was S r Charles Hotham of County | of 
York Bart | This Monument was Finished | by her Son 
S r Richard Corbett, Bart." 

Lady Mildred Hotham was the daughter of 
James, fourth Earl of Salisbury, who was a Roman 
Catholic. The relationship of Mrs. Corbet and 
Lady Mildred may account for the remarkable 
epitaph, with the authorship of which Pope is, 
upon good grounds, credited. There is another 
monument in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, 
to a member of the Corbet family, which it may 
nob be out of place to give here : 

"M.S. | Here under | lyeth the body of | S r Richard 
Corbett | of Longnor in the County of Salop | Baronet, 
who married Victoria | one f the daughters & Coheires 
of | S r William Uvedale of Wickham | in the County of 
Southampton K* | by whom he left one Son and three 
Daughters. He departed | this life the 1 st of August I 
1683, in the 43 rd year | of his Age." 

These clearly show a close connexion with the 
county of Salop, and may be of use to E. W., 
although not quite an answer to his query. 


"Di BON!" (8 th S. x. 475). This expletive 
may probably be translated into " The devil's in 
it ! " and " Go bon ! " into " Good God ! " or " God 
be with us ! " In Cumberland the equivalent of 
* Di bon " is perhaps " Deil bin," a favourite ex- 
pression of Anderson in his * Ballads' (see the 
1 Worton Wedding ') : 

O see a weddin I 've been at ! 

Deil bin, what cap'rin, fightin, vap'rin ! 

In South-west Northumberland, "Dal bin!" a 
variant, no doubt, of " Deil bin ! " was in common 
use thirty or thirty -five years ago. I give the 
above conjectures for what they may be worth. 




Go bon ! " is given in Mr. W. Dickinson's 
'Dialect of Cumberland ' (E. D. S.), 1878, as "a 
sort of oath. " I have often heard " Di thee " used 
in North Yorkshire with the meaning of " Con- 
found," 'Hang," "Plague take you," but not 
Di bon." Can bon have anything to do with 
the A.-S. bana, 6<ma, bane, destruction, &c. ? 


PRIME MINISTER (8 t u S. x. 357, 438 ; xi. 69). 
A question was put at the first reference as to 
the probable right of precedence involved by the 
designation of Prime Minister. That query has 
not been fully answered, and the significance and 
weight of the position conveyed by the name have 
been doubted by a correspondent at the second 
reference, who states that the name Prime Minister 
is "a comparatively recently adopted expression." 
Of course that is limited by his idea of what is 
comparatively recent; but we may presume it 
does not go back beyond the Georgian era. 

An elaborate reply has been published at the 
last reference, in which MR. ROBBINS gives his 
opinion to the effect that the name and office of 
Prime Minister as such evolved in Walpole's 
time, and that the name was first applied to him 
by Swift, and then not exactly in that form, but as 
the " premier minister of State." Walpole became 
that, I think, in 1715. 

I am unable to agree with either of your corre- 
spondents, because I have evidence that the name 
was not so modern in common usage as they sup- 
pose, and I refer to their predecessor Drake, 
who died 1707 ('Bibl. Brit.,' p. 317a, Edin. 1824), 
and who, in 1706, published a reprint of Parsona's 
libel on Queen Elizabeth, which bears as its 
title-page, 'Secret Memoirs of Robert Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester, Prime Minister and Favourite 
of Queen Elizabeth,' Sam. Briscoe, London, 1706. 
In corroboration, the editor of this 1706 edition 
reminds us in his prefatory epistle that Conchini, 
having married a bedchamber lady of Mary de 
Medicis, was raised "to be prime minister" of 

Clearly the term Prime Minister was in use, 
and implied a leading position as between the 
sovereign and the other subjects of the Crown, 
long before the days of Walpole. 


217, 420). In my collection of monumental inscrip- 
tions from local burial-grounds I have the following 
from Sheffield parish churchyard : 

1. Matthew Methley, died 24 March, 1829, aged 
seventy-two years. 

2. James, son of James and Mary Methley, 
died 22 October, 1806, aged eight years. 

3. Cecelia, wife of William Methley, died 
27 January, 1853, aged forty-eight years. Also 
Rebecca, their daughter, who died 28 April, 1853, 
aged eighteen years. 

Meersbrook, Sheffield. 

DR. RADCLIFFB (8 th S. x. 415, 466, 519).- 
MR. SQDIBBS will find an immense amount of 
queer but interesting matter anent this once 
fashionable leech in the ocean of foot-notes attached 
to the memoir to be found in the old ' Biographia 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [& th s. XL FEB. 20/97. 

Britannica.' See also Jeaffreson's 'Book about 
Doctors.' By the way, was this doctor a connexion 
of the far-back English dame whose name was 
given to the female department of Harvard Uni- 
versity, formerly known as Harvard Annex, now 
called Eadclifie College ? a name recently chosen 
by the relict of the late Prof. Agassiz in honour of 
an unknown Mrs. Eadcliffe, a Puritan lady of 
London, the first female donor to Harvard when 
that now noble institution was an idea in embryo 
in the shape of a log cabin shell in the wilderness 
for the education of the agile but constipativo red 
man, who from the first resented the idea as an 
insult. As a new appellation Eadcliffe has proved 
itself a lucky one, inasmuch as the rush on the 
part of the fair ones to tread its present limited 
hall space in a zealous desire for brain-splitting 
exercise is already tormenting the minds of its 
managers. What the American girl of the future 
will culminate in no man knowetb, but at present 
she is sniffed at in the Brahmin circles of New 
England's metropolis as a very poorly endowed 
candidate for the joys and woes of matrimony 
unless she can show a Eadcliffe College degree and 
has taken a full year's course at Boston's most 
fashionable female institution, viz., the Boston 
School of Cooking ; terms eighteen dollars for 
twelve lessons, including full privilege of partaking 
of the mysterious viands cooked by the dainty 
hands of its aristocratic pupils ! GRAYHEAD. 

Your querist will find an excellent account of 
this famous doctor in the 'Lives of British 
Physicians/ published by Murray, 1830 ; see also 
Faulkner's 'Hammersmith.' 


"VlVIT POST FUNERA VIRTUS " (8 th S. V. 129; 

vi. 79, 245 ; x. 362). I cannot see why Borbonius 
calls this " Dictum Tiberii Csesaris." His usually 
ascribed motto is about shearing, not flaying 
(Suetonius, 'Vit.,' c. xxxii.; Dio, bk. Ivii.). The 
immortality of virtue was expressed long before by 
Euripides : 

'Apern Se Kav Bdvn TIS OVK aTro 

f.^ o> > ' \ /" 



Fragm, ' Tern.' 

' Androm.' 

This is the motto of the family of Malone. It 
is inscribed with his arms upon the altar tomb of 
"John Malone, of Dublin, Alderman," in the now 
long ruined Portlester Chapel of St. Ouen's Church, 
Dublin. The date of the inscription is 1592. I 
should like to know whence it was taken by the 
Elizabethan heralds. J. MALONE. 

EPISCOPAL DEANS (8 th S. x. 396, 484). 
W. C. B. writes, at the latter reference, " ' Episcopal 
deans ' is an unfortunate description : it seems to 

suggest that there might be Presbyterian or 
Methodist deans." As a matter of fact there are 
Presbyterian deans. The Queen's chaplains in 
Scotland are Deans of the Chapel Eoyal : 

" On the Reformation the revenues [of the collegiate 
church of Stirling, termed the Chapel Royal, founded by 
Pope Alexander VI.] reverted to the Crown, but were 
partly dispersed by Crown grants. King James VI. 
granted a new charter in 1621 in favour of the Bishop 
of Dunblane, which was ratified by Act of Parliament. 
This charter included the whole benefice of the Chapel 
Royal, which remained with the Bishops of Dunblane 
until the abolition of Episcopacy in 1688, when the 
teinds and other revenues again reverted to the Crown. 
King William III. made a gift of the whole emoluments 
to Mr. Carstaire, an ordained minister, and since that 
time the Crown has gifted the revenues to those of 
their [sic] chaplains in Scotland who enjoy them, and 
are called Deans of the Chapel Royal." ' Teiuds or 
Tithes/ by N. Elliot, 1893, p. 36. 

The senior dean, the Eev. J. Cameron Lees, D.D., 
minister of St. Giles, Edinburgh, is also Dean of 
the Order of the Thistle. The truth is Dean is a 
very common title in Scotland. The head of the 
Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh is the Dean. 
The head of the Faculty of Procurators in Glasgow 
is the Dean. The presidents of many smaller legal 
bodies, such as the Faculty of Solicitors of Ayr, 
are styled deans. The courts which supervise the 
plans for new buildings and their erection are the 
Dean of Guild Courts ; and in Edinburgh and 
Glasgow the citizen who presides is addressed as 
the Lord Dean of Guild, and bears the title in 
private as well as in public during his term of 
office. The heads of the various faculties of arts, 
medicine, &c., in the Scottish universities are 
also deans. The number of Scottish deans must, 
curiously enough, exceed that of England. 

12, Sardinia Terrace, Glasgow. 

iii. 89, 180, 291 ; 8 tb S. vi. 143 ; vii. 226, 256, 
357, 437 ; x. 439 ; xi. 56). At the third of these 
references PROF. SKEAT, while dismissing the 
suggestion of an old and valued correspondent that 
gnoffe is an oaf, says it is the Danish gnav, a 
churl. Twenty-five years afterwards he writes a 
long note, which is reprinted in his 'Student's 
Pastime,' p. 364, in which he ignores the Danish 
derivation altogether, and finishes up by asserting 
that gnoffe is the Hebrew ganav, a thief. PROF. 
SKEAT forgets that the daghesh forte, which he 
omits, is characteristic and essential in gannav, 
and that by no phonetic possibility could that 
word be slurred into gnoff. And what has become 
of the Danish gnav ? W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

ARMS (8 th S. xi. 87). So far as I know, the 
French authorities give these arms to no French 
family, noble or other. Eietstap assigns them, as 
does Papworth, to Blennerhasset of Cumberland 
and (afterwards) Ireland, with the field gules, but 

. XI. FEB. 20, '97.] 



with, for crest, a wolf sejant proper. Papworth 
gives them, with the field arg., to Hasset, whose 
crest I have not been able to discover. 

Fairbairn also gives the crest to Blunden, Earl, 
Holmes, Lewis, Marlay, St. Pere, St. Pier, and 
St. Pierre ; but I cannot find the arms described 
borne by any family among those he names. 
Perhaps some of them may give a clue. 


S. ix. 307, 392, 473). PALAMEDES should read 
M. Darmesteter's *Joan of Arc in England,' in 
the ' English Studies ' (translated by Madame 
Darmesteter), without a reference to which the 
notes under this head are incomplete. The essay 
is a thorough vindication of English opinion on the 
subject of the Maid and (which is perhaps more 
remarkable) of Shakespeare's attitude towards her. 
" The only visible trace of the master hand of 
Shakespeare exists in the scene before Angers," says 
M. Darmesteter of ' 1 K. Henry VI.,' " where Joan 
invokes her familiar spirits "; and after quoting 
the passage in full, he adds : 

"Despite its flatness of rhythm, ita feebleness of 
diction, this scene bears the imprint of a superior genius. 
The oft-quoted encounter of Joan with Burgundy barely 
rises above the commonplace. But here a very great 
poet still young, as yet no master of his craft, as yet 
a mere inexperienced prejudiced youth, but a great 
poet shows himself touched by that mysterious sym- 
pathy which heroism inspires in genius. He has lifted 
to the height of his own soul the hateful witch, the foul 
limb of the fiend, which Joan of Arc appeared to him 
no less than to his contemporaries. He divines the 
inner meaning of her actions. His hand, though hostile, 
ennobles and enlarges all it touches. Joan, as Shake- 
speare sees her, is still a witch, but the Satan in her is 
sister to Milton's Satan. Her familiar demon is love of 
country ; 'tis for her native land she sells herself, body 
and soul and all : 

Then, take my soul body, and soul, and all, 
Before that England give the French the foil. 
Two centuries later 'twill be the cry of Danton : ' Quo 
ma memoire soit maudite, mais que la France soit 


M. Darmesteter's review was written too early to 
include the name of Mr. Andrew Lang, but down 
to the date at which it appeared it is complete. 

C. C. B. 

(8 tb S. xi. 26). It is worth recording that the 
first late evensong at St. Paul's Cathedral was on 
Advent Sunday, 28 Dec., 1858. A full account of 
this " Church Revival" is given in the 'Annual 
Register/ 1858, p. 196. 



"BORN DATS" (8 th S. x. 477, 526). The 
meaning which PROF. SKEAT assigns to this every- 
day phrase is surely the most reasonable and 
commonly accepted one. The theory of a refer- 
ence to a state of pre-existence will be a little " too 

much " for the many to entertain. I am reminded 
that the phrase is included in Davies's ' Supple- 
mentary Glossary,' where, on making a reference, 
I find : " Born days, a vulgar expression for the 
whole life ; all the days since one was born." Mr. 
Davies gives illustrations from Richardson and Miss 
Edgworth. For those who like u chapter and 
verse," this reference to the phrase may be useful. 

C. P. HALE. 

In my opinion this common dialectal expression 
has nothing at all to do with any belief in a pre- 
vious existence, but is simply equivalent to the 
A.-S. lif-daeg, life-time, which appears in Early 
English as lyf-day and lyfe-days. 


159, 218). There is an early and interesting refer- 
ence (as below) to this establishment in a letter 
from Sir Robert Southwell* to Sir William King,f 
dated 5 Oct., 1 683 probably from King's Weston, 
co. Gloucester and written in good feeling and 
full knowledge of the world, on the subject of the 
start in life meditated by the writer's ward and 
relative, Sir Thomas (afterwards Lord) South- 
well^ then a graceless and inconsiderate young 
spendthrift, who appears to have been so remiss in 
every sentiment of gratitude towards his guardian, 
and so unheedful of the latter's remonstrances con- 
cerning his misconduct, as to cause Sir Robert in 
the following year to give up the volun:ary 
guardianship in despair of any good results. After 
expressing a wish for Sir Thomas to remain in the 
University, to gather more of the man, the writer 
states : 

" Now he is under the rules, and cannot go far amiss ; 
but a storm lights upon him. Should he be in the Inns 
of Court, there is no inspection into any man's morals, 
more than the advice of a private friend, to which there 
are twenty young heroes that advise the contrary." 

The difficulty of obtaining an efficient governor 
during his travels is fully dilated on, and the 
purposes of the Inns of Court, where young men 
resorted who intended the practice of the law, are 
spoken of as then declining. Sir Robert con- 

" Of late there is erected a very famous Academy in 
London, governed by a French Gentleman, Mons. 

* Son and heir of Robert Southwell, of Kingsale, 
Ireland, esquire ; of Queen's College, Oxon. (created D.C.L. 
1677) ; Clerk of Privy Council 1664 ; knighted 21 Dec., 
1665; Secretary of State for Ireland 1690; P.R.S. 1691 ; 
died 11 Sept., 1702. 

f Executor of the will of SirThoa. Southwell, of Court 
Mattress, Castle Mattress, and Clogh-Kottered, in Ireland, 

J Second baronet ; son of Richard Southwell ; created 
Baron Southwell of Castle Mattress (as above) 4 Sept., 
1717; died 4 Aug., 1720. 

Of Oxford, where he was under the tuition of the 
celebrated Dean Aldrich; matriculated from Christ 
Church 5 Dec., 1681, aged sixteen. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8s.xi.F BB . 20/97. 

Foubert, where riding, French, mathematics, and all 
exercises are taught, which are usually learned in 

-and proposes that Sir-Thomas should " pass six 
months here, as many Englishmen doe, to prepare 
them for the improvement of Travel." 

This academy was, apparently, then in Sherwood 
(or Sherard) Street, Piccadilly, but afterwards 
removed. In the Print Eoom, British Museum 
(Crowle, v. 38), is a coloured 'View of [Major] 
Foubert's Riding House and Passage in Swallow 
Street [taken down for Regent Street],' drawn by 
0. Tomkins in 1801, size 9J in. by 6 in. ; and 
also what would seem by the description in the 
catalogue to be a duplicate drawing or copy of the 
same in the Grace Collection of Maps, Plans, and 
Views of London. 

It is not a little singular that your correspondent 
at the latter reference should have stated that " a 
good history of the Golden Square district is a 
desideratum," considering that as is well known 
in certain quarters, but not, I believe, to him I 
had only a short time previously, without sug- 
gestion from any one, been collecting materials 
from original sources for a paper on the subject. 
I am also in possession of an original document of 
the year 1709, relating to the title to the site of 
the square and to the ground rents of the houses 
erected thereon by various parties from 1664 to 
1706 - W. I. R. V. 

See < N. & Q.,' !* S. vi. 55, 136. W. C. B. 

"RIGMAROLE" (8* S. x. 495). Skelton, in his 
Garlande of Laurell,' enumerating his various 
works, has : 

Item Apollo that whirllid up his chare, 
That made sum to snurre and enuf in the wynde, 
and beseeches Fame 

Owt of her bokis Apollo to rase. 
Fame replies that what is once spoken in her 
noble court "must nedes after rin all the worlde 
aboute," and Skelton, pained at this decision, 
declares : 

By Juppiter and his high mageste, 
I did what I cowde to scrape out the scrollis, 
Apollo to rase out of her ragman rollis. 

In a note on this the Rev. A. Dyce (Skelton's 
Poetical Works/ 1843, vol. ii. p. 335) states that 
"the collection of deeds in which the Scottish nobility 
and gentry were compelled to subscribe allegiance to 
Edward I. of England in 1296, and which were more 
particularly recorded in four large rolls of parchment 
&c. was known by the name of Ragman's Roll: but 
what has been written on the origin of this expression 

v> "*&> ' v. t mams 8 

m S 9 ' to ' The Towneley Myst ' in v 

and Todd's 'Johnson's Diet.,' in v. Rigmarole." 

Bailey hag, "Ragman, a Statute appointed by 
K. Edward III. for hearing and determining all 

Complaints done five years before," and Dr. Brewer, 
in ' Phrase and Fable,' says : 

" Ragman Roll originally meant the ' Statute of Rage- 
man' (De Ragemannis), a legate of Scotland, who com* 
pelled all the clergy to give a true account of their 
benefices, that they might be taxed at Rome accordingly. 
Subsequently it was applied to the four great rolls of 
parchment recording the acts of fealty and homage done 
by the Scotch nobility to Edward I. in 1296 ; these four 
rolls consisted of thirty-five pieces sewn together. The 
originals perished, but a record of them is preserved in 
the Rolls House, Chancery Lane." 

I think the venerable author should, if possible, 
have given the date of the " Statute of Rageman," 
and as to Rageman the legate I must confess to 
utter ignorance. 

Under " Rewe " Dr. Brewer gives some informa- 
tion as to " Ragman's Rewe " in * Piers Plowman ' 
and in Udall. 

It remains for Prof. Skeat, or some other expert, 
to trace the historical development of "Ragman 
Roll " into rigmarole, if any such growth occurred. 
Dr. Brewer does not give rigmarole in 'Phrase 
and Fable.' JAMES HOOPER. 


^ ragman in Halliwell's 'Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Dictionary ' and in Prof. Skeat's Glossarial 
Index to 'Piers the Plowman* (small edition), 
where he derives rigmarole from "Ragman Roll," 
meaning "a document with a long list of names 
or with numerous seals." A. G. C. 

EARLY MENTIONS OF LIFT (7 th S. x. 85 ; 8 th S. 
x. 412, 465). The Manchester Guardian of 
23 November, in an editorial reference to my 
previous contribution under this heading, says : 

" The lift ' in houses, hotels, and public buildings is 
regarded as an importation from America, but the name 
does not occur in the classic pages of Noah Webster. 
Warehouses in old Manchester were mostly supplied 
with 4 teagles,' by which goods and persons were trans- 
ported from one storey to another. The word occurs in 
' Mary Barton.' The new * elevator ' is but the old- 
fashioned 'teaglo' writ large and adapted to changed 
circumstances and a more luxurious time. The device 
is, of course, obvious, and many minds may have hit 
upon it independently in many places." 

May not the absence of the word " lift " from 
Webster's 'Dictionary' be accounted for by the 
fact that in the United States the machine is 
always referred to as an " elevator " ? 


I have not within reach the Seventh Series of 
*N. & Q.' to which I might refer in order to 
perceive if this note is merely travelling over 
ground familiar to readers. But MR. ROBBINS, 
in his communication under the above heading, 
does not seem to suspect that lifts were introduced 
much earlier than a century ago, and he appears to 
believe, or rather conjecture, that they were " in- 
vented for the comfort of royalty." Had he studied 
the Coliseum, or interested himself in the writings, 


8 th S. XI. FEB. 20, '97.] 



of Seneca, he would have come to a different con- 
clusion. He would have been able to carry back 
their usage at a leap to the sixth century, and then 
at another leap to the days possibly of Augustus 
Caesar. But I do not think he would have come 
to the conclusion that they were invented for the 
comfort of royalty so much as for hoisting wild 
beasts, &c., on to the arena with rapidity through 
trap-doors. These lifts were square, and the grooves 
in which they made their ascent and descent can 
be examined quite satisfactorily. In the Coliseum, 
however, they would seem to have been adapted 
to supersede the more space- wasting inclined 
planes up which the beasts were driven. 

Nevertheless Seneca, in his eighty-eighth epistle, 
describes similar machines very particularly as 
being used in his own day in places of popular 
entertainment under the name of pegmata, which 
rise, as it were, out of themselves and subside 
again.* These were worked by machinatores, or 
scene-shifters, and not improbably were utilized as 
occasion served for actors, biped as well as quad- 
ruped, and scenery. 

It is true, of course, that pegma is not the literal 
equivalent for our word "lift," nor did every pegma 
connote a lift ; but rude lifts certainly were in use, 
and were denominated pegmata. A gladiator, 
therefore, may now and again have been heard to 
use the equivalent of the comical phrase heard at 
a store by a friend of mine, " Please elevate me a 
little lower." ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

According to Fournier, 'Le Vieux-Neuf/ the 
invention of lifts dates from the time of 
Louis XIV., and it was M. de Villayer, of the 
French Academy, who brought them into fashion 
in 1680. Fournier refers to the ' Journal de 
Dangeau ' (complete edition, with notes, by 
Saint-Simon, vol. iii. p. 265). A M. Thonier 
also constructed a lift at about the same time, but 
it was not a success, and the inventor met with 
an accident and broke his arms and legs. 

Murdoch in the early years of this century con- 
structed, at Soho Foundry, Birmingham, a pneu- 
matic lift in which compressed air was made to 
raise and lower castings from the boring mill to 
the level of the foundry. 

But passenger lifts such as we now have appear 
to have been introduced within the past thirty-five 
or forty years. The following is an extract from 
the Builder, 10 Sept., 1859 : 

' The New York Herald describes a new and monster 
hotel which ia in the course of erection in Madison 
Square, at the intersection of the Fifth Avenue and 
Broadway in that city. This gigantic establishment, 
which is six stories high, exclusive of basement, covers 
an acre of ground and contains 500 rooms for guests. It 
has 125 parlours, with suites of rooms, and each has a 
hath attached and a water-closet. Some of these par- 
lours are 27 ft. by 15 ft. The accommodation is in every 

* Of. Plin,, 33, 3, 16. 

respect perfect; but, perhaps, the most powerful 
feature in the hotel is that it will contain a vertical 
railway, that is, a carriage will move from the top to 
the bottom of the building, and from bottom to top. 
It will be forced upwards by the application of steam 
power, and the descent will be regulated by the resist- 
ance of hydraulic power, so as to guard against acci- 
dents. The car will be attached to a shaft, which, 
being turned by steam, will cause the car to proceed 
upwards by meana of a screw, or on the principle of the 
inclined plane. The car stops at each floor, and pas- 
sengers are landed, and others taken in. In the same 
way, in making the descent, it stops at each floor. It is 
stated that there will be contrivances at each of these 
landings to prevent accidents. Behind the vertical 
railway is a baggage elevator, moved by the same 
power. The object of this is obviously to save the neces- 
sity of taking trunks up and down the stairs a great 
convenience. Near the vertical railway there is a 
capacious staircase for those who prefer using their 
legs. The cost of the erection and furnishing this 
hotel will be upwards of a million of dollars." 


Miss Burney, in her * Diary/ mentions a u sink- 
ing table," as Johnson calls it, at the curious 
house known as Ferry's Folly, near Bath. This 
was in 1780. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


The following passage occurs in Miss Strick- 
land's ' Lives of the Queens of England/ in the 
life of Queen Anne : 

"She left off all exercise whatever, insomuch that, 
like Henry VI II., during her stay at Windsor Castle in 
the decline of the year 1713 she was, to spare herself the 
trouble of ascending and descending stairs, lowered 
from the ceiling of one room into another by means of 
a chair fitted up with pulleys and tackling. It is pro- 
bable that the apparatus and contrivances which had 
been used for the queen's corpulent predecessor still 
remained at Windsor Castle " (fourth edition, vol. viii. 
ch. x.). 

L. F. G. 

SHELTA (8 th S. x. 434, 521). I should like 
to thank COL. PRIDEAUX for his very considerate 
reply to my remarks on his previous letter. My 
reason for preferring to confine the term " rhyming 
slang " to the stricter nse was that there is a better 
term for the looser meaning in the phrase " head 
slang/' which I take to mean slang manufactured 
by changing the " head " or initial of a word ; but 
if I am wrong I desire to be corrected. 

The fact pointed out by COL. PRIDEAUX, that 
Shelta tends to group its words under very few 
initials, reminds me of an observation I recently 
made, which I venture to put on record here, 
because it has never appeared in print, and will 
interest him and others. Of course every one 
knows that five out of the ten Shelta numerals 
(those for 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) commence with sh. Making 
some investigations lately into Dutch and Flemish 
slang, I noticed the same tendency in the numbers, 
only that the initial in this case was Ic, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
appearing as kijf, kes, keven, kacht. 




S. XI. FEB. 20, '97. 

(7 th S. v. 28, 135, 193, 273 ; vii. 166, 272). Some 
while ago, two years at least, I heard that some 
one had asked in ' N. & Q.' for information re Sir 
William Grant, Master of the Rolls. The note 
went on to say that the writer believed all Sir 
William's relatives would be dead, and that the 
information wanted could only be got from family 
Bibles or documentary evidence. I write to say 
that my uncle, Brigade-Surgeon Grant, Inverness, 
is Sir William's nephew, and either he or I will 
be pleased to communicate information. There is 
an account of Sir William's official life in vol. ii. of 
* Lives of Eminent Statesmen,' by Lord Brougham. 

H.M. Geological Survey. 


HERTFORD STREET, MAYFAIR (8 th S. xi. 47, 94). 
This street was probably built about the year 
1740, as it is not entered in the Parish Clerks' 
1 New Remarks,' 1732, nor in Maitland's ' His- 
tory,' 1739, while in Rocque's survey it appears as 
"Harford Street." It is evident, therefore, that 
the name of Garrick Street was a brief assumption 
during the vogue of the great actor, and that it 
did not possess sufficient vitality to oust the 
original appellation. The dramatic associations 
of the street were maintained by the residence 
there of General Bargoyne and Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan. W. F. PRIDEAUX. 

Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 

REIGNS (8 to S. ix. 228, 477 ; xi. 81). Most of the 
"authorities" above quoted (Dr. Woodward's 
invaluable work being, of course, excepted) can 
hardly be considered as having any " authority " 
whatever. In a work entitled * Regal Heraldry,' 
by the well-known Thomas Willement (London, 
4 to., 1821), there is an authentic account of the 
arms and supporters of the kings and queens of 
England (" from coeval authorities "), being those 
actually used by them, with engravings of the 
same. Notice of this work should certainly be 
here inserted. G. E. C. 

After perusing the note on the above subject 
by MR. UDAL, I was surprised to find that 
two excellent works had not been quoted ' The 
Glossary of Terms used in Heraldry,' published 
by J. H. Parker, 1847, which contains the same 
supporters that are given by him, except some of 
the doubtful ones, and ' The Armorial Insignia of 
the Kings and Queens of England,' by Thomas 
Willement, London, 1821, which has a shorter list, 
but gives an exhaustive account of those mentioned. 
Some interesting information of the arms and 
supporters of James I., and contentions between 
the English and the Scotch respecting the proper 
side of the shield for the unicorn, will be found in 

'The Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland,' 
by George Seton, 1863, pp. 423-46. If the note 
is intended to be of use to the readers of ' N. & Q.,' 
it is to be regretted that the tinctures were not 
added, and the works given from which the doubt- 
ful supporters were compiled. 


515; xi. 73, 132). I thank the correspondents who 
have enabled me to obtain the particulars I sought 
concerning this vessel. I am a little astonished at 
the unexpected results of a query occupying four 
lines. MR. THOMAS inquires my object. Well, 
I wished, as the query indicated, for particulars 
concerning some one said to have been a passenger. 
This information was sought for a literary purpose, 
and not in idle curiosity. Apropos of the same 
subject, MR. MASON writes concerning waste of 
space in ' N. & Q.' I endeavour not to waste it, 
and would ask, in the friendliest and least con- 
troversial spirit, whether MR. MASON'S own re- 
marks are so pertinent and essential as wholly to 
escape his own censure. H. T. 

A QUOTATION OF DICKENS' s (8 th S. xf. 107). 
Thomas Moore was the " traveller of honoured 
name," and these are his lines : 

Oh ! but for such Columbia's days were done ; 
Rank without ripeness, quickened without sun, 
Crude at the surface, rotten at the core, 
Her fruits would fall before her spring was o'er ! 

' To the Honourable W. R. Spencer from 
Buffalo upon Lake Erie.' 


SHRINE OF ST. CDTHBERT (8 th S. x. 494 ; xi. 
94). I meant that the last year in Raine' s list? 
(' St. Cuthbert,' 116) with a sum of money attached 
to it is "1488-9, 4Z. 19s. 9d" Then follows 
"1513-4" without any sum. On p. 167, Raine 
says : 

"1513-4. In this year, aa I have already stated! 
(p. 116-7), the box of St. Cuthbert was found empty. 
That of St. John Warton, in Elvet Church, produced 
16d. (read I5d.) ; and there are the two following 
charges : To Sir John Forster, for carrying the banner 
of St. Cuthbert, IQd. For repairing the banner of St. 
Cuthbert, 13s. 4<2." 

I did not quote 1513-14 as having any mention 
of offerings attached to it ; I only gave that date 
in my quotation from Raine, in connexion with 
which I said that the doctor might have found in 
the roll of that year, besides the blank upon which 
he founded a presumption, many others, arising 
from the fact that the roll has never been finished ; 
it proves nothing either way as to whether the 
offerings were falling off or not. The later rolls to 
which I referred were unknown to Dr. Raine and 
therefore tD Archbishop Eyre ; these and many 
others have been found since they wrote. I find 
nothing about St. John Warton in Archbishop 
Eyre's work (ed. 1849) ; his tomb and pix, or box, 

8th S. XI. FEB. 20, '87.] 



for offerings were in St. Oswald's Church, and we 
know of no connexion between him and the shrine 
of St. Cuthbert farther than that the offerings at 
his tomb are regularly entered in the Feretrar's 
Rolls from 1457 to 1537. We know absolutely 
nothing more with regard to " St. John Warton " 
here in Durham. Can any one enlighten us ? 

J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

PORTRAIT OF LADY NELSON (8 tb S. ix. 446, 
517; x. 179, 257, 305, 342, 439, 501,) In a 
letter received some little time since from Capt. 
A. T. Mahan, U.S.N., thanking me for some 
notes concerning Lady Nelson's family and his- 
tory, he tells me that he has information of two 
portraits of her taken in old age. Messrs. Mac- 
millan announce that Capt. Mahan's ' Life of 
Nelson ' will be published in March, so that we 
may then hope to obtain some authentic informa- 
tion on the subject of Lady Nelson's portrait. The 
present Earl Nelson writes that he neither pos- 
sesses nor knows of any portrait of the lady in 

There would appear to be some uncertainty as 
to the spelling of the name Nisbet or Nisbett. 
[ have copies (made for me from the originals by 
Mr. T. Graham Briggs, of Saddle Hill, Nevis, in 
1881) of Lady Nelson's first and second marriage 
certificates, and also of the inscription on the 
tablet in St. John's Church, Figtree, Nevis, 
erected by her to the memory of her parents. In 
all of these the name of her first husband is given 
as "Nisbett." Note also the announcement in 
a local newspaper of her son's marriage : 

" 1819, March 31. Thin morning Capt. Josiah Nisbett, 
Royal Navy, to Frances Herbert, fourth daughter of 
Herbert Evans, Esq., of Eagle's Bush and Kilvey Mount, 
in the co. of Glamorgan, S. Wales." Trewmans flying 

The young lady was goddaughter and companion 
to Lady Nelson, and the marriage is said to have 
taken place secretly at Littleham, where only 
eleven years later Josiah and three of his children 
were buried. Both on their tomb and on the 
cenotaph within the church the name appears as 
Nisbet; and on the tablet in the church at 
Stratford-Sub-Castle, near Salisbury, to Lady 
Nelson's first husband, who died and was buried 
there, we read : 

" Joaiah Nisbet M.D. | of the Island of Nevis ; I Born 
h August, 1747, died 5 th October, 1781. | This Monument 

was Erected to his Memory | by his affectionate Wife I 

Frances Nisbet." 

" Item. I give and bequeath unto Fanny Woollward 
for ever daughter of William Woollward a Negro Man 
named Cato." 

And we ourselves possess old deeds and certificates 
in which our name is spelt indifferently Wollard, 
Woollard, Woollward, Wolward, and Woolward. 
Lady Nelson, I may mention, was first cousin to 
my grandfather. EVELYN M. WOOLWARD. 

WAYZGOOSE (6 th S. iv. 80 ; 7 th S. x. 187, 233, 373 ; 
xi.34; 8 tb S.x.432,483; xi.30). Bailey (ed. 1731) 
has " Wayzgoose, a Stubble Goose." 1 believe that 
Bailey has gone wrong here. This seems probable 
for the following reasons : (1) I cannot find that the 
word wayz-goose occurs in any text before Bailey's 
time, or in any literature after 1730, except as evi- 
dently due to Bailey's definition ; (2) I can find 
no evidence that the word ivayz-goose was ever 
used by any unsophisticated rustic in any district 
in the United Kingdom as the name for a stubble 
goose ; (3) I can find no evidence that wayz ever 
meant stubble in any English dialect, or in any 
dialect of any Germanic language on the Con- 
tinent. I therefore now ask any of your corre- 
spondents who may be interested in the history 
of English words to send me, if possible, (1) a 
quotation for ivayz-goose from some text ; or (2) 
trustworthy evidence of the use of the word in 
any district of the United Kingdom ; or (3) prooi' 
that wayz ever meant stubble. 


"NoN SINE PULVBRB" (8 tb S. xi. 108), 
John Albert Bengel, in his ' Gnomon Novi Testa- 
menti,' makes a quaint application of the phrase 
"non sine pulvere." He is commenting on the 
parable of the lost piece of silver, St. Luke xv. 
8-10, and on the words " and sweep the house 
and seek diligently till she find it" he says, "Id 
non fit sine pulvere" (edition Tubingse, 1742, 
small 4to. p. 258), a very suggestive note which 
Archbishop Trench fully developes in his famous 
book on the parables. 


The same lack of uniformity would, therefore, 
seem to prevail in the spelling of Lady Nelson's 
first) married name as certainly does in the case 
of her maiden name. On the tablet at Nevis she 
spells her father's name Woolward, but there is an 
amusing bequest to her as a girl from Thomas 
Williams, of Saddle Hill, Nevis : 

(8 th S. xi. 66, 110). The rising of the '45 left 
many waifs and strays up and down the north of 
England. One of these was Charles Douglas, 
fourth and last Lord Mordington, a title to which 
he succeeded in 1741, but did not assume, it being 
a mere barren title without endowment. Charles 
Douglas was one of the 127 prisoners against 
whom true bills were found by the grand jury at 
Carlislein August,l746 before the Special Commis- 
sion issued to try those concerned in the '45, He 
claimed to be tried by his peers, and his plea was, 
after argument, allowed. He seems to have been 
forgotten ; he died in Carlisle in 1755, and his 
burial is recorded in the register of St. Cuthbert's 
Church in that city. He had two sisters, neither 



[8 S. XI. FEB. 20, '97. 

called Clementina Johannes Sobiesky ; he was 
never married, but he may have had some 
irregular connexion of that name, mistress or 
daughter, who joined him at Carlisle, and after his 
death in 1755 settled at Waterside in the parish 
of Finsthwaite, the inducement in all probability 
being economy rather than the beauty of the Lake 
scenery. This, of course, is merely a conjecture. 

Many queer waifs and strays must have come 
out of Carlisle in the twenty years following the 
'45, as the Government sent up there numbers of 
French prisoners, the last batch being those taken 
in Thurot's squadron in 1760 in the action off the 
Isle of Man. Many of these settled in the North 
as fencing masters, dancing masters, teachers of 
cookery, medical practitioners. The registers 
show that they had women with them. 


THE PRONOUN "SHE "(8 th S. xi. 48, 116;. 
My present view of this word is this. The fern, 
sing, of the def. pronoun in old Icelandic was sjd, 
fern, of d. I think the Northumbrian sho or scho 
may easily have arisen from this ; for sj, pronounced 
as syj necessarily passes into sh, and the Icel. a 
became in M.E. Cf. the form fro (Icel. /ra), 
which occurs as early as in ' Horn ' and ' Havelok.' 
After this, continual association of this Northern 
sho with the masculine he, and comparison of the 
same with the Southern heo, gradually turned 
sho into sheo (of which examples are found) and 
she. It seems all to have taken place in due 
course. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

MR. JAMES PL ATI'S words, to which your 
correspondent refers, are, "Another and even 
more important example of the change in English 
is that of the Anglo-Saxon pronoun heo to the 
modern she." This is a bold statement, and, so 
far as I know, incapable of proof. Heo still 
survives in Lancashire in the form of hoo, whereas 
in other parts of the country she in some form or 
other is used, the origin of which is not the same 
as that of heo, which is the feminine form of he, 
whilst she is from the feminine form of the A.-S. se. 
This is what Dr. R. Morris says in his * Historical 
Outlines of English Accidence,' 1873, p. 120 : 

"She, in the twelfth century, in the Northern dialects 
replaced the old form keo. The earliest instance of 
its use is found in the ' A.-Sax. Chronicle ' [11401 After 
all, it is only the substitution of one demonstrative for 
another, for the is the feminine of the definite article 
which m O.E. was seo or ria; from the latter of these 
probably comes she." 

CHURCH (8* S. xi. 85). -M*. F. T. HIBGAME says 
that the introduced use of " the Asperges " at St 
Alban's, Holborn, " is identical with that at the 
Pro-Cathedral and at every other Catholic church 
when High Mass is celebrated." I presume, 
however, that at St. Alban's the language used 

in the rite is English, and not, as in Catholic 
churches, Latin. There are, however, two modes 
of conducting this Sunday ceremonial. In the 
more common method, the priest and attendants 
go down the central aisle, and return, sprinkling 
the holy water on the people right and left. It is 
obvious that comparatively few members of the 
congregation can really be sprinkled at all ; while 
I have heard of people, especially well-dressed 
women, who are near enough to receive the 
sprinkled water, complain of being thus drenched, 
more especially if the officiant is lavish in his use 
of the element. The other method, sometimes 
found, is for the priest to go as far as the entrance 
to choir or sanctuary only, and then scatter the 
water in the centre and right and left, pretty 
much in the same way as incense is offered to the 
people at High Mass at the offertory, or at the 
Magnificat at Vespers. Writing under correction, 
I believe that this latter simpler method is that 
which has the approval of the Congregation of 
Rites. Which mode is sanctioned by the Bishop 
of London I am unable to say. 

St. Andrew?, N.B. 

St. Alban's, Holborn, is certainly not the first 
church of the Anglican obedience to have revived 
the ceremony of " Asperges " before High Mass. 
I witnessed this ceremony myself at St. Michael's, 
Shoreditch, about five years ago. I believe also 
that it was at one time in vogue at the Hospital 
Chapel of SS. Mary and Thomas, Ilford, Essex. 
The use of holy water in Anglican churches is not 
at all uncommon in these days. I remember 
reading (some fifteen years ago) an account in the 
Church Times of the blessing of an Anglican con- 
vent by a Scottish bishop who used holy water. 
I also saw the rood, &c., at St. Alban's, Holborn, 
sprinkled with holy water three or four years ago. 
At St. Cuthbert's, Earl's Court, there are stoups 
for holy water at the entrances to the church. I 
saw it used on Holy Saturday, 1894, at St. Mark's, 
Marylebone, in connexion with the Blessing of Fire, 
Paschal Candle, &c. I believe this church may 
claim to be the first to have restored (according to 
the use of Sarum) the " Mass of the Presancti- 
fied" with Easter Sepulchre, Deposition of the 

17, Wellington Road, Old Charlton. 

I think MR. HIBGAME is wrong in supposing 
that St. Alban's has established a record by using 
holy water. But I do not know whether the use 
has before been made with BO much of public 
ceremonial. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 

xi. 49). I have seen him described as of Birming- 
ham, and the name spelt Haughton. His son 
Matthew was also a painter and engraver. 

A. T. M. 

8 th S. XI. FEB. 20, '97.] 




The History of Don Quixote of the Mancha. Translated 
from the Spanish by Thomas Shelton. With Intro- 
duction by James Fitzmaurice-Kelly. Vols. III. and 
IV. (Nutt.) 

A PEW months ago (8 th S. ix. 519) we congratulated the 
student of Tudor literature upon the appearance of the 
first two volumes of Shelton'a amusing and Rabelaisian 
translation of ' Don Quixote.' To an accidental irregu- 
larity it is due that the concluding portion of the 
work is not noticed in the same volume as the opening. 
Somewhat tardily, then, we congratulate the subscribers 
to the "Tudor Translations" upon the possession of the 
whole work. An introduction by Mr Fitzmaurice-Kelly 
to the second part is neither less instructive nor less 
humorous than that to the opening part. Shelton is 
congratulated upon his "intrepidity," his " fine careless- 
ness," his "bruial disdain" of an idiom, and upon his 
idiosyncrasies generally. Shelton's excellences even are 
" victories of bright and faithful audacity " over which 
"our modern prudery draws a veil." Cervantes himself 
denounces translators. To his translators, however, 
Mr. Kelly holds he owes a debt, bidding us " consider a 
moment the diminution of Cervantes's fame were his gay 
melancholy book to be read solely in Spanish." Most of 
all, it is held, is he indebted to " Shelton, lord of the 
Golden Elizabethan speech, accomplished artificer in 
style, first of foreigners to hail him for the master that 
he was, first to present him and that with the grand 
air to the company of the universal world." In read- 
ing this second part we are now and then reminded of 
Shakspeare. Compare, for instance, the affection of 
Sancho Panza for his ass with that of Launce for his 
dog, and the punishment each vicariously receives for 
the beloved animal. Compare, again, Launce's praise 
of his sister, " She 's as white as a lily and as small as a 
wand," with Sancho's declaration concerning the daughter 
he is bringing up to be a countess, " She is as long as a 
lance, and as fresh as an April morning." No passage 
from the original shows Shelton to more advantage than 
the benediction upon the inventor of sleep. Among his 
delightfully na'ive comments upon the text with which 
he deals is one upon the portion of Don Quixote's advice 
to Sancho Panza concerning the government of his island, 
wherein the future magistrate is counselled, " Him that 
thou must punish with deeds, revile not with words, 
since to a wretch the punishment is sufficient without 
adding ill language. Shelton's marginal comment on 
this is " A good Item to our ludges of the Common Law," 
suggesting, perhaps, that he had had some experience 
of their tendency to add "insult to injury." Very 
welcome is this second instalment, and we earnestly 
counsel our readers to scrape or renew acquaintance with 
Cervantes's masterpiece in the pleasautest and most 
characteristic guise. 

The County Histories of Scotland. Dumfries and Gal- 
loway. By Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart. (Blackwood 
& Sons.) 

THE author of this volume would be the last person to 
claim for it the position of a great county history; 
indeed in the preface he speaks of it in a way that pre- 
cludes the idea of its being considered as u.ore than a 
summary of the history of the two counties. We suppose 
there is a demand for these compressed brief histories. 
People want to know a certain amount about the neigh- 
bourhood in which they live; they wish to acquire a 
limited number of facts and details; and, above all things, 
they are anxious that there should be no mistakes there 

must be as nearly absolute accuracy as it is possible for 
finite man to attain unto. When this highly concentrated 
form of mental food has been, with infinite pains and 
care, provided for them, the public will, as a rule take 
sufficient of it to justify the publisher in entering' upon 
such an undertaking as the present. Sir Herbert Maxwell 
has done his best to make the volume before us attractive 
to those for whom it is intended. It is clear, well written 
severely compressed, and is furnished with the best maps 
of the district we have ever seen upon such a scale. We 
trust that at some future time Sir Herbert will give us a 
companion volume to this, which shall deal with the 
legendary aspect of the two counties. A book of this kind 
would perhaps not be bought by the persons who appre- 
ciate the volume before us, but it would be of infinite 
interest to all of us who care for the folk-speech, legends 
traditions, and ballad-lore of the land. 

The Cathedral Church of St. Asaph. By B. P. Ironside 

Bax. (Bournemouth, Commin.) 

MR. BAX began the humbler tesk of writing a guide-book 
to the cathedral of St. Asaph; but as the work grew 
under his hands it turned out a history " urceus coepit 
institui, amphora exit" though it may be doubted 
whether a modicum of eighty-five pages, all told, deserves 
the more ambitious title. He has made diligent research 
among all the available material in tracing the growth 
of the fabric, and supplies brief notices of its monuments, 
relics, and books, and some account of the men of mark 
who from time to time have been numbered among its 
bishops and deans. Amongst the most eminent of these 
were Geoffrey of Monmouth, Reginald Peacock, Barrow 
Lloyd, Beveridge, Tanner, and Horsley. More care migh'c 
well have been bestowed in copying some of the inscrip- 
tions given. Four, if not five, blunders may be detected 
in the three lines of Latin from Bishop Barrow's tomb. 
If the account Mr. Bax gives of the disappearance of 
this brass be correct that it was sent to London to be 
produced as evidence in the Arches Court in a trial 
respecting the legality of prayers for the dead, and was 
never returned !-it is highly discreditable to all con- 
cerned. Another curious fact here brought into notice is 
that Sir Philip Sidney, when only ten years old, was " a 
clerk in Holy Orders [?] and Rector of Whitford,'" in this 
diocese. The book is illustrated and nicely printed. 

THE most noteworthy article in the current number of 
the Quarterly Review is upon Gibbon. The writer of it 
is not carried away, as many people seem to have 
been, by the discovery that in some respects Lord 
Sheffield's conception of the historian was faulty. No 
doubt there are some littlenesses come to light that we 
knew nought of; but, on the whole, from the point of 
view of the historian and writer. Gibbon remains much 
where he was, and this the reviewer in the Quarterly 
fully enters into. There is nothing now published which 
in any way modifies our feelings as regards Gibbon's 
attitude towards Christianity. He was unfair to it when 
he was in a position where he ought to have been able 
to realize his own unfairness; but at the same time, no 
reasonable person can doubt that what he said was said in 
all honesty. It still remains a matter of wonder that such 
work as Gibbon did was done at such a time and under 
such circumstances. One cannot help wishing that he 
could have lived a few years longer, it only to have seen 
what was the logical outcome of the events in France of 
which he had witnessed the earlier stages during their 
progress. We scarcely think that this number of the 
Quarterly is so good as usual. One or two of the articles 
seem rather like padding, notably those upon ' Fathers 
of Literary Impressionism in England ' and Eighteenth 
Century Reminiscences.' There is, however, an excellent 
paper on * Educational Fads.' We only wish we could 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8 a. xi. FEB. 20, '97. 

think that it will produce any good effect on those who 
are given over to these harmful forms of superstition. 

WK think that most people will be inclined when they 
read the current number of the Edinburgh Review to 
turn first of all to Forty-one Years in India.' Next to 
reading Lord Roberts's book for oneself we cannot think 
it possible that a better or clearer account of not only 
the book, but India of the time, could be given. Che 
writer of the review is mainly in agreement with the 
author throughout, and he does full justice to the 
dramatic portion of the narrative as well as to those 
parts of it which deal with what we may expect the 
near future in our Indian empire to produce. Especially 
does the writer agree with Lord Roberts in his view of the 
necessity of our keeping a large European force always 
in the country. The native army is a fine army, very 
useful, and a very wonderful production, viewed from a 
certain standpoint ; but we certainly agree with Lord 
Roberts and the writer in the Edinburgh when they 
urge the imperative duty of not allowing it ever to 
become possible that this native army should be the 
strongest armed force in the country. We have armed, 
drilled, and taught these native soldiers all the mysteries 
of European warfare ; they know, so far as teaching can 
make men of such races know, as much as we do relating 
to warfare, and it is for us to take the precautions neces- 
sary to prevent this knowledge being used in such a 
manner as to be harmful to us. No great native leader 
arose at the time of the Mutiny, but it might not always 
be so; and should a great military genius come to the 
front in any such conflict, the events that followed 
might be even more fatal than they were in the Mutiny. 
There is an exhaustive account of Father Gerard's 
' What was the Gunpowder Plot ? ' which will be of 
much interest to all students of seventeenth century 
history ; but we have not the space at our disposal to 
deal with such a subject. The writer of the review, 
while giving Father Gerard all credit for a masterly and 
brilliant attempt to disprove the reality of the Plot, yet 
holds that he has failed to do so, though he goes so far 
as to say that it, " on a careless or hasty perusal, carries 
with it a bewildering conviction." 'Rooks and their 
Ways ' is the title of a paper which all bird-lovers ought 
to read. It points out the fact which, so far as we are 
aware, seems to be very little understood by most writers 
that when "crows" are spoken of in many parts of 
England it is the ordinary rook that is so designated, 
not the carrion crow. In Lincolnshire, though people 
speak of a rookery, its inhabitants are always called 
" crows" by the country people, and the carrion crow is 
known as the " ket craw." There is the inevitable article 
upon William Morris, with which we are in agreement 
to some extent. Morris let his political and social sym- 
pathies influence him, and was apt to eee little or no 
beauty unless it was produced by the people for the 
people, irrespective of any other consideration. There 
are several other articles of general interest in this 
number of the Edinburgh. 

MR. GAIRDNER gives us yet another instalment of his 
' New Lights on the Divorce of Henry VIII.' in the 
English Historical Review for January. We have had 
occasion to point out before the nature of this contri- 
bution to our historical knowledge, and we must again 
say that it is by far the most important feature in a 
magazine distinguished by the interest and accuracy of 
its articles. The more light that we get upon the 
character of Henry the darker do some of his methods 
appear. There can be no doubt that he applied to the 
Pope for a dispensation to allow his son, the Duke of 
Richmond, to marry hia daughter, the Princess Mary, 
the duke'a hall-sister; and Mr. Gakdner also convinces 

us that had the pressure brought to bear upon Katha- 
rine to retire into a convent proved strong enough to 
induce the unhappy queen to take such a step, Henry 
was then prepared, in case the divorce was refused by 
Rome, to demand a dispensation to commit bigamy. 
Truly the king who threw off the yoke of Rome seemed 
to have held exaggerated views as to the powers vested 
in the Holy See. We shall await with interest further 
' New Lights' on this subject from Mr. Gairdner. There 
is a paper which should be read attentively by all who 
are interested in naval matters, by Mr. J. R. Tanner, 
on ' The Administration of the Navy from the Restora- 
tion to the Revolution.' Though not of such widespread 
and far-reaching interest as the articles upon Henry 
VIII., it contains an immense amount of information, 
and it must have taken considerable labour to have 
amalgamated all the details into a whole sufficiently 
clear to be understood and appreciated by non-naval 
readers. Space forbids our mentioning any other papers 
in the magazine at length, but the number is quite up to 
the usual high standard of this publication. 

WE hear with much regret of the death, in his eighty- 
ninth year, of Prof. Charles Tomlinson, F.R.S., during 
many years an assiduous contributor to ' N. & Q.' A man 
of varied scientific and literary information, he was a 
member of many learned societies, a lecturer in experi- 
mental science at King's College, held the Dante lecture- 
ship at University College, 1887-9, and was examiner in 
physics to the Birkbeck institution. He translated into 
terza rima the ' Inferno ' of Dante, and into English 
hexameters the ' Herman and Dorothea' of Goethe, wrote 
lives of Linneus, Cuvier, and Smeaton, and many other 
works. His latest contribution to our columns appeared 
so recently as October last (8 th S. x. 323). Prof. Tom- 
linson died at his residence in Highgate. 

THE topographical section of the "Gentleman's 
Magazine Library" is gradually drawing to a close, 
under the editorship of Messrs. G. L. Gomme and 
F. A. Milne. The next volume, which will be issued 
very shortly, will contain the counties of Nottingham, 
Oxford, and Rutland. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

ON all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

J. P. B. (" Visiting cards "). See S' h S. vi. 67, 116, 
196, 272, 332 ; viii. 158 ; ix. 172, 475; x. 243. 

HENNIJSGHAM & HOLLIS ("The mill will never grind 
again," &c.). See 7'i> S. iii. 209, 299 ; x. 508; xi. 79, 139. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher" at the Office, 
Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

8* S. XI. FEB. 27, '97.] 




CONTENT S. N 270. 

NOTES :" Eye-Rhymes," 161 Home Tooke's Diary, 162 
" Lanthorn," 163 Pope Epitaph ' Eicon Basilice,' 164 
Chinese Folk-lore Mode of Beady Reference Neil Douglas 
Wart-curing. 165 " Hengmand": "Hangment" 
Wesley MSS. Papal Bull ' Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy' Harsnett, 166. 

QUERIES : St. Saviour's, Southwark Peter Fin "Hand- 
maid" -" Hand-chair " Littlecot Tragedy Pirates 
Hoyles Porson, 167 ' The Synagogue 'Baron Robartes 
Satyrs' Ears Ugo Bassi's Sermon on the Vine Owen 
Brigstocke Classon Eagleson Walter Hervey Farn- 
worth Grammar School " Gomer had it " Clock " Tom 
Pugh " " Cast for death,'" 168 Incident in Sicily' Old 
Mortality 'Authors Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES : Sir Franc van Halen, 169 British, 170 Bois- 
seau Tapestries Buriis's Friend Nicol, 171 Lundy 
Shakspeare and Emblem Literature Beau.joie "Arsg- 
verse "Hole Pigeons representing Departing Souls, 172 
Gingham "Rarely," 173 Arabic Star Names High 
Water " Li maisie hierlekin" Bishops' Wigs, 174 In- 
scription Coin " Feer and Flet " " Dear knows" Old 
Arminghall, 175' Middlemarch ' St. Distaff's Day Rev. 
T. L. Soley "Dymocked" -Robert Hales A Literary 
Blunder, 176 Pope Joan Princess Mathilde Bonaparte 
"Round Robin" Potatoes, 177 Juxon Medal Col. H. 
Martin Licenses to Emigrate St. John Baptist's Abbey 
Everle : Gysburne " Gert "=^Great Medals for Battle 
of Nile-Rachel de la Pole, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Cave's 'Ruined Cities of Ceylon' 
Henley and Henderson's ' Poetry of Robert Burns ' 
Nevius's 'Demon Possession' Clarke's 'British Flower- 
ing Plants ' Soldi's ' La Langue Sacree.' 

Notices to Correspondents, 


In Ellis's ' Early English Pronunciation,' pt. iii. 
p. 863, under the heading, " Unusual Spellings 
and Forms for Appearance of Rhymes," there is a 
long list of words whose spelling has been de- 
liberately altered by Spenser ; in some cases to 
manufacture a rhyme where under ordinary circum- 
stances none existed, in others merely to give to the 
eye a harmony of form when the sounds were already 
true rhymes. Mr. Ellis has, however, omitted to 
mention, first, that this device had already been 
resorted to both by Surrey and Wyatt in their 
poems which appeared in Tottel's 'Miscellany'; 
and, secondly, that the practice was actually re- 
commended by Puttenham in the ' Arte of Poesie,' 
" in all such cases (if necessitie constraineth). " 

I have noted the following examples of altered 
spelling in Surrey and Wyatt (Tottel's * Miscel- 
lany,' Arber's English Reprints, Constable, 1895). 

In Surrey : Payn, playn (p. 1), bost, most (p. 4), 
sene, grene, tene (p. 4), small, reall (p. 4), ronne, 
begonne (p. 5), wurkes, lurkes (p. 6), desyre, yre 
(p. 9), payne, agayne (p. 21), raine, paine (p. 24). 
In Wyatt : Hert, desert (p. 58), desart, part 
(pp. 72 and 78). 

On the other hand, Surrey has plain, pain 
(p. 18), fire, desire (p. 25), raine, paine (p. 24) ; 

hartes, dartes (p. 71). The first edition of the 
* Miscellany ' appeared in 1557. 

In spite of the licence which these poets allowed 
themselves in making eye-rhymes, they did not 
consistently alter the spelling for this purpose, for 
Surrey writes desire, myre (p. 23), avayl, bewail 
(pp. 29 and 30), plain, reign (p. 26), eyes, twise 
(p. 34), nyght, shright (p. 38), and faine, obtain 
(p. 41) ; while Wyatt has her, fier (p. 73), and 
prayer, desire (ibid.). Both Surrey and Wyatt 
have rhymes like delight (for d elite), night (p. 13), 
plight, despight (p. 17), night, spight (p. 21), and 
knight, delight (p. 48). This class (the -ite, -ight) 
of rhymes contains the majority of Spenser's altered 
spellings, and we find spellings like bight and 
quight on nearly every page of the * Faery Queene.' 
The most interesting point in all this is, however, 
the apparent connexion between these altered 
spellings and the passage which occurs in Putten- 
ham's 'Arte of Poesie' (1589), liber ii. chap. viii. 
(ix.), pp. 94-5, Arber's edition : 

' Now there cannot be in a maker a fowler fault, then 
to falsifie his accent to serve his cadence, or by untrue 
orthographic to wrench his words to serve his rime, for 
it is a signe that such a maker is not copious in his owne 
language, or (as they were wont to say) not halfe his 
crafts maister, as for example, if one should rime to this 
word (Restore) he may not match him with (Doore) or 
(Poore) for neither of both are of like terminant, either 

by good orthography, or in naturall sound neverthe- 

lesse in all such cases (if necessitie conatraineth) it is 
somewhat more tollerable to help the rime by false 
orthographic, then to have an unpleasant dissonance to 
the case by keeping trewe orthography and losing the 
rime, as for example, it is better to rime (Dore) with 
(Restore) then in his trewer orthographic, which is 
(Doore) and to this word (Desire) to say (Fier) then fyre 
though it be otherwise better written fire." 

It is amusing to note in this passage upon " true 
orthography " that both words are written in two 
different ways ; it is also interesting to observe 
the candid expression of the fallacy that words 
differently spelt cannot rhyme together. After 
all, the critics who nowadays fall foul of rhymes 
like palm, arm, bora, dawn, and so on, in con- 
temporary verse, cannot be expected to be wiser 
than their fathers, and are probably content to err 
in good company. 

From what Puttenbam says of the merits of 
Surrey and Wyatt ('Arte of Poesie,' liber i. 
chap. xxxi. pp. 74 and 76, Arber's edition), it seems 
probable that he would base his canons of the 
poetic art largely upon the work of these "first 
reformers of our English meetre and stile "; " the 
two chief lanternes of light to all others that have 
since employed their pennes upon English Poesie." 
In fact, Puttenham may have written the passage 
upon rhyme already quoted partly to justify the 
offences of these poets against "trewe ortho- 

This conclusion, in any case, seems inevitable : 

and Wyatt has hart, smart (pp, 53 and 66), and that Puttenham's contemporary Spenser indulged 


NOTES AND QUERIES. cs* s. xi. FEB. 27, -97. 

in spellings like quight, bight, &c., when "neces- 
sitie constrainetb," in accordance with ideas upon 
rhyme similar to those of the first great English 
poetical critic. HY. CECIL WYLD. 

Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 


(Concluded from p. 104.) 

Sunday, Aug. 10. Saw Mrs. Bonney, Miss Johnson, & 
Mr*. Tomkirison the Walks. 

Friday, Aug. 15. Mrs. Kyd stood under my window. 
"How do you do, madam]" "Very indifferently, not 
well at all." Mr. Wallace stepped forwards & said 
" This must not be suffered," & sent her off the leads. 
I learn from Mr. Kyd that attempts have been made to 
suborn witnesses against me. And from the best authority 
(the persons themselves) I know the wicked means em- 
ployed by Reeves & Dundas with persons examined 
before the Privy Council. I defy them & their false- 

Saturday, Aug. 16. Col. Kelly with his wife, walked 
on broad walk, in company with Mr. Stiles (comiss r of 
Customs) & his wife & other ladies & gentlemen. I took 
Weston by the hand, availing myself of the order, which 
only forbids talking. 

Dr. Darwin in his Zoonomia, Dr. Vincent in his Greek 
Verb, Dr. Bedoea. Bold men to praise me at this time. 

Monday, Aug. 18. Dr. Pearson visited me. Read to 
me a part of his Paper for transactions of Royal Society, 
which he corrected with me. 

Tuesday, Aug. 19. Militia Bill. Discontent in London. 

Wednesday, August 20. Troops sent out of Tower. 
Crimp's house in Shoe Lane, &c., &c. 

Thursday, August 21, 1794. Dr. Pearson visited me, & 
finished reading his dissertation for Royal Society's 
Transactions. He told me some months ago that a 
gentleman at Kensington brought him a paper re- 
lative to my complaint, which that gentleman received 
from one who felt very much for my situation, but he 
would not tell Dr. Pearson the name of the gender. This 
day Dr. Pearson tells me that the person who sent these 
professions of respect and affection, witb the paper, was 
.Mr. Wilkes. About 300 men in 4 Piquets marched at 
different times of the day out of the Tower to patrole 
the streets. Not less than nine large concourses of people 
in nine different parts of the town this day, on the 
crimp account as 1 learn from Dr. Pearson and Mrs. 
Mould's sister who saw them, h P ast 10 at night, I 
am told by Mould, the warder, that the people have 
thrown bricks, tiles and jugs from top of houses on the 
London horse association, and on. the soldiers. And 
another Piquet is now marching from the Tower. 

Friday, August 22, 1794. Mr. Clive visited me Mrs. 

Tuffin sent me 1 dozen of fine madeira and 1 doz. old 

Saturday, August 23. Kinghorn & Wallace come to me 
and tell me that the Colonel (who is just gone, I think 
they said Col. Frazer) and adjutant Brice, had com- 
plained to the Governour, that the prisoners sat and 
talked together : that therefore the Governour ordered, 
that the prisoners should retire from the walks at sun- 
set, and should not be permitted to speak to each other. 
I refused to receive any orders but from the Governour 
either by his own words spoken by himself or written, 
and I desired Kinghorn to give my compliments to the 
Governour, and to tell him I desired to speak to him ; 
having now been a quarter of a year and a week a close 
prisoner and not having seen the Governour since the 
first day. 

Sunday, Aug. 24, At 11 o'clock the Deputy Lieut. 

Governour, Col. Yorke, visited me. He repeated his kind 
expressions & I believe his wishes to behave honourably 
are sincere. 

H. Tooke detailed his grievances at some length 
to the colonel, who was conciliatory, and " did not 
wish to aggravate the (prisoners') confinement, but 
feared the Warders might complain of him to Lord 
Cornwallis, the Lieut.-Governour." 

Monday, Aug. 25. New order. Mr. Wallace alone ia 
to carry newspapers ! Mr. Gruaz onuses to read them ! 
An order stuck up in my room signed L. Gruaz, Yeoman 
Porter. N.B. Gruaz is a frenchman or Swiss, was ser- 
vant to Earl Shipbrook, brother of Gen 1 Vernon ; and 
has done duty only 4 years ; and has of his own authority 
assumed to give orders, & afterwards imposed on the 
Deputy Lieut, to give his sanction. 

Saturday, Ag. 30. By Governour's permission Mr. 
Clive visited Mr. Hardy whose wife died on Thursday 
morning last. 

Thursday, Sep. 4. Mr. Clive gave me a brace of 
partridges which I gave to Kinghorn. 

Wednesday, Sep. 10, 1794. 

Under this date is the substance of a letter from 
Tooke to Mr. and Mrs. Macnamara, thanking them 
for visiting his daughters, &c. He concludes thus : 
"Mr. Macnamara's friendship for Mr. H. T. need 
not give Mr. Macnamara any uneasiness : for H. T. 
has never done an action, nor uttered a word, nor 
written a single sentence, nor harboured a thought, 
of an important political nature, which (taken with 
all its circumstances of time, place, & occasion) he 
wishes either recalled or concealed." These words 
must have sounded familiar to Mr. Macnamara 
when a little later they were spoken, almost as they 
occur here, by Tooke at his trial, at which Mr. 
Macnamara was present and gave evidence for the 

Saturday, Sep. 13. The Deputy Lieut. Gov* is gone 
(they say) for a week. Gruaz insulted Mr. Thelwall. 
Gruaz told him he was an impertinent fellow. The 
Major of the Tower followed, took Thelwall by the arm, 
& ordered the Warder at his peril to take care that "that 
man should not walk tomorrow, but from ten to four or 

Sunday, Sep. 14. The Major of Tower ordered retreat 
to be beaten at before 6, instead of 20 min. after 6. 
The Major has given the centinels strict charge of the 
prisoners, telling them that the Warders do not perform 
their duty, &c., &c. 

Monday, Sep. 15. The Major sent a serjeant to Capt. 
Dulling for talking to me. 

Wednesday, Sep. 17. Intelligence of a Special Com- 
mission with a variety of particular circumstances, all 
satisfying me t